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Full text of "FM 31-70 Basic Cold Weather Survival Manual"

FM 





DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY FIELD MANUAL 



BASIC 



COLD WEATHER 



MANUAL 




HEADQUARTERS. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 



APRIL 1968 



TAGOMfiA 



*FM 31-70 



FIELD Manual 
No. 31-70 



) 



HEADQUARTERS 
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 
Washington, D,C., 12 April 1063 



BASIC COLD WEATHER MANUAL 



CHAPTER L INTRODUCTION ^^^' ^"- 

2, INDIVIDUAL CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT 

2^1 "2-3 

Section L General 

2-4 ^^11 

11- Clothing 

2-12— 2-L7 
IIL Equipment 

CHAPTER 3- SMALL UNIT LIVING 

3—1 3—2 
Section L General 

IL Tentage and other equipment 

IIL Improvised sheiters 

2_(>o 3—32 

IV. Food and water 

V, Hygiene and first aid 

,^^ J ^ 3^5-^3-58 

VL Bivouac routme 

Chapter 4. SKIING AND SNOWSHOEING 

4-1 4-2 
Section L Introduction ' ' 

IL Snow and terrain 

IIL Military skiing 

IV. Military snowshoeing 

V. Application of ski and snowshoe technique "^^^ '"^^ 

CHAPTER 5. MOVEMENT 

Section L Problema affecting movement ^ '^ 

IL Foot movement t',. 

IIL Trailbreaking ^^' ^^ 

rV. Land navigation 

TT * .- I. 1 * - _- 5-10 — 5-12 

V, Action when lost " 

VI. Mechanized aid to movement ^^^ ^^^ 

VII. Sleds S-16,5-17 

VIII. Aircraft 5-lS, o-19 

Chapter 6. COMBAT TECHNIQUES 

Section I. The individual and northern warfare 6-1, &-^ 

IL Individual weapons and instruments ^^ ^° 

IIL Fire and movement 

IV. Fighting techniques 6-13—6-15 

V. Camouflage and concealment ^ 

VI. Mines and obstacles ^- "^"^^ 

CHAPTER 7. SMALL UNIT LEADERS 

Section I. General '^~^' l~" 

II. Peculiar problems of leaders 7-t>, - 



3 



D 

5 

16 



22 

22 
29 
35 
43 
50 



60 
61 
62 
91 
95 



104 
105 
106 
113 

114 
115 
119 
121 



122 
122 

124 
132 
137 
1-12 



143 

149 



*ThU manual wparHdM F(* 31-70. 24 Fabrwaxy 19», including all changes. 



AGO 8641 A 



1 



Paj-B-icrapha Patce 

Appe.vdiz a. references 151 

B. GROUND .AIR Er-IERGEXCY CODE FOR USE IN AIR/LAND 

RESCUE SEARCH 154 

C. SKI DRILL 157 

D. EFFECTS OF COLD WEATHER ON WEAPONS 165 

E. WEIGHTS OF COLD WEATHER CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT 

AND TYPE LOAD 170 

F. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS 172 

G. COLD WEATHER HINTS 181 

H. MEASUREMENT CONVERSION FACTORS 191 

Glossary 132 

Index _ 134 



AGO SS41A 



CHAPTER 1 
INTRODUCTION 



1-1. Purpose and Scope 

a. This manual is designed to prepare the 
individual soldier and small unit commander 
to conduct military operations for extended 
periods of time under the most severe and 
varying cold weather climatic conditions. The 
doctrine and techniques in the manual are 
applicable in any area that has cold weather 
and snow with their accompanying opera- 
tional problems. Troops properhj trained in 
this doctrine and these techniques will be able 
to fighfe,; iive; and move in any cold weather 
area of ttje -^forld. 

b. The'^ro-visions of SOLOG A^eement 23R, 
Arctic 17?^trine are implemented in this 
manual. 

c. The material contained herein empha- 
sizes that cold, with its attendant problems 
affects military operations but does not pre- 
vent them. The proper use of authorized equip- 
ment and field expedients will, to a major 
degree, overcome any problems encountered as 
a result of the cold. It is the commander's 
responsibility to train his men so they can 
make the environment serve military opera- 
tions, not hinder them. The material presented 
herem is applicable, without modification to 
nuclear and nonnuclear warfare, employment 
of, and protection from, chemical, biological, 
and radiological agents, and interna! defense 
and development operations. 

d. Throughout this manual reference is 
made to the additional time required to con- 
duct various tasks in cold weather operations. 
This requirement cannot be overemphabized 
and must be included in all planning. In addi- 
tion to the increased amount of time con- 
sumed in actual movement, allowance must be 
made for other time consuming tasks that are 
not present in temperate zone operations. 



These include, among others, erecting and 
striking tents, performing maintenance, con- 
structing roads, starting and warming engines, 
movement or supplies, and hLindreds of other 
small tasks that must be performed while 
wearing bulky cold weather clothing. 

e. Insofar as possible illustrations used in 
this manual reflect Standard A items of cloth- 
ing and equipment. However, because of non- 
avaiiability of some items at time of publica- 
ton, some illustrations show Standard B or C 
items of clothing (para 2-7). 

/. Measurements in this manual to the ex- 
tent practicable, reflect both the Metric and 
U.S. systems ; however, in 5ome oases figures 
will show only the U.S. system. For ease in 
transposition, meters have been converted to 
yards on a one for one basis. For more exact 
measurements use the conversions shown in 
appendix H. 

ff. Users of this manual are encouraged to 
submit recommendations to improve its clarity 
or accuracy. Comments should be keyed to the 
specific page, paragraph, and line of the text 
in which the change is recommended. Reasons 
should be provided for each comment to insure 
understanding and complete evaluation. Com- 
ments should be forwarded direct to Com- 
manding General, United States .-^rmy, Alaska. 
APO Seattle 98749. Originators of proposed 
changes which wouid constitute a significant 
modification of approved Army doctrine may 
send an information copy, through command 
channels, to the Commanding General. United 
States Army Combat Developments Command. 
Fort Belvoir, Virginia 22060, to facilitate re- 
view and followup. 

1—2. Relation to Other Manuais 

This manual is prepared with the assump- 
tion that normal individual and basic unit 



AGO &M1A 



training have been completed. The manual beyond the treatment given in this manual on 

should be used in conjunction with the basic the operation and maintenance ol equipment 

field manuals of the arms and aervicea as well during cold weather operations. Appendix A 

as FM 31-71 and FM 31-72. Appropriate tech- contains a Hst of supplementary manuals and 

nical manuals contain detailed information references. 



AGO 3U1A 



CHAPTER 2 



iNDIVIDUAL aOTHrNG AND EQUIPMENT 



Section 1. GENERAL 



2-1, Basis of Issue 

a. As used in this manual, individual cloth- 
ing and equipment are those items issued or 
soid to a soldier for hi3 personal use, and in- 
clude certain organizational equipment utilized 
by the individual The basis of issue of cold 
weather clothing and equipment may be found 
in TA 50-901. Mandatory items of personal 
clothing are listed in AR 700-3400-1. 

b. The U.S. Army, through continuous re- 
search and development, endeavors to main- 
tain the best clothing and equipment in the 
world. When properly fitted and properly util- 
ized this clothing will provide adequate pro- 
tection from the elements and will enable 
trained, well disciplined troops to carry out 
year-round field operations under cold weather 
conditions, wherever they may be encountered. 

c. To utilize fully the protection afforded by 
the present standard cold weather clothing and 

equipment, it is necessary to understand the 
principle involved and the correct function of 
each item. This chapter covers basic principles 
and provides general guidance on the purpose 
and use of cold weather clothing and equip- 
ment. 

2-2. Commander's Responsibilities 

a. Many factors will influence the command- 
er's decision as to what items of clothing and 
equipment his troops should wear or carry. 
These include the weather, mission at hand. 
actual duties to be performed, overall physical 
condition of individuals and their degree of 
proficiency. If a movement is involved he must 
consider the distance to be traveled, the 
method of travel, and how the troops wiU be 
fed en route, if applicable. If the movement is 
on foot, he must bear in mind that under nor- 



mal winter conditions, 65 to 70 pounds is the 
maximum weight a man can normally wear 
and carry and still be effective on reaching his 
destination. 

b. The weighr of individuaS clothing and 
equipment is covered in appendix E. Com- 
manders should give particular attention to 
additional organizational equipment required 
for a given operation. Some of the more com- 
mon items are also listed in appendix E. Since 
the individual soldier's combat load in cold 
weather operations e::ceed3 that of a temperate 
climate load by more than 20 pounds, these 
organizational items {such as binoculars, com- 
passes, radios and batteries, pioneer tools, crew 
served weapons, etc.) become major consider- 
ations and must be included at all levels of 
planning. 

c- In addition to the individual combat load, 
another 45 to 55 pounds of clothing and equip- 
ment is required for the protection and com- 
fort of each individual under conditions of ex- 
treme cold. Transportation must be provided 
for this additional load whenever possible. 

d. The commander must take positive action 
to insure that a balance exists between what 
the individual is wearing and what he is 
required to carry in the way of equipment. He 
must also insure that troops dress as lightly 
as possible consistent with the weather in 
order to reduce the danger of excessive per- 
spiring and subsequent chilling. The complete 
cold-wet or cold-dry uniform for the applica- 
ble environmental conditions must be readily 
available. A large proportion of cold weather 
casualties results from too few clothes being 
available to individuals when a severe change 
in the weather occurs. Because of the differ- 
ences in individual metabolism, commanders 



AGO S641.\ 



must not be arbitrary in delineating atrict 
uniform requirements, but must allow gome 
personal choice of undergarments. 

2-3. Cold Weather Conditions 

The use of cold weather clothing? Is affected 
by two types of weather conditions: \vet and 
dry. These conditions are amplified by humid- 
ity coupled with temperature and wind veloc- 
ity; high humidity (wet conditions), low 
humidity (dry conditions). 

a. Wet Conditions. Cold-wet conditions occur 
when temperatures are near freezing and vari- 
ations in day and night temperatures cause 
alternate freezing and thawing. This freezing 
and thawing is often accompanied by rain and 
wet snow, causing the ground to become 



muddy and slushy. Durinp: these periods troops 
should wear clothing which consists of a 
water-repellent, wind-resistant outer layer and 
inner layers with sufficient insulation to pro- 
vide ample protection in moderately cold 
weather (above 14'^F.). 

b. Dry Conditiotis. Cold-dry conditions occur 
when average temperatures are lower than 
14°F. The ground is usually frozen and snow 
is usually dry, in the form of fine crystals. 
Strong winds cause low temperatures to seem 
colder and increase the need for protection of 
the entire body (windchill) (fig. F-1). During 
these periods, troops should have available 
additional insulating layers of clothing. This is 
particularly true when entering static situa- 
tions form a period of strenuous exercise. 



Section II. CLOTHING 



2—4. Purpose of Clothing 

ffi. Protection of Body AgaiTist CliTnatic 
Factors, 

(1) If the body is to operate efficiently, it 
must maintain a normal temperature. 
The body attempts to adjust itself to 
the variable external conditions it 
encounters. These attempts are evi- 
denced by the need for more food to 
produce additional heat during colder 
weather, by perspiration to increase 
removal of heat during hot weather, 
and by the gradual darkening of the 
skin as protection against extended 
exposure to the rays of the sun, 

<2) Proper clothing, correctiy worn, will 
assist the body in its adjustment to 
extreme climaHc conditions. The 
clothing does this by holding in the 
body heat, thereby insulating the 
body against the cold outside air. The 
problem of protection becomes acute 
when freezing temperatures are in- 
volved. To understand this problem 
requires a knowledge of the methods 
by which the body resists the effects 
of climatic changes. 

b. Balancing Heat Prodtiction and Heat Loss, 
The body loses heat at variable rates. This heat 
may flow from the body at a rate equal to or 
greater than the rate at which it is produced. 



When heat loss exceeds heat production, the 
body uses up the heat stored in its tissues, caus- 
ing a rapid drop in body temperature. Exces- 
sive heat loss can result in shivering. Shivering 
uses body energy to produce heat \vhich at 
least partially offsets the heat loss and slows 
the rate at which the body temperature will 
drop. Shivering is an important warning to 
start action to rewarm, either by adding more 
clothing, by exercising, by eating some food, 
or by entering a warm shelter, or by any 
combination of these actions. In freezing 
temperatures it is as important to remove and 
adjust clothing to prevent excessive overheat- 
ing as it is to add clothing to prevent heat 
loss. 

2-5. Principies of Clothing Design 

Certain principles are involved in the design 
of adequate cold weather clothing to control 
the loss of heat from the body, to facilitate 
proper ventilation, and to protect the body. 

a. Insulation. Any material that resists the 

transmittance of heat is known as an insulating 
material. Dry air is an excellent insulator. 
Woolen cloth contains thousands of tiny pock- 
ets within its fibers. These air pockets trap the 
air warmed by the body and hold it close to the 
skin. The principle of trapping air within the 
fibers or layers of clothing provides the most 
efficient method of insulating the body against 



AGO H4TA 



heat So33- Fur provides warmth in the same 
way; warm, still air is trapped in the hair and 
is kept close to the body. 
b- Layer Principle, 

(1) Several layers of medium-weij^ht 
clothing provide more warmth than 
one heavy ofarment, even :f the single 
heavy garment is as thick as the 
combined layers. The effect results 
from the several thick layers of air 
which are trapped between the layers 
of clothing, rather than one or two 
layers of large volume. These layers, 
aa well as the minute air pockets 
within the fibers, are warmed by the 
body heat. 

(2) The layers of clothing are of different: 
design. The winter underwear is most 
porous and has many air pockets- 
These air pockets trap and hold the 
air warmed by the body- To keep the 
cold outside air from reaching the 
still inside air that has been warmed 
by the body, the outer garments are 
made of windproof, water-repellent 
fabric. 

(3) The layer principle allows maximum 

freedom of action and permits rapid 
adjustment of clothing through a 
wide range of temperatures and ac- 
tivities. The addition or removal of 
layers of clothing allows the body to 
maintain proper body heat balance, 

c. Ventilation. Perspiration fills the air- 
spaces of the clothing with moisture laden air 
and reduces their insulating qualities. As per- 
spiration evaporates^ it cools the body just as 
water evaporating from a wet canteen cover 
cools the water in the canteen. To combat these 
effects, cold weather clothing is designed so 
that the neck, waist, hip, sleeve, and ankie 
fastenings can be opened or closed to provide 
ventilation- To control the amount of circula- 
tion, the body should be regarded as a house 
and the openings in the clothing as windows 
of the house- Cool air enters next to the body 
through the openings in the cJothing just as 
cool air comes into a house when the windows 
are open. If the windows are opened at opposite 
ends of a room, cross-draft ventilation results- 
In the same way, if clothing is opened at the 
waist and neck, there is a circulation of fresh 



a, 



b. 



air. If this gives too much ventilation, only the 
neck of the ijarment should be opened to allow 
warm air to escape without permittin;^ com- 
plete circulation. 

Winter Use of Clothing 

Basic Pnnciples of Keeping WarTn. 

fl) Keep clothing Clean, 

(2) Avoid Overheating. 

(3) Wear Clothing Loose and in layers. 

(4) Keep clothing Dry. 

(5) Remember C-O-L-D to keep warm 
in winter. 

Application of Basic Principles. 

(1) Keep clothing clean. This is always 
true from a standpoint of sanitation 
and comfort: in winter, in addition 
to these considerations, it is neces- 
sary for maximum warmth. If clothes 
are matted with dirt and grease, 
much of their insulation property is 
destroyed ; the air pockets in the 
clothes are crushed or filled up and 
the heat can escape from the body 
more readily- Underwear requires the 
closest attention because it will be- 
come soiled sooner. If available^ Hg^t 
cotton underwear may be worn be- 
neath winter underwear to absorb 
body oils and lengthen the time inter- 
val between necessary washings of 
these more difficult to clean and dry 
garments. Winter underwear (Army 
issue is a 50/50 cotton, wool blend) 
and cushion sole socks (Army issue 
socks are 50 percent wool, 30 percent 
nylon, 20 percent cotton) should be 
washed in lukewarm water, if avail- 
able. Hot water should not be used 
because it is injurious to the wool 
fibers and causes shrinkage. Syn- 
thetic detergents are more soluble 
than soap in cool water and also pre- 
vent hard-water scum, and are there- 
fore recommended, if available. When 
outer clothing gets dirty it should be 
washed with soap and water. All the 
soap or detergent must be rinsed out 
of the clothes, since any left in the 
clothing will lessen the water-shed- 
ding quality of the clothing. In addi- 
tion to destroying much of the nor- 



AGO S641A 



mal insulation, grease will make the 
clothing more flammable. All outer 
garments of the Cold Weather Cloth- 
ing System are washable and have 
laundry instruction labels attached. 
If washing is not possible for clothing 
that would normally be washed with 
soap and water, dry rubbing and 
airing ^vill rid them of some dirt and 
accumulated body oils. 
(2) Avoid overheating. In cold ciimates, 
overheating should be avoided when- 
ever possible. Overheating causes 
perspiration which in turn, causes 
clothing to become damp. This damp- 
ness will lessen the insulating quality 
of the clothing. In addition, as the 
perspiration evaporates it will cool 
the body even more. When indoors, a 
minimum of clothing should be worn 
and the shelter should not be over- 
heated. Outdoors, if the temperature 
rises suddenly or if hard work is be- 
ing performed, clothing should be 
adjusted accordingly. This can be 
done by ventilating (by partially 
opening parka or jacket) or by re- 
moving an inner layer of clothing, or 
by removing heavy mittens or by 
throwing back parka hood or chang- 
ing to lighter head cover. The head 
and hands, being richly supplied with 
blood, act as efficient heat dissipators 
when overheated. In cold temperature 
it is better to be slightly chilly than 
to be excessively warm. This pro- 
motes maximum effectiveness of the 
body heat production processes. 

(3) Wear clothing loose and in layers. 
Clothing and footgear that are too 
tight restrict blood circulation and 
invite cold injury. Wearing of more 
socks than is correct for the type of 
footgear being worn might cause the 
boot to fit too tightly. Similarly, a 
field jacket which fits snugiy over a 
wool shirt would be too tight when 
a liner is also worn under the jacket. 
If the outer garment fits tightly, 
putting additional layers under it will 
restrict circulation. Additionally, 
tight garments lessen the volume of 



trapped air layers and thereby reduce 
the insulation and ventilation avail- 
able. 

(4) Keep clothing dry. 

ia) Under winter conditions, moisture 
will soak into clothing from two 
directions — inside and outside. Dry 
snow and frost that collect on the 
uniform will be melted by the heat 
radiated by the body. 
ih) Outer clothing is water-repellent 
and will shed most of the water 
collected from melting snow and 
frost. The surest way to keep dry, 
however, is to prevent snow from 
collecting. Before entering heated 
shelters, snow should be brushed 
or shaken from uniforms; it should 
not be rubbed off, because this will 
work it into the fabric. 
(c) In spite of all precautions, there 
will be times when getting wet can- 
not be prevented and the drying of 
clothing may become a major prob- 
lem. On the march, damp mittens 
and socks may be hung on the pack. 
Occasionally in freezing tempera- 
tures, wind and sun will help dry 
this clothing. Damp socks or mit- 
tens may be placed, unfolded near 
the body, where the body heat will 
dry them. In bivouac, damp cloth- 
ing may be hung inside the tent 
near the top, using drying lines or 
improvised drying racks. It may 
even by necessary to dry each item, 
piece by piece, by holding before 
an open fire. Clothing and footwear 
should not be dried to near a heat 
source. Leather articles, especially 
boots, must be dried slowly. If boots 
cannot be dried by any other meth- 
od, it is recommended that they be 
placed between the sleeping bag 
and liner. Heat from the body will 
aid in drying the leather. 

2-7 Components of Cold Weather Uniforms 
The items of clothing below are Standard A 
as listed in SB 700-20. It should be borne in 
mind however that procurement may or may 
not have been started on some of the items 



8 



AGO seiiA 




<:^ 







Figure S-J. Basic components of cold-wet uniform. 



and upon requisitioning some Standard B 
clothing may be issued. Although not shown as 
basic items of the cold weather uniforms, light 
cotton underwear may be worn under the 
winter underwear (para 2-66(1)). 

a. Cold-Wet Uniform. The basic components 
of the cold-wet uniform are illustrated in fig- 
ure 2-1 unless otherwise indicated. 

(1) Undershirt Mans. 50 Cotton 50 Wool, 
Full Sleeve. 

(2) Drawers MeTis. 50 Cotton 50 Wool, 
Ankle Length. 

(3) Socks Mens. Wool Cushion Sole, OG 

408, Stretch Type. 
(4)~Suspenders Trousers. Scissors Back 
Type. 

(5) Trovsers Men^. Wool Serge, OG 108. 

(6) Shirt Mans. Wool Nylon Flannel, OG 
108. 

(7) Trousers Mens. Cotton Nylon, Wind 
Resistant Sateen, 3.5 oz, OG 107. 

(3) Boot Insulated Cold Weather. Mens 
Rubber Black (or Boot Combat: 
Mens Leather Black SW l»igh with 
Overshoe : Rubber Man's High 
Cleated 5 Buckle). 

(9) Coat Man. Cotton and Nylon Wind 
Resistant Sateen, 8.5 oz, OG 107, 
with integral hood. 

(10) Liner Coat Mans. Nylon Quilted 6.2 
oz, OG 106. 

(11) Cap Insulating, Helmet Liner-Helmet. 
Cotton Nylon Oxford, OG 107. 



(12) Glove Shells. Leather Black with 
Glove Inserts; Wool and Nylon Knit, 
OG 208, or Mitten Shells; Trigger 
Finger Leather Palm and Thumb 
with Mitten Inserts; Wool and Nylon 
Knit, OG, Trigger Finger, or Mitten 
Set Arctic; Gauntlet Styie Shell with 
Leather Palm (fig. 2-5). 

(13) Hood Winter. Cotton and Nylon Ox- 
ford, OG 107, with drawcord and fur, 

(14) Poncho. Coated Nylon Twill, OG 207 
(not illustrated). 

h. Cold-Dry Uniform. The basic components 
of the coid-dry uniform are illustrated in fig- 
ure 2-2 unless otherwise indicated. 

(1) Undershirt Mans. 50 Cotton 50 Wool, 
Full Sleeve. 

(2) Drawers Mens. 50 Cotton 50 Wool, 
Ankle Length. 

(3) Socks MeTis. Wool Cushion Sole, OG 
408, Stretch Type. 

(4) Suspenders Troiisers. Scissors Back 

Type. 

(5) Shirt Mans. Wool Nylon Flannel, OG 

108. 

(6) Trousers Mens. Cotton Nylon, Wind 
Resistant Sateen, 8.5 oz, OG 107. 

(7) Liner Trousers. Nylon Quilted, 6.2 oz, 
OG 106. 

(8) Boot Insulated Cold Weather. Mens 
Rubber White, w/release valve. 

<9) Coat Man. Cotton and Nylon Wind 
Resistant Sateen, 3.5 oz, OG 107. 



AGO 9641 A 



/.^ 





-^^» , ^ 




Figure 2-3. Basic cOTnponenta of eold-dry uniform. 



<10) Liner Coat Mans. Nylon Quilted, 6.2 
oz, OG 106. 

(11) Parka Mans. Cotton and Nylon Oxford 
OG 107, w/o hood (not illustrated). 

(12) Liner Parka Mans. Nylon Quilted, 6.2 
oz, OG 106 (not illustrated). 

(13) Cap, Insuiating, Helmet Liner. Cot- 
ton Nylon Oxford, OG 107. 

(14) Hood Winter. Cotton and Nylon Ox- 
ford, OG 107, Tv/drawcord and fur. 

(15) Glove Shells. Leather Black with 
Glove Inserts; Wool and Nylon Knit, 
OG 108, or, Mitten Shells; Trigger 
Finger Leather Palm and Thumb 
with Mitten Inserts; Wool and Nylon 
Knit, OG, Trigger Finger, or, Mitten 
Set Arctic; Gauntlet Style Shell with 
Leather Palm (fig. 2-5). 

(16) Poncho. Coated Nylon Twill, OG 207 
(not illustrated). 

(17) Gloves Cloth. Work Type (not illus- 
trated). 

2-8. Description and Wearing of the 
Uniform Components 

a. Cold-Wet. 

(1) Inner layer. 

(a) Underwear, The underwear is loose 
fitting and is made of 50 percent 
cotton and 50 percent wool. It is 



constructed so that circulation and 
ventilation are not restricted. 

(b) Suspenders. The scissors-type sus- 
penders are worn over the under- 
shirt. The drawers and all succeed- 
ing layers of trousers are supported 
by the suspenders. The use of sus- 
penders allows the drawers and 
trousers to be worn loose at the 
waist 30 that neither circulation 
nor ventilation is restricted. 

(2) Intermediate layer. The intermediate 
layer consists of the wool OG shirt 
and trousers which provide exceilent 
insulation against the cold. The shirt 
is worn outside the trousers for bet- 
ter control of ventilation. The wool 
trousers and shirt are not designed 
to be worn as outer garments under 
field conditions since they lose their 
insulating qualities if they become 
wet or matted with dirt. When en- 
gaged in strenuous activity, care must 
be taken so that the wool material 
will not come in contact with the 
skin, thus causing possible irritation 
and discomfort. 

(3) Outer layer^ 

(a) Coat The coat ensemble is made up 
of a shell and a detachable liner. 



10 



AGO 8«41A 





Figure 2—^. Cap insulating helmet and helmet liner. 



The coat has a combination slide, 
snap and touch-and-close fastener 
front closure. The sleeves have ad- 
justable cuffs with a hand shield 
extension. A lightweight hood is an 
integral part of the coat. When not 
'being used the hood is secured un- 
der the collar and is concealed by 
a slide fastened enclosure. The 
detachable liner is made of quilted 
nylon and is extremely light and 
warm. The liner has a collar, open 
underarms, and buttonhole tabs for 
attachment to the coat. 

(6) Troitsers. The trousers are made of 
smooth, light, wind resistant sa- 
teen. They have extra closures and 

adjustments to provide for ventila- 
tion and better fit. 

(4) Headgear. 

(a) Cap. The insulating helmet liner 
cap ( fig. 2-3 ) is c bse fitti ng , 
visorless, and of helmet style. It has 
a combined one-piece eariap and 
neck protector, and utilizes an 
overlap touch-and-close fastener. 
The cap is designed to be worn un- 
der the steel helmet or under the 
winter hood. When worn as an 
outer headpiece, the lower flap por- 
tion of the cap may be folded up 



around the top with the touch-and- 
close fasteners crisscrossed in the 

front (fig. 2^)- 
(5) Hoods, The winter hood (fig. 2-4) 
is a one-piece covering for the 
head, face, and neck. It utilizes 
touch-and-close fasteners and can 
be worn over the steel helmet. A 
malleable wire inside the fur ruff 
may be shaped as desired for visi- 
bility or greater protection of the 
head and face. Unit commanders 
must enforce "hood discipline," es- 
pecially while men are on sentry 
duty or on patrols. The winter 
hood and the cold weather cap 
with flaps down will greatly reduce 
a man's hearing capabilities. When 
the temperature or wind does not 
require the use of heavier head- 
gear, the cold weather cap and the 
lightweight hood should be worn. 
Hoods should be removed before 
the head starts to perspire. Breath- 
ing into the winter hood causes 
moisture and frost to accumulate 
and should be avoided as much as 
possible. Accumulated frost should 
be removed frequently. 

(5) Handwear. See c below. 

(6) Footwear, See d below. 



A.G0 SGilA 



11 




Fiffure 5— i* Winter hood. 

b. Cold-Dry. 

(1) Inner Layer. Same as cold-wet. 

(2) Intermediate Layer. The wool OG 
shirt is worn as the basic upper body 
garment The wind resistant sateen 
trousers with the quilted nylon liner 
are worn as the basic lower body gar- 
ment. In extreme cold weather, the 





1 
2 
3 



Mitten insert 4 Tri^^r finger loop 

Mitten shell 5 Trigger finger 

Adjustable wrist strap 5 Cord loop 

Figure 2-5 — Continued. 




1 
2 

3 



gauntlet 



4 Snap fastener 

5 Cord loop 



Mitten insert 
Mitten shell 
Adjustable 
strap 

Fiffure 2—o — Continued. 



(3) 



1 Wool insert 



2 Leather shell 



Figure 2-5. Types of gloves and TnitteTia. 



coat with detachable liner, used as 
an outer layer in the cold- wet uni- 
form, may be worn as an inter- 
mediate layer in cold-dry conditions. 
Outer Layer. Depending on tempera- 
ture the outer garment may consist 
of the coat with detachable liner, the 
parka, with detachable liner, or both. 



12 



AGO 3S41A 



The parka ia a three-quarter length, 
unlined coat with adjustable cuff3. 
It has a combination aiide and snap 
fastener front fly closure, waist and 
hem drawcords and a split lower 
back. The parka has a detachable 
quilted nylon liner. 

(4) Headgear. Same as cold-wet. 

(5) Handwear. See c below. 

(6) Footwear. See d below. 

c. Handwear. 

(1) Gloves. 

(a) Standard black leather gloves are 
worn in mild weather or when 
work must be done that requires 
more freedom of finger movement 
than can be acquired with heavier 
handwear. In colder weather the 
same gloves are worn with wool in- 
serts (fig. 2-5). Gloves may be 
worn with either the cold-wet or 
cold-dry uniforms when the 
weather is not cold enough to re- 
quire the use of mittens. 

(ft) Personnel engaged in delicate fin- 
ger operations, such as instrument 
adjustment may be issued light- 
weight cotton work gloves. These 
gloves allow for finger dexterity, 
have leather palms, and prevent 
the akin from sticking to cold 
metal. They will provide protection 
against cold for only a very short 
period. 

<2) Mittens. 

(a) The trigger finger mitten shells 
(fig. 2-5), are worn with wool trig- 
ger finger inserts during periods of 
moderate cold. The mittens may be 
worn with either the cold-wet or 
cold-dry uniform. Figure 2-5 
shows the Standard B mitten. The 
Standard A item, although identi- 
cal in outward appearance has had 
the trigger finger loop deleted and 
ia lined on the inside upper surface 
with lightweight quilted nylon. 

(&) During periods of extreme cold the 
arctic mitten set is worn (fig. 2-5). 
The mitten has a liner, a leather 
palm, a cheek warmer and a fast- 



ener on the back. A neck strap is 
attached to both mittena to prevent 
loss. The neck strap permits the 
mittens, when not required for 
warmth, to be conveniently carried 
snapped together behind the back. 
The arctic mitten set is carried 
whenever there ia the possibility of 
the onset of severe cold weather, 
regardless of the mildness of the 
weather when setting out. 

(3) Utilization. 

(a) The general rules concerning the 
use of clothing apply also to hand- 
Tvear — keep it clean, avoid over- 
heating, wear loose in layers, and 
keep it dry. 

(6) The outer shells should always be 
worn with the minimum insulation 
necessary to provide protection, 
thus avoiding perspiration. Inserts 
should never be worn by themselves 
because they wear out quickly and 
provide little warmth alone. Trig- 
ger finger inserts are designed to 
fit either hand. Changing them to 
opposite hands frequently will in- 
sure even wear. 

(c) Tight fitting sleeves should be 
avoided. They may cut down cir- 
culation and cause hands to be- 
come cold. 

(d) When handling cold metals, the 
hands should be covered to prevent 
cold burns {immediate freezing of 
the flesh in contact with cold 
soaked metals). 

(e) To keep hands warm when wear- 
ing mittens, the fingers should be 
curled (inside the mittens) against 
the palm of the hand, thumb under- 
neath the fingers, or flexed inside 
the mitten whenever possible to in- 
crease the blood circulation. Hands 
may be exercised by swinging the 
arms in a vertical circle. Frost- 
bitten hands can be warmed by 
placing them next to the skin un- 
der the armpits. 

(/) An extra pair of mitten inserts 
should be carried. 



AGO S641A 



13 



d. Footwear. 

(1) General. The feet are more vulner- 
able to cold than are other parts of 
the body. Cold attacks feet most often 
because they get wet easily (both ex- 
ternally and from perspiration) and 
because circulation ia easily re- 
stricted. Footgear is therefore one of 
the most important parts of cold 
weather clothing, 

(2) Principles. 

(a) The rule of wearing clothing loose 
and in layers also applies to foot- 
gear. The layers are made up by 
the boot itself and by the socks. 
Socks are worn in graduated sizes. 
The instructions pertaining to fit- 
ting of footgear^ as outlined in TM 
10-228, must be carefully adhered 
to. If blood circulation is re- 
stricted, the feet will be cold. 
Socks, worn too tightly, might 
easily mean freezing of the feet. 
For the same reason : AVOID 
LACING FOOTGEAR TIGHTLY. 
(&) Since the feet perspire more read- 
ily than any other part of the body, 
the rules about avoiding overheat- 
ing and keeping dry are difficult to 
follow. Footgear is subjected to be- 
coming wet more often than are 
other items of equipment. The in- 
sulated boots with release vaive 
(white, cold-dry and black, cold- 
wet) are designed to contain pers- 
piration within the interior of the 
boots. A change of dry socks should 
be carried at all times. Whenever 
the feet get wet, dry as soon as 
possible and put on a pair of dry 
socks. Also, the inside of the boots 
should be wiped as dry as possible. 
(c) Footgear should be kept clejin. 
Socks should be changed when they 
become dirty. Socks and feet should 
be washed frequently. This washing 
will help keep feet and socks in 
good condition. 
id) The feet should be exercised. 
Stamping the feet, double-timing a 
few steps back and forth, and flex- 
ing and wiggling toes inside the 



boots all require muscular action, 
produces heat, and will help keep 
the feet warm. The feet should be 
massaged when changing the 
socks. 

(e) Boots are designed to permit at- 
tachment to individual oversnow 
equipment (skis and snowshoes). 
BINDINGS MUST BE AD- 
JUSTED CAREFULLY. If they 
are too tight, the circulation of 
blood is restricted and feet will get 
cold. Improperly adjusted bindings 
may soon chafe feet or badly wear 
and tear the boot. 

(3) Types. 

(a) Boot, instdated, cold weather: 
meTis, rubber, black. These boots 
(1, fig. 2-6) are particularly useful 
in snow, slush, mud, and water 
(cold-wet conditions), but are not 
adequate for prolonged wear in 
temperatures below —20'' F. They 
are specifically designed for com- 
bat personnel who may not have 
the opportunity to frequently 
change to dry socks. Insulating 
material is hermetically sealed into 
the sides and bottoms of the boots. 
The insulation takes the place of 
removable innersoles and the sec- 
ondary layer of socks worn in other 
types of cold weather boots. Pers- 
piration from the feet and water 
spilling over the tops of the boots 
cannot reach the insulating mater- 
ial because it is sealed-in and al- 
ways remains dry. Moisture from 
outside sources or from perspira- 
tion may make the socks damp; 
this dampness is not harmful to 
the feet, provided they receive 
proper care such as frequent dry- 
ing and massaging. If socks are not 
changed and feet dried regularly 
(at least twice daily) the skin be- 
comes softened and is more readily 
chaffed or blistered. These effects 
are occasionally mistaken for su- 
perficial frostbite. Only one pair of 
cuskion^sole socks are worn with 



14 



AGO a641A 




r 






:^:-^; ;;^- 



■ ■ --i ■ 



- -.1 .— 1%+^ - r 









.i.a.;oi.-, -v- -- J — ' ■■' 



1. Boot, insulated, "black 



2. Boot, insulated, white, w/release vaive 



Figure 2-6. Types of boots. 



2-9. 

a. 



the boots- Additional socks should 
not be worn as the feet may become 
cramped, resulting in restricted 
blood circulation and cold feet. 
(b) Boot, insulated, cold weather: 
mens, rubber, white, lo/release 
valve. The insulated Twhite boot (2, 
fig. 2-6) is designed for wear in 
cold-dry conditions and will pro- 
tect the feet in temperatures as low 
as -60° F. The boots have a seam- 
less inner and outer carcass, sealed 
insulation, and an outside air re- 
lease valve used to compensate for 
air differentials. The white boots 
are worn over one pair of cttshion 
sole socks. The air release valve 
provides airborne troops a means 
of equalizing external and internal 
air pressures when undergoing ex- 
treme changes in altitude. This 
valve must remain closed at all 
other times to prevent the possi- 
bility of introducing any amount 
of moisture into the insulation of 
the boot and rendering it perma- 
nently unserviceable. 

Nose and Cheek Protectors and Masks 
The Mask, Cold Weather may be issued 



for use during severe windchill conditions. The 
mask must be removed at intervals to check 
for frostbite. 

6, A certain amount of protection can be 
gained by covering as much of the face as 
possible with a \vool scarf. It may be adjusted 
from time to time, and should be rotated when 
the section opposite the mouth and nose be- 
comes covered with frost The frozen end 
should be left outside the coat or parka. The 
scarf, like the mask, rmist be removed at in* 
tervals to check for frostbite. 

2-10. Camouflage Clothing 

a. Winter camouflage clothing (overwhitea) 
consists of white trousers and lightweight 
parka with hood. White covers are also issued 
for the rucksacks. 

b. Camouflage clothing provides a means of 
concealment and camouflage from the enemy 
—both from the ground and from the air- 
in winter conditions. Use of the white cam- 
ouflage clothing is. however, dependent on ihe 
background; generally speaking, on vegetation 
and the amount of snow on the ground. The 
complete white suit (fig. &-26) is worn when 
terrain is covered with snow. Mixed clothing 
(fig. 6-27) — white parka and dark trousers, 
or vice versa — is used against mottled back- 

T3 



AGO 3e41A 



grounds. The correct use of camouflage cloth- 
ing is extremeiy important (para 5-22). 

c. Overwhites may become frosty and icy 
after use. As with all clothing, the frost and 
ice must be removed to expedite drying. Soiled 
camouflage clothing will lose its effectiveness; 
therefore, care must be exercised when han- 
dling stoves, digging in ground, and perform- 
ing similar tasics. Avoid scorching or burning 
the garments when dryng or when lying down 
by an open fire. The clothing should be washed 
or changed frequently. When changing, cloth- 
ing should be checked to insure that it fits 
over the basic garments without restricting 
movement. 

2-11. Maintenance of Clothing and 
Equipment 

a. Footgear. 

(1) Boots. The leather in boots should be 
treated with approved agents. Nor- 
mally, the insulated boot can be re- 
paired with ordinary tire patching or 
air mattress patching nnateriaL K 
these items are not readily available, 
friction tape or even chewing gum 
may be used temporarily to plug up 
the hole and prevent moisture from 
damaging the insulation. If the dam- 
age cannot be repaired^ the boots 
should be removed, airdried, and 



turned in for replacement as soon as 
possible. The inside of the hoots 
should be washed at least once a 
month with a mild soap, and rinsed 
with warm water. 

Caution: Do not clean with abra- 
sive materials. Also do not apply 
polish or paint to any part of the boot 
as il will result in deterioration of 
the rubber. 

(2) Socks. Socks should be washed daily, 
using lukewarm water to avoid ex- 
cessive shrinkage. After washing, 
they should be wrung out and 
stretched to natural shape before 
drying. Holes in socks should be re- 
paired as soon as possible, taking 
special precautions to avoid bunching 
or roughness of the mended area. It 
should be noted that proper repairs 
under field conditions are almost im- 
possible and that blisters should be 
expected if field mended socks are 

worn. 

b. Handgear. Holes should be mended 
promptly. Gloves or mittens should not be 
dried too near an open fire. 

c. Headgear. Headgear should be washed as 
required to remove perspiration, dirt, and hair 
oils. When drying, normal care must be exer- 
cised to avoid scorching or burning. 



Section 111. EQUIPMENT 



2-12. Sleeping Equipment 

a. The complete sleeping bag for use in cold 
climates consists of three parts: a case, of 
water-repellent material; an inner bag (moun- 
tain type), of quilted tubular construction, 
filled with a mixture of down and feathers; 
and an outer bag (arctic bag), of the same 
material as the inner bag. In addition, an in- 
sulating air mattress and a waterproof bag 
into which the sleeping bags are packed are 
issued. 

h. When temperatures are normally above 
14° F., only one bag is used. It is placed in and 
laced to the cover. When temperatures are be- 
low 14 '^ F., both bags are used. The inner bag 
13 placed inside the outer bag and secured at 



the foot with the loops and tie straps provided 
and the cover laced over the outer bag. 

c. When the bag is used, it is first fluffed up 
so that the down and feather insulation is 
evenly distributed in channels, thus preventing 
matting. Since cold penetrates from below, 
and the insulation inherent in the bag is com- 
pressed by the weight of the body, additional 
insulation is placed under the bag whenever 
possible. Added insulation can be obtained by 
placing ponchos, extra clothing, packboards, 
fiber ammunition or food containers, or 
boughs between the sleeping bag and the 
ground. The insertion of a waterproof cover, 
such as a poncho, between the sleeping bag 
and air mattress will prevent the mattress 
and bag from freezing together at very cold 



16 



AGO 3S41A 



temperatures. This is caused by condensation 
on the mattress due to the difference in tem- 
peratures between the lower side touching the 
ground and the upper side touching the rela- 
tively warm sleeping bag. Care must be taken 
to prevent puncturing the mattress or damag- 
ing sleeping hags. In general, the more insula- 
tion between the sleeping bag and the ground. 
the warmer the body. 

d. If the tactical situation permits, individ- 
uals should avoid wearing too many clothes in 
the sleeping bag. When too many clothes are 
\vorn they tend to bunch up, especially at the 
shoulders, thereby restricting circulation and 
inducing cold. Too many clothes also increase 
the bulk and place tension upon the bag, thus 
decreasing the size of the insulating airspaces 
between layers and reducing the efficiency of 
the insulation. In addition, too many clothes 
may cause the soldier to perspire and result In 
excessive moisture accumulating in the bag, a 
condition which will likewise reduce the bag's 
insulating qualities. 

e. The sleeping bag is equipped with a full 
length slide fastener which has a free run- 
ning, nonlocking slider. In an emergency, the 
bag can be opened quickly by grasping both 
sides of the opening near the top of the slide 
fastener and pulling the fastener apart. As a 
safety precaution, bags should be tested at 
frequent intervals to insure that the slide fast- 
ener operates freely and will function properly. 

/. The sleeping bag should be kept dean 
and dry. It should be opened wide and venti- 
lated after use to dry out the moisture that 
accumulates from the body. Whenever possi- 
ble, it should be sunned or aired in the open. 
The bag always should be laced in its water- 
repellent case and carried in the waterproof 
bag to prevent snow from getting on it. The 
warmth of the body could melt the snow dur- 
ing the night and cause extreme discomfort. 
Individuals should avoid breathing into the 
bag. If the face becomes too cold it should be 
covered with an item of clothing. Sleeping 
bags should be drycleaned at least twice a 
year. As a safety precaution, bags should be 
thoroughly aired prior to use to prevent possi- 
ble asphyxiation from entrapped drycleaning 
solvent fumes. 



2-13. Manpack Equipment 

a. Rucksacl{>— Nylon. OG 106 (fig. 2-7). 
(1) The nylon rucksack consists of the 
following: 

(a) A lightweight aluminum alloy 
frame to which all other compo- 
nents are attached. 

(6) A lightweight aluminum alloy 
cargo support shelf provided as op- 
tional equipment for attachment to 
the frame when the frame is used 
as a packboard. 

(c) A pouch fabricated from 4-ounce 
nylon fabric. 

{d) Nylon left and right ahoulder 
straps. The left shoulder strap has 
a quick-release device designed to 
facilitate rapid doffing of the ruck- 
sack. The right shoulder strap has 
a rapid adjustment buckle for 
lengthening the strap which allows 
the wearer to fire his rifle while in 
the prone position. The two straps 
are interchangeable to accommo- 
date left-handed soldiers. 

(e) A nylon webbing waist belt de- 
signed to prevent the rucksack 
from swinging to either side or 
bouncing during body movements. 

(/) A rifle carrier consisting of a rifle 
butt pocket, constructed of nylon 
webbing, with a double hook and 
a rifle strap. 
(2) The nylon rucksack is the normal 
pack equipment used for operations 
in northern areas and replaces the 
rucksack, with frame (Standard C). 
It should be noted that this item may 
be issued in lieu of the nylon ruck- 
sack. It should also be noted that the 
plywood packboard may be issued in 
lieu of the nylon rucksack. The sol- 
dier using the rucksack can carry ex- 
tra clothing and rations in the nylon 
pouch and can also carry one sleep- 
ing bag (in waterproof bag). When 
the nylon pouch is removed and cargo 
support shelf attached, the rucksack 
may be used as a packboard for car- 
rying loads weighing approximately 
50 pounds (TC 10-8). 



AGO 3641A 



17 




1 Top horizontal bar 

2 Car^o straps 

3 Frame 

4 Shoulder straps 



5 Rifle strap bracket 

6 Combat pack 

7 Waist strap 

8 Rifle strap buckle 

Figure 2-7. Rucksack nylon OG 106, 



9 Rifle butt pocket 

10 Rifle strap 

11 Back straps 

12 Rifle strap loop end 



18 



AGO S.B4Lr 



b. Sitspenders and Belt, Individual Bqiap- 
nient. The suspenders and belt of the M-56 
standard load-carrying equipment is worn be- 
neath the nylon rucksack to carry ammunition 
pouches, first aid or compass case, and the 
intrenching tooL. The suspenders and belt 
should be adjusted to fit loosely over the cold 
weather clothing, to allow for proper ventila- 
tion. The suspender belt combination is de- 
signed 30 that the belt can be worn unbuckled 
while on the march, if additional ventilation 
is required. 

2-14, Miscellaneous Equipment 

a. Sunglasses. Sunglasses always should be 
worn on bright days when the ground is cov- 
ered with snow. They are designed to protect 
the eyes against sunglare and blowing snow. 
If not used, snow blindness may result. They 
should be used when the sun is shining 
through fog or clouds. A bright, cloudy day is 
deceptive and can be as dangerous to the eyes 
as a day of brilliant sunshine. The sunglasses 
should be worn to shade the eyes from the 
rays of the sun that are reflected by the snow. 
Snow blindness is similar to sunburn, in that 
a deep burn may be received before discomfort 
is felt. To prevent snow blindness, sunglasses 
must be used from the start of exposure. 
Waiting for the appearance of discomfort is 
too late. The risk of snow blindness is in- 
creased at high mountain altitudes because the 
clear air allows more of the burning rays of 
sunlight to penetrate the atmosphere. When 
not being used, they should be carried in the 




Figure 2S. Improvised awtglasaet. 



protective case co avoia scratcning or oreaning 
the lens. If sunglasses are lost or broken, a 
substitute can be improvised by cutting thin, 
3 cm (1^') long slits through a scrap of wood 
or cardboard approximately 15 cm (6") long 
and 3 cm (1") wide. The improvised sun- 
glasses (fig. 2-8) can be held on the face with 
s,rip3 of cloth if a cord is not available. 

b. Canteens. 

(1) Canteen, water; cold climatic (fig. 

2-9). This canteen is a vacuum-in- 
sulated canteen of one quart capacity 
with an unpainted dull finish steel 
exterior. The inner and outer stain- 
less steel vessels are welded together 
at the top of the neck. A nonmetalHc 
mouthpiece at the neck prevents lips 
from freezing to the metal neck. A 
plastic cap seals and protects the 
mouthpiece. A nesting type metal cup 
with a capacity of one pint is pro- 
vided for eating and drinking bever- 
ages. The canteen with cup is carried 
in a canvas cover which fastens to 
field equipment in a manner similar 
to the conventional canteens. Care 
must be taken to insure that the 
mouthpiece or cap are not lost. A 
sharp blow to the canteen may result 
in denting or rupture with conse- 
quent loss of insulating capabilities. 
(2) Conventional metal and plastic can- 
teens. Conventional canteens are car- 
ried in a fabric carrier; however, 
this will not keep the liquid in the 
canteen from freezing in extreme 
cold. When possible, the canteen 
should be carried in one of the pock- 
ets or wrapped in any woolen gar- 
ment and packed in the rucksack. If 
available, warm or hot water should 
be placed in the canteen before start- 
ing an operation. During extreme 
cold the canteen should never be filled 
over two-thirds full. This will allow 
room for expansion if ice should 
form, and will prevent the canteen 
from rupturing. Insure that the gask- 
ets are in the cap at all times. This is 
an important precaution and will pre- 
vent the liquid from leaking out and 
dampening the clothing in the ruck- 



AGD 3641A 



19 




Figure t-9. Canteen, water; cold climatic. 



sack. Conventional thermos bottles 
will keep liquids hot, or at least un- 
frozen for approximately 24 hours, 
depending on temperatures. If can- 
teens or thermos bottles freeze, they 
should be thawed out carefully to pre- 
vent bursting. The top should be 
opened and the contents allowed to 
melt slowly, 

c. Pocket Equipment. There are several 
small items that should he carried in the 
pockets so they will be readily available for 
use. Having these items when they are needed 
will contribute to the well-being of individuals 
and help prevent injuries. A good sharp 
pocketknife is an essential item. It is useful for 
cutting branches, in shelter construction, in 
repairing ski bindings, and numerous other 
tasks. Waterproof matches should be carried 
and kept in the watertight matchbox and used 
only in an emergency. They should never be 
used when ordinary matches and lighters will 
function. Sunburn preventive cream will pro- 
tect the skin from bright, direct sunshine, 
from sunrays reflected by the snow, and from 
strong winds. The chapstick will prevent lips 
from chapping or breaking due to cold weather 
or strong winds. The chapstick should be pro- 
tected from freezing. The emergency thong 
has numerous uses, such as lashing packs, re- 
placing broken bootlaces, and repairing ski 
and snowshoe bindings. 



d. Emergency Kit. It is recommended that 
all personnel carry an emergency kit for use 
in individual survival. With this kit, an indi- 
vidual can survive off the land by trapping 
and iishing and can procure the minimum 
amount of food necessary to maintain his 
strength for a short period of time. 

(1) I each emergency thong. 

(2) 1 each sharp pocketknife. 

(3) Single-edge razor blades. 

(4) Waterproof matches. 

(5) Safety pins. 

(6) Fishing line. 

(7) Fire starters. 

(8) Salt tablets, 

(9) High protein candy bars. 
(10) Bouillon cubes. 

2-15. Stee] Helmet 

The steel helmet may be worn during warm 
periods in cold areas in the same manner as in 
moderate climates. During cold periods it is 
normally worn over the Cap, Insulating Hel- 
met Liner-Helmet. The helmet may also be 
worn under the winter hood. 

2-16. Protective Mask 

a. The Mask, Protective, Field, M17 is the 
Army standard protective mask. Information 
on this mask can be found in TM 3-4240- 
202-15. TM 3-4240-202-15, describes the 
winterization measures for the M17 Mask. In 
addition to the wearing of tinted antiglare 



20 



AGO 8641A 



outserta for the plastic lenses, this kit pro- 
vides for winterization inlet and noaecup 
valves together with an ice prefilter. This al- 
lows the standard mask to be worn at tem- 
peratures down to -50^ F. with the M6A2 
hood. 

b. The protective mask may be worn in 
moderately cold weather in the same manner 
as in moderate climates. When the mask is 
used in extreme cold, the rubber facepiece 
should be warm enough to make it pliable 
when it is adjusted to the wearer's face. One 
method of keeping the mask warm is to carry 
it inside the outer garments and next to the 
body. It is also recommended that the mask be 
kept inside the sleeping bag during the night. 
On removing the mask, any moisture on the 
face should be wiped off immediately to pre- 
vent frostbite. After drying the face, the face- 
piece of the mask should be thoroughly dried 
to prevent freezing of moisture inside the 
mask. The rubber cover of the outlet valve 
should also be raised and the valve, surround- 
ing area, and the inside of the cover wiped dry 
to prevent the outlet valve from icing, 

c. If it becomes necessary to wear the mask 
for protection against chemical agents during 
extreme cold weather, troops must be advised 



that the facepiece of the protective mask will 
not protect the face from the coid and that, 
in fact, the opposite is true. The danger of 
frostbite increases when the mask is worn. 

d. The three automatic atropine injections 
of 2 mg each, carried as accessories during 
moderate temperature conditions, are carried 
in a pocket of the protective mask carrier. In 
cold weather (40^ F. and beiow), the injectors 
will be removed from the carrier and placed 
in the inside of the right-hand pocket of the 
OG shirt, where body temperature will pre- 
vent freezing. 

2-17. Body Armor 

Standard issue body armor may be worn 
with either of the cold weather uniforms. 
When worn with the cold-wet uniform it is 
worn over the OG shirt and under the coat 
and liner. When worn with the cold-dry uni- 
form it is worn over the OG shirt and under 
the coat and liner or the parka and liner. Al- 
though the body armor is worn primarily for 
protection against shell and mortar fragments, 
it may provide additional environmental pro- 
tection for the user; however, because of the 
weight, armor should be worn only for its 
primary purpose and not for additional 
wannth* 



A.GO 3UIA 



21 



CHAPTER 3 



SMALL UNIT LIVING 



Section 1. GENERAL 



3—1, Characteristics of Operations in Cold 
Weather 

Unlimited space and a sparse, widely scat- 
tered population are dominant features of most 
of the colder regions of the world. Such condi- 
tions permit unrestricted maneuver for troops 
properly trained and equipped for cold weather 
operations. Warfare under such circumstances 
is characterized by, widely dispersed forces 
operating at great distances from other units 
or their parent organization. Units must be 
highly mobile and have the ability to sustain 
themselves while carrying out independent op- 
erations over extended periods of time. 

3-2. Composition of Units 

a. Small units (squad, gun crew, tank crew, 
wire team, etc.) form the basic working group 



for cold weather operations. Under normal op- 
erating conditions they will work together, 
cook and eat together, and share the same tent 
or other shelter. These small units should be 
formed at the beginning of training and, if 
possible, kept intact. The standard to be 
achieved is a unit which can make or break 
camp quickly, efficiently, and silently under all 
conditions; one in which each man knows the 
tasks to be completed and does them without 
having to be told. 

6. Small units operating in cold weather 
must be thoroughly familiar with the special 
equipment required and the techniques in- 
volved in living away from their parent orga- 
nization for extended periods of time. Equip- 
ment, and the techniques of using it, are dis- 
cussed in this chapter. 



Section II. TENTAGE AND OTHER EQUIPMENT 



3-3. General 

A considerable quantity of various types of 
special equipment is required to maintain small 
units in cold weather. Permanent shelters are 
usually scarce in northern areas of operations 
and heated shelters are required. Special tools 
are necessary for establishing bivouacs, break- 
ing trails, and constructing temporary winter 
roads and battle positions. 

3-4. Need for Shelter 

a. in order to conduct successful military op- 
erations in cold weather and maintain a high 
level of combat efficiency and morale, heated 
shelter must be provided for all troops. An in- 
dividual's ability to continue to work, live, 
move, and fight under extreme climatic condi- 



tions depends upon adequate shelter. Tents and 
stoves, therefore, become a vital part of cold 
weather equipment. 

h. In cold weather, tents should be placed as 
close as practicable to the scene of activity, 
whether the activity be combat or administra- 
tive. By so placing the tents, rotation of men 
for warmup is possible and maximum conti- 
nuity of effort can be maintained. 

c. Tents vary in size and shape, depending 
on their purpose. Small units such as a rifle 
squad, artillery section, or similar type unit 
are normally equipped with one 10-man arctic 
tent. During combat, fewer tents will be 
needed, as part of the personnel are always on 
guard detail, occupying positions, or perform- 
ing similar missions. It may become necessary 



12 



AGO SMIA 



for the unit, temporarily, to use only one-half 
or one-fourth of its tentage; i.e., one 10-man 
tent per platoon, with the men sleeping on a 
rotation basis. Reduced numbers of tents and 
stoves will decrease the requirement for logis- 
tical support, such as fuel and transportation. 

d. Elements smaller than the rifle squad 
(tank and SP artillery crews), which require 
less shelter apace, are normally equipped with 
the 5-man tent (FM 31-71). 

e. Normally, small reconnaissance patrols 
are not equipped with tents, as tents tend to 
hamper the mobility and speed of the patrol. 
Strong combat patrols and long-range recon- 
naissance patrols may be equipped with tents 
and stoves if sufficient transportation is avail- 
able to move the extra weight. When speed is 
of the essence, patrols will improvise shelters 
built from local materials at hand. For semi- 
permanent base camps, portable type frame 
shelters may be erected for increased com- 
fort of the troops. 



Description of Tentage 

a. General. Tentage issued for use in cold 
weather is designed on the same layer prin- 
ciple as cold weather clothing. It is, however, 
made of only two layers. The outside layer is 
made of strong, tightly woven fabric. It is 
water repellent and impervious to rain and 
snow. The inner layer is much lighter in 
weight than the outer layer. The liner is fas- 
tened by toggles to the tent and provides an 



airspace the same as in clothing. It is de- 
signed to provide insulation against the cold- 
It also prevents frost from forming on the in- 
side of the tent. Heat is provided by stoves 
(normally the M-1950 Yukon stove). 

b. Tent, Artie, 10-Man (fig. S-1). The six- 
sided, pyramidal tent, supported by a telescopic 
pole, normally accommodates ten men and 
their individual clothing and equipment. It will 
accommodate additional men by leaving in- 
dividual packs and equipment outside the tent 
overnight and by lowering the telescopic pole 
to spread the sidewalls to cover more ground 
surface. It may also function as a command 
post, aid station, or as a small storage tent. The 
tent has two doors; this permits tents to be 
joined together, with access from one to the 
other, when additional space is required. A 
snow' cloth is attached to the bottom of the 
sidewalls for sealing the tent to the ground. 
This is accomplished by piling and packing 
snow on the snow cloth. If the tent is used in 
terrain where there is no snow, sod or other 
materials may be used to seal the bottom of 
the tent. Flexible plastic screen doors are pro- 
vided and may be attached front and rear of 
the tent for protection against insects. The tent 
is ventilated by four built-in ventilators on 
opposite sides and near the peak of the tent. 
Four lines are provided for drying clothing 
and equipment. Total weight, to include the 
pins and tent pole, is 76 pounds. The tent is 
heated by an M1950 Yukon stove. 



TENT POLE 



VENTILATOR 



STOVE PIPE OPENING 




TENT LiME 



P1N 
SNOW CLOTH 



Figure 3-1. Tent, arctic, lO-^man. 



AGO 3e41A 



2Z 



■^ - - 







- 1^ -vr.-it:. v_ .iifei--^ 



F'tsTu^e J-3. rcni, Jiexagonal, liffktioeiffht. 



c. Tent, Hexagonal, Lightweight (fig. 3-2). 
This tent is also six-sided, pjTamidal, and sup- 
ported by a telescopic tent pole. It is designed 
to accommodate four to five men and their in- 
dividual clothing and equipment. Under emer- 
gency conditions one tent may provide shelter 
for a rifle squad or other similar unit when 
rucksacks areT)laeed outaide the tent. The tent 
has one door; ventilation is provided by two 
buUt-in ventilators located on opposite sides 
and near the peak of the tent. Three lines are 
provided for drying clothing and equipment. 
Total weight of the tent, including the pins 
and center poles, is 48 pounds. The tent is 
heated by an M1950 Yukon stove. 

d. Tent, Frame-Type, Sectional { James- 
way). This 16 by 16 frame-type tent (fig. 
3-3) is a lightweight unit that offers protec- 
tion for one squad. It has wooden floor units, 
a frame, a rounded roof, and comfortable head 
clearances along the centerline of the shel- 
ter. The roof and ends of the tent are fabri- 
cated from insulated, coated, fabric blankets. 
The structure is fastened to the ground with 
tent pins or snow with improvised devices. An 
optional vestibule may be erected at one or 
both ends. Additional floor sections may be 
added to each other lengthwise for creating 
larger buildings. Extra end sections may be 
installed along any rib as interior partitions. 
It weighs approximately 2,250 pounds and is 



heated by one tent stove M1941. Th-j heavier 
weight of this tent restricts its normal use to 
permanent or semipermanent base camps. It 
could be used for forward elements under 
stabilized conditions. 




Figure 3-3. Tent, frame type, sectional. 

e. Tent, General purpose. Small (fig, 3-4). 
This tent is a six-sided pyramidal tent fabri- 
cated of cotton duck cloth. A liner is available 
to insulate the tent during cold weather. The 
tent is equipped with slide fastener doors, 
screened doors, screened ventilators, and stove- 
pipe opening. It has a front and rear entrance, 
each with a lacing flap arrangement to permit 
attachment of the vestibule or erection of tents 
in tandem. The tent is supported by eight ad- 



24 



AGO 8U1A 




Figure 3-U. Tent, general purpose, amall. 



justable aluminum polea around the eave line 
and a standard telescopic magnesium pole at 
the peak. The tent is used for command posts, 
fire direction centers, battalion aid stations, or 
for any general purpose use. Although similar 
in appearance to the Tent, Arctic, lO-man, 
the tent has an eave height of 152.40 cm (60") 
compared to 91.44 cm (36") for the 10-man 
tent. The complete tent, with liner, pins and 
poles weighs 186 pounds. 

3-6. Pitching and Striking Cold Weather 
Tents 

a. With proper training, small troop units 
will be able to pitch tents in 15 to 30 minutes. 
Additional time will be required to complete 
the camouflage of the tent. Pitching and strik- 
ing of the tents are performed in a routine 
drill manner in accordance with instructions 
contained in FM 20-15. 

&. The following must be considered when 
pitching or striking the tents in snow or on 
frozen ground: 

(1) Whenever possible snow should be 
cleared to the ground surface to ob- 



(2) 



tain a lower silhouette and gain ad- 
vantage of ground temperatures 
which are generally warmer than air 
temperatures. Coniferous boughs or 
similar material should then be 
placed on the ground for insulation 
and comfort. When it is impractical 
to remove snow to ground level, an 
adequate tent site may be made by 
packing the snow with skis or snow- 
shoes until a firm base is provided 
for pitching. In this case, the tent 
pole is placed on a log or other suit- 
able support to keep the pole from 
sinking into the snow. Support is also 
needed for the stove under similar 
conditions. 

In open terrain, with a strong wind, 
it may become necessary to build a 
snow wall on the windward side of 
the tent to protect it from the wind. 
The snow wall also makes it easier 
to heat the tent and less likely that 
the tent will blow down. The tent is 
pitched with the entrance 45° down- 



AGO BfrltA 



25 



PREVAILING WIND OrRECTICH 



SHOW WALL 




EMTFUNCE 45" DOWNWIND 



Figure 3-5. A tent dug in -with snow wall ivindbreak. 



wind (fig. 3-5). Variable winds may 
require construction of a windbreak 
at the entrance. High winds in cer- 
tain cold areas necessitate anchoring 
the tent securely. When the tent is 
set up, the snow cloth should be flat 
on the ground outside the tent. 
Stones, logs, or other heavy objects 
should be placed on the snow cloth in 
addition to the snow to assist in 
anchoring the tent. If this is not done, 
the tent will be drafty and very diffi- 
cult to keep warm, 

(3) Tents may be pitched rapidly and 
anchored securely by attaching the 
tent lines to trees, branches, logs or 
stumps whenever possible. If these 
natural anchors are not available, 
suitable holes are dug into the snow 
for the purpose of using "deadmen," 
This is accomplished by digging a 
hole into the anew large enough to 
insert a pole or log approximately one 
meter (3') long with the tent line at- 
tached. The hole is then filled with 
snow, well packed, and in a short pe- 
riod of time the packed snow freezes 
and the tent will be securely anchored 
(a, flg. 3-6), Driving metal pins into 
frozen or rocky ground should be 
avoided when excessive force is re- 
quired. On rocky ground, tent lines 
may be tied around heavy rocks and 
then weighted down with other stones 
(b. fig. 3-6). 

(4) Tents are aiso occasionally pitched on 
ice. When the thickness of the ice is 
not excessive, a small hole is chopped 



through the ice. A short stick or pole 
with a piece of rope or wire tied in 
the middle of it is pushed through and 
then turned across the hole under- 
neath the ice (c, fig. 3-6). If the ice 
is very thick a hole 30 to 60 cm (1' to 
2') deep is cut in it, the "deadman" 
inserted and the hole filled with slush 
or water (d, fig. 3-6). When the slush 
or water is frozen, an excellent an- 
chor point is provided. When the 
"deadman" is placed underneath or 
into the ice, a piece of rope or wire 
should be fastened to the rope or wire 
after the "deadman" is secure. This 
may prevent the tent line from being 
accidentally cut or damaged when be- 
ing removed from the ice. 







Ikrott 




-'CNl ui« 



TCNT Llh€ 



5[..v.. 



PH-ci or ^-'jfr- ►•o(.£. 6" 

// ^ ^y////A\V// ^ ^ 
/////7//?W/r/ y A 

STICK. 1^" LO»G — - TL . I 




'/////a 



MOLE FtlxCD 



.///// 




P"EC£ O* 
»OPE OPt winC 



\ 



I' 



/ / / 



■■n^ 






/ / 



mmii 



a, '^Deadman" buried in packed snow 

K Tent line buried under stones 

c. Lowering anchor through ice 

d. "Deadman" placed in ^ick ice 

Figure 3-6. Improvised methods of aTichoring tents. 



26 



AGO 3641A 



(5) When striking the tent in winter it 
normally will be covered with snow 
and ice which must be removed or 
the tent may double in weight. Snow 
and ice can be removed easily by 
shaking the tent or by beating it with 
a mitten or a stick. If the snow cloth 
is frozen to the ground, the snow and 
ice around it must be carefully re- 
moved by chopping or shoveling in 
order to avoid damage to the mate- 
rial. One method of accomplishing 
this is to ease the shovel between the 
cloth and the ground and gently pry 
the cloth away from the ice. 

c. The vestibule attached to the basic 
frame-type tent (Jamesway) helps reduce heat 
loss when the door is frequently used. The 
main door of the tent opens inward, and thus 
cannot be blocked by drifting snow if the oc- 
cupants are equipped with a shovel or impro- 
vised digging equipment. However, the vesti- 
bule door opens outward and can be blocked by 
drifting snow during a violent storm, A safe 
practice is to install the vestibule only at one 
end facing the prevailing wind and to use no 
vestibule on the more leeward end where 

drift will probably accumulate. Rapid exit in 
case of fire or other emergency is then assured. 
Where severe winds are expected the tent 
should be sited crosswise to the anticipated 
wind direction since the curved roof tolerates 
the wind load better than the flat ends, and 
buffeting is reduced. A vestibule should not be 
used on a tent intended for aid station use, 
since a standard litter cannot negotiate the 
right angle turn required in the short vestibule. 

3-7, Ventilation 

a. Tents are pitched to protect occupants 
from the elements and to provide necessary 
warmth and comfort. When the bottom of the 
arctic tent is properly sealed and the doors are 
zipped shut, moisture will form on the inside 
of the tent and accumulate on clothing and 
equipment, thereby causing dampness and 
hoarfrost. In addition, carbon monoxide, car- 
bon dioxide, and fumes from the stoves may 
soon accumulate to a dangerous degree. To 
offset these factors, the built-in ventilators 
near the peak of the tent must be kept open. 

&. To improve ventilation, a draft channel 



may be constructeu oy iurminj^ a pipe wiLn 
green logs (fig, 3-7). The channel is buried 
in the floor and has an opening under the 
stove. The draft of the stove draws fresh air 
from outside the tent into the channel. 




STOWE PiPt 




L 



STWE 



n 

L I 

I > 



— V-W 



t\ 



T 



-Snow: :\e3j: ■ ■'--■. - 

CWtEH- -LOSS 
FLOW or DRVT 



Doon 




3TWC 





h 



oatfT 



Figure 3—7. Draft channel for stove. 

3-8. Heating Tents with Stove, Yukon, 
M1950, 60,000 BTU 

a. General. The Yukon stove (1, fig. 3—8) is 
used to heat the 10-raan, 5-man, and GP Small 
tents. In addition to providing heat, the top 
surface of the stove and, to a small degree, the 
area beneath the stove, may be used to cook 
rations or heat water. The Yukon stove utilizes 
standard leaded motor fuel as its normal fuel, 
but may also be operated with white gasoline, 
kerosene, light fuel oil, naptha, or JP-4 fuel, 
without modification (2, fig. 3-3). During low 
temperatures the stove will burn five gallons 
of gasoline every B to 12 hours. When solid 
fuels (wood, coal, etc.) are used, the stove must 
be modified by removing the oil burner from 
the top of the stove, closing the opening where 
the burner was installed, and turning over the 
wire grate so that there is space below the 
grate for draft and ashes. A piece of plywood 
slightly larger than the base of the stove 
should be carried as part of the tent group 
equipment. The plywood is covered with alumi- 
num foil and is used to provide a firm base 
for the stove and to prevent it from melting 
down into the snow. 

h. Operating Procedures. The compact, light- 
ly constructed, 33-pound Yukon stove permits 
all accessory parts to be packed within the 
stove body for convenient portability in a sled 
or on a packboard. A draft diverter is issued 
as a component part of the stove. It shields the 
top of the stovepipe from the wind and pre- 



AGO SMIA 



27 
















1 Body assembly 




2 Installation setup 
FiffMre 3-S. Stove, Yukon, Ml 950. 

vents a backdraft from forcing smoke or gases 
into the atove and tent. Three, 4.5 meter (15") 
guylines tied to the draft diverter serve to 
anchor the stovepipe in strong winds. These 
guylines must be anchored to the tent or tent 
ropes, not to the ground or nearby trees. A 
simple method of erecting a tripod for the fuel 
can is to obtain three poles about 2 meters 



(6') in length; the poles are tied about two- 
thirds of the way up using wire from ration 
cases, string, rope, or emergency thong, and 
then spread out to form a tripod. The fuei can 
should be at least one meter (30 higher than 
the stove. The lowest part of the inverted gaso- 
line can should be a minimum of 30 cm (1") 
above the level of the needle valve of the Yukon 
stove. It should not be higher than 1.50 meters 
(5') if the valve is to operate smoothly. If 
the fuel can is wobbly or if there is some wind 
the can must be tied to the tripod for addi- 
tional protection- Make certain that the can 
is tilted so that air is trapped in the upper- 
most corner. The stove is assembled, operated, 
and maintained in accordance with TM 10- 
735, 

c. PrecaidioTis. The following precautions 
must be observed when the Yukon stove is 

used: 

(1) Burning liquid fuels. 

(a) All stovepipe connections must be 
tight and necessary tent shields ad- 
justed properly. 

(b) Stove must be level to insure that 
the burner assembly will spread an 
even flame within the stove. 

(c) The fuel hose must be protected so 
it cannot be pulled loose accident- 
ally. K necessary, a small trench 
may be dug and the hose imbedded 
where it crosses the tent floor. 

((i) The fuel line must not be allowed 
to touch the hot stove. 

{e) When adjusting the fuei flow, the 
drip valve lever must be turned 
carefully to prevent damage to the 

threads. 

(/) Rate of fuel flow must be checked 
at regular intervals. The rate of 
flow will change as fuel supply level 
drops and will require some ad- 
justment. The stove should never 
be left unattended. Maintaining a 
hotter fire than necessary may 
cause the stove body to become 
overheated and warp. 

{g) If the flame is accidentally extin- 
guished, or if the fuel can is being 
changed, the drip valve must be 
closed. When the stove has cooled, 
any excess fuel inside the stove 



28 



AGO SMLA 



must be wiped up and 2 or 3 min- 
utes allowed for gas fumes to es- 
cape before reiighting the burner. 
The burner must he cool before re- 
lighting stove. If stove is lit before 
burner is cool, the fuel will vapoi-ize 
prior to ignition, causing an explo- 
sion, 
ih) All fuel supplies must be kept out- 
side the tent. Spare cans of gaso- 
line or other fuel should never be 
stored inside the tent. Fuels used 
in combat areaa in the north are 
normally low temperature fuels 
which will flow freely. 

(2) Burning solid fuels. 

{a) Fuel should be fed a small amount 

at a time until the bed of coals is 

burning brightly. 
(6) Stove should not be allowed to 

overheat. 
<c) Oil or gasoline should not be poured 

on the fire. 

(d) Ashes should not be allowed to ac- 
cumulate below the grate. 

(e) Clinkers should be removed to pre- 
vent grate from becoming blocked. 

3-9. Heating of Semipermanent Tents With 
Tent Stove, M1941 

Stoves of this type normally are used to pro- 
vide heat for the semipermanent, frame-type, 
sectional tent. The stove may be operated with 
wood or coal or with various types of oil and 
gasoline. This stove has the same general char- 
acteristics and safety features outlined for the 
Yukon stove in paragraph 3-8. 

3-10. Fuel Economy 

The minimum daily fuel consumption per 
Yukon stove approximates five gallons of gaso- 
Une per 8 to 12 hours of operation. The M1941 



Tent Stove will burn five gallons in 3 to 4 
hours. Prior planning must be accomplished to 
reduce the number of stoves required, espe- 
cially for operations that are some distance 
from a road net. Wood should be used as fuel 
whenever possible. Cooking and heating are 
combined and, when extra heat is required to 
dry clothes, ail individuals should dry clothes 
at the same time, when possible. 

3-1 1 . Lighting Tents 

Candles will provide light in forward areas. 
In rear areas, gasoline lanterns or lighting 
equipment sets may be used. 

3-12, Tools 

a. Handtoola are needed by small units for 
several purposes such as erection and striking 
the tent, building ski and weapon racks, build- 
ing field latrines, chopping firewood, etc. Tools 
are also needed for trailbreaking, preparation 
of positions, and similar tasks. Because in- 
trenching tools are lightly constructed, they 
are of little value for work in heavy timber or 
frozen ground. The following tools are needed 
by squad sized units to accomplish routine 
tasks in cold regions, regardless of the season 
of the year: 

(1) One axe, chopping. 

(2) One saw (Buck or Swede). 

(3) Two machetes with sheaths. 

(4) One shovel, general purpose. 

b. Tools must be kept sharp, clean, oiled and 
in good condition. Care must be taken to pre- 
clude small tools and items of equipment from 
being left in the snow or thrown aside where 
they may become buried and lost in the snow. 
Particular care must be exercised while wear- 
ing gloves because ice or frost may form on the 
gloves and cause the tools to slip from the users 
hands, resulting in injury to nearby person- 
nel and/or loss of equipment. 



Section 111. IMPROVISED SHELTERS 



3-13. Requirement for Improvised Shelters 

a. There are many occasions when tents or 
other regular shelters are not available. In 
summer, if the weather is mild, individuals 
may need protection only from insects. In 
winter, however, individuals cannot stay in the 



open for long periods unless they are moving. 
The requirement for improvised shelters may 
arise for several reasons, e.g., vehicles carry- 
ing tents may be unable to reach the troops due 
to difficult terrain or enemy action. In case of 
emergency, each individual must know how to 
protect himself from the effects of the weather. 



AGO 364 lA 



29 



h- If suitable natural shelters 3uch as cavea 
or rock shelves are available, they should be 
used. If natural shelters are not available, a 
temporary improvised shelter must be estab- 
lished. 

c. The type of improvised shelter to be built 
depends on the equipment and materials avail- 
able By the proper use of materials available, 
some sort of shelter can be built during any 
season of the year. In open terrain a shelter 
can be built using ponchos, canvas, snowblocks, 
or other materials. Snow caves^ snow trenches^ 
or snow holes may be constructed in the win- 
ter if the snow is both deep and well-com- 
pacted. In the woods, a !ean-to is normally 
preferable to other types of shelter. In north- 
ern areas, nature provides the individual with 
the means to prepare a shelter. His comfort, 
however, greatly depends on his initiative and 
skill at improvising, 

d. A shelter should always provide adequate 
protection from the elements, retain heat, have 
suitable ventilation, and provide drying faciU 
ities, 

3-14. Poncho Shelters 

A poncho is a part of an individual's uni- 
form. It is a multipurpose piece of equipment 
that may be used as a rain garment, a water- 
proof bedcover, a ground sheet, or a shelter. 
The simplest type of shelter can be made by 
merely pulling^ the poncho over the sleeping 
bag. For additional comfort, various types of 



shelters and lean-tos may be made by attach- 
ing ponchos to trees, tree branches or poles, 

a. One-Man Shelter, A one-man shelter 
(fig. 3-9) may be made from one poncho. The 
poncho is spread, hood side up. on the ground, 
and the hood opening is tightly closed by ad- 
justing and typing the hood drawstrings. The 
poncho is raised at the middle of its short di^ 
mension to form a ridge, and then staked out 
at the corners and sides. Side stakes should 
not be driven through the grommets at the 
corners or sides, because this may tear the 
poncho, A short piece of rope is tied to the 
grommets and, in turn, to the stakes, Snow^ 
sodp or boughs are used to seal two sides and 
one end of the shelter to provide additional 
protection from the wind and to retain heat 
inside the shelter, 

&, Two-Man Skelter. To construct a two-man 
shelter (fig. 3-9), ponchos are spread on the 
ground, hood side up, with the long sides to- 
gether so that the snap fastener studs of one 
poncho may be fastened to the snap fastener 
sockets of the other poncho. Hood openings 
must be tightly closed by adjusting and tying 
the hood drawstrings- Ponchos are raised 
where they are joined to form a ridge; ropes 
are then attached to grommets at the ends of 
the ridge and run over forked sticks. The shel- 
ter tent is then staked out at the corners and 
aides, as described in a above, A third poncho 
may be snapped into the other ponchos to form 
a ground cloth. 



HOOD 



RtDGE 




6ROMMET7 ^SNAP FASTENERS 

RrDGE 




STAKES 



L ONE- MAN SHELTER 



2. TWO -MAN SHELTER 



Figure 3-9, Poncho shelters. 



30 



AGO SMI A 



3-15. Lean-To 

fl. Materials. The lean-to shelter, used in for- 
ested areas, is constructed of trees and tree 
limbs. String or wire helps in the building, 
but is not necessary. A poncho, a piece of can- 
vas, tarpaulin, or a parachute, in addition to 
the boughs, may be used for covering-. 




Figure 3-10. Smgle lean-to, 

6. Size, The lean-to is made to accoTnmodate 
a variable number of individuals. It may be 
built for one man only, teams, gun crews, pa- 
trols, or similar small groups. From a practical 
point of view, a rifle squad is the largest ele- 
ment to be sheltered in one double lean-to. 

c. Types. Depending on the number of indi- 
viduals to be sheltered, two types of lean-tos, 
single and double, are used. 

d, Constriiction. 

(1) Single lean-to (fig. 3-10). To save 
time and energy, two trees of appro- 
priate distance apart, and sturdy 
enough to support the crosspiece ap- 
proximately 1.50 meters (5') off the 
ground, are selected when operating 
in forested areas. It may be necessary 
to cut two forked poles of desired 
height, or construct two A-frames to 
hold the crosspieces, or use a combi- 
nation of these supports when bivou- 
acking in sparse wooded or semi-open 
areas. A large log is then placed to 
the rear of the lean-to for added 
height. Other methods that may be 
used are packing the snow down or 



using snowblocks instead of a heavy 
log. Stringers approximately 3 meters 
(10') long and 5 to 8 centimeters 
(2" to 3") in diameter are then 
placed, approximately 45 cm (18") 
apart, from the crosspiece over the 
top of the log in the rear of the shel- 
ter. Material such as cardboard, can- 
vas or ponchos may be placed over the 
framework to preclude falling or 
melting snow, warmed by the fire, 
from dropping through. One or both 
sides of the lean-to and the roof are 
then thatched. 

(2) Double lean-to (fig. 3-11). Two sin- 
gle lean-tos are built facing each 
other and approximately 1.50 to 2 
meters (5' to 6') apart. The space be- 
tween single lean-tos must be suffi- 
cient to permit the occupants to move 
freely around the log fire placed along 
the centerline of this space and to al- 
low the smoke to get out through the 
opening instead of gathering under 
the roofing. If desired, one end of the 
middle space may be covered by a 
wall made of boughs or other mate- 
rials for additional protection from 
the draft and wind. 




Figure 3-11. Double lean~to. 

e. Heating. In heating a lean-to, any kind of 
open fire may be used. The best type for large 
size lean-tos, however, is the log fire, so the 
heat will be evenly distributed over the entire 
length of the lean-to, see paragraph 3-21d. In 
employing open fires for heating, precautions 
must be taken to prevent the fire from burning 



AQO 3641 A 



3T 



too hot and burning down the shelter or setting 
the roof on fire with aparka. 

3-16, Tree Shelter 

a, Tree-Pit Shelter. In wooded areas, the 
deep snow and tree-pit shelter <fig. 3-12) fur- 
nishes temporary protection. To construct a 
tree-pit shelter a large tree is selected with 
thick lower branches and surrounded with deep 
snow. The anow is shaken from the lower 
branches and the natural pit la enlarged 
around the trunk of the tree. The walla and 
floor are then lined with branches and the roof 
thickened. Canvas or other material on hand 
may be used for the roof. 



3-1 S. Snow Wall 

In open terrain with snow and ice, a sno' 

wail tn^. 3-13) may be constructed for protei 
tion from strong winds. Blocks of compat 
snow or ice are used to form a windbreak. 





GROUND 



Figure 3-12. Tree-pit shelter. 

b. Fallen Tree Shelter. An emergency shel- 
ter for one man can be constructed by cutting 
down a coniferous tree at a point about one 
meter <3') from the ground. The underside is 
trimmed and the cut material placed on the 
ground to provide insulation. This shelter will 
provide some protection from the elements for 
a man in his sleeping bag. Another way to 
build this shelter is to tie a pole to a tree and 
drape a poncho or similar material over the 
pole. 

3-17, Wigwam 

A conventional wigwam or tepee can be 
built in wooded areas by typing a number of 
poles near the top and spreading them at the 
bottom to form a large circle. This framework 
is then covered with available tree boughs, 
canvas, cardboard, or other suitable material. 



Figure 3—13, Sleeping behind snow -wall. 

3-19. Snow Hole 

A anow hole (fig, 3-14) provides shelte 
quickly. It is constructed by burrowing into 




1 Snow hole partially constructed. 




2 Snow hole completed* 

Figure 3-li, Snow hole. 



32 



AGO aG4: 



snowdrift or by dlsging a trench in the snow 
and making a roof of ponchos and ice or snow- 
biocks supported by akia, ski poles or snow- 
dhoea. A sled provides excellent insulation for 
the sleeping ba^. Boughs, if available, can be 
used for covering the roof and for the bed. 

3-20. Snow Cave 

a. Location. A anow cave (figs. 3-15 and 
3-16) can be used as an improvised shelter in 
the open areas where deep and compacted anow 



SKI P0L£ in 

VENTILATIOM SHAFT 




.TXMS.nGGHS 



3HOWBU30t 



aouQHtaiarHCii 
HSUUcnoH 



Figurv 3-15. Snow cave for four -meti. 



THE WICTTH OF EACH 
ROOM 1 H YARDS FOR 



SLEEPING 
TWO MEN 




PLAN 



Figure 3—16. Snow cave jor sixtsen maTt. 



(4) 



(5) 



AGO S641A 



is available. Normally, a suitable site is located 
on the lee aide of a steep ridge or riverbank 
where drifted snow accumulates in unusual 
depths. 

b, Basic Constniction Principles. Basic prin- 
ciples for construction of all snow caves are 
as follows : 

(1) The tunnel entrance must give access 
to the lowest level of the chamber, 
which is the bottom of the pit where 
cooking is done and equipment is 

stored. 

(2) The snow cave must be high enough 
to provide comfortable sitting space. 

(3) The sleeping areas must be on a 
higher level than the highest point of 
the tunnel entrance so that the riaing 
warm air will permit the men to sleep 
more comfortably. 

The roof must be arched both for 
strength and so that drops of water 
forming on the inside will not fall on 
the floor, but will follow along the 
curved sides, glazing over the walls 
when frozen. 

The roof mu.st be at least 30 cm (1') 
thick. 

c. Size. The size of the snow cave depends 
upon the number of men expected to occupy it. 
A large cave is usually warmer and more 
practical to construct and maintain than sev- 
eral small caves. In good anow conditions a 16- 
to 20-man cave is the moat practical. 

d. Shave. The shape of the snow cave can be 
varied to suit conditions. When the main cave 
is built, short side tunnels are dug to make 
one- or two-man sleeping rooms, storage space, 
latrine and kitchen space. 

e. Constniction. The following steps should 

be observed in construction: 

{1) A deep snowdrift at least 243 cm 
(3') deep is located. Newly fallen, 
powdery or loose snow should he 

avoided. 
(2) The depth of a snowdrift may be 
tested with a sharpened sapling ap- 
proximately 365 cm (12') in length, 
or in the absence of trees the shorter 
ski pole or avalanche probe. (The 
availability of an avalanche probe is 
discussed in FM 31-72.) 



33 



(3) The entrance is chosen carefuHy so 

the wind will not blow into the cave 
or the entrance become blocked by 
drifting anow. 

(4) A small tunnel is burrowed directly 
into the side of the drift for one 
meter (3')- A chamber is excavated 
from this tunnel. 

(5) Excavation is done to the right and 
left so that the length of the chamber 
13 at right angles to the tunnel en- 
trance. 

(6) Due to the fact that the individuals 
digging will become wet, they should 
wear the minimum amount of cloth- 
ing possible to insure that they have 
a change of dry clothing upon com- 
pletion of the task. 

/. Heating and Safety Measures. The cave 
can be heated with the one-burner gasoline 
stove or with candles. The fires should be ex- 
tinguished when individuals are sleeping, thus 
reducing the danger of fire and asphyxiation. 
If the weather is severe and it becomes neces- 
sary to keep a fire going while the individuals 
are asleep, an alert fire guard must be posted 
in each cave. The ventilation holes must be 
inspected every 2 or 3 hours to insure that they 
have not become clogged by snow or by icing. 

g. Instdatwn. To insure that the cave is 
warm, the entrance should be blocked with a 
rucksack, piece of canvas, or snowblock when 
not in use. All available material, such as 
ponchos, cardboard, brush, boughs, etc., should 
be used for ground insulation, 

h. Other Precautions. Walking on the roof 
may cause it to collapse. At least two ventila- 
tors, one in the door and one in the roof, are 
used. A ski pole can be stuck through the roof 
ventilator to clear it from the inside. Extra 
care must be exercised to keep air in the cave 
fresh when heating or cooking. The entrance 
should be marked by placing a pair of skis or 
other equipment upright on each side of the 
entry way. 

3—21. Campflres 

a. Matches and Fire Starters. A supply of 
matches in a waterproof container, heat tab- 
lets, or fire starters must be carried by all 
individuals operating in cold weather. They 



are a necessity, especially where snow and ice 
add to the problems of securing tinder for 
starting a fire. In emergencies, matches should 
be used sparingly and lighted candles used to 
start fires whenever possible, or if available, a 
little engine oil will help ignite wet or frozen 
wood without the flash hazard of the more 
volatile petroleum fuels. As a safety precau- 
tion, it should be remembered that fire starters 
are extremely inflammable and must be kept 
away from open flames and heat, 

b. Selecting Site. Individuals building a fire 
in the field should carefully select a site where 
the fire is protected from the wind. Standing 
timber or brush makes a good windbreak in 
wooded areas, but in open country some form 
of protection must be provided. A row of snow- 
blocks, the shelter of a ridge, or a scooped-out 
side of a snowdrift will serve as a windbreak 
on barren terrain. 

c. Starting and Maintaining Fire. Before 
using matches, a supply of tinder must be on 
hand. The use of heat tablets is recommended 
for the safe starting of fires. In inclosed areas, 
gasoline or other high inflammable fire starters 
will not be used. In the open, and under very 
strict control, small quantities of gasoline may 
be used to start fires when other means are 
not available. Many types of fuel are available 
for fires. The driest wood is found in dead, 
standing trees. Fallen timber may often be 
wet and less suitable. In living trees, branches 
above snow level are the driest. Green and 
frozen trees are generally not suitable because 
they win not burn freely. Splitting green wil- 
lows or birches into small pieces provides a 
fairly good method of starting and maintain- 
ing a fire, if no deadwood is available. Also, 
dry grass, birchbark, and splits of spruce bark 
with pitch tar are excellent fire starters. It if 
good practice to secure a sufficient amount of 
firewood to last throughout the night, before 
retiring. 

d. Types of Fire. Any kind of open fire may 
be used with most of the improvised shelters 
In deep snow, a fire base {fig. 3-17) of greer 
wood should be built first to protect the camp- 
fire from sinking into the snow. For a single 
lean-to or snow wall, a fire reflector (fig. 3-10) 
may be built of green logs or poles to reflect 
the heat into the shelter and to serve as £ 



34 



AGO 8SI1A 



steadily. The moat suitable types for single 
and double lean-toa are the log fires {fig. 3-13). 

(1) T^yo, preferably three, logs are used 
for this type of campfire. Dry, hard- 
wood logs, if posaibJe, 20 to 40 cm 
(approx 1') in diameter and approx- 
imately the same length as the lean-to 



vEariUL 




WHWHD iwirncx 



tBETM KUPPOflT 



1 Two-5off fire 



FIREWOOD 




<;AeEMWOCD 9ASE 



BASE FOR A CAMPPHRC 

IM DEEP SNOW 



BOUGHS AND 
BRANCHES 




SNOW 



cnouNo 



Figure 3-17* Camp fire and fire base on snow* 




■icii or LI 

Eitcn antn *■< 






<■■■« HI^^Dftt 



(2) 



2 Three-log fire 
Figure 3— IS. Log fires, 

are selected and brought to the fire 
site. First, two logs are placed aide by 
side on small green blocks to support 
them above the snow or ground for a 
better draft. Then the third log is 
placed in the middle and on the top 
of the other two logs. For better 
burning, the surfaces of logs which 
face each other are chipped. Before 
lighting the fire, small wedges are 
placed between the chipped surfaces 
of the logs for better draft. Fire is 
then started at several places to help 
it spread the entire length of the logs. 
A iog fire of this type will burn all 
night with only minimum care. 

When only two logs are used, four 
vertical stakes must be driven into 
the snow to keep one log on top of the 
other, A disadvantage of this type of 
log fire is the fact that the vertical 
stakes tend to give way when the 
snow starts melting around the fire. 



Section IV. FOOD AND WATER 



3-22. Principles 



a. Importance of Balanced Meals. Army ra- 
tions are well balanced. The ration for 1 day 
provides all the essential foods the body re- 
quires. However, ail the ration must be eaten if 



all the caloric value is to be obtained. Some 
items may, at times, not appeal to the indi- 
vidual sense of taste, but they must be eaten. 
The tendency to be lazy about preparing and 
eating satisfactory morning and evening meals 



AGO 3S41A 



35 



before and after a hard day on the trail must 
be avoided, since it is exceedingly detrimenta] 
to continued good health. After having been 
without normal supplies for a period of time, 
it is essential that men be provided with a 
balanced meal containing the three basic food 
requirements (fats, protein, and carbohy- 
drates). When possible and especially when 
troops are involved in rigorous :ictivity, it may 
be desirable to feed four times daily. A desir- 
able feeding plan would be the normal heavy 
breakfast meal, a light midmorning meal, a 
light afternoon meal, with the supper meal 
being the main meal of the day. The mid- 
morning and midafternoon meal should con- 
sist of foods high in carbohydrates and include 
a hot liquid. Concentrated foods found in some 
special and survival rations are suitable for 
this purpose. Hot soup or tea are most desirable 
for the liquid. The evening meal should be 
heavily fortified with protein and eaten just 
before going to sleep. This heavy protein meal 
will increase body combustion above basal 
level, resulting in what is known as specific 
dynamic heat. This increase in the output of 
heat within the body also aids in keeping the 
individual warm while sleeping. If awakened 
by cold a small snack eaten inside the sleeping 
bag may increase heat production enough to 
permit further comfortable sleep. 

b. Importance of Liquids. In cold regions, as 
elsewhere, the body will not operate efficiently 
without adequate water. Dehydration, with ita 
accompanying loss of efficiency, can be pre- 
vented by taking fluids with all meals, and 
between meals if possible (para 3-34). Hot 
drinks are preferable to cold drinks in low 
temperatures since they warm the body in 
addition to providing needed liquids. Alcoholic 
beverages should not be consumed during cold 
weather operations since they can actually 
produce a more rapid heat loss by the body. 

c. Use of Mess Gear. Individual mess gear 
will be difficult to clean and sterilize, therefore 
arrangements must be made for return of dirty 
mess gear to the battalion trains area where it 
is cleaned under the supervision of the mess 
stewards. Clean mesa gear is sent forward 
with subsequent meals. During periods of ex- 
treme cold, it may be advisable to utilize paper 
plates and cups instead of mess gear. If utilized, 



they should be issued with the rations and sent 
forward to companies with the meal. When 
using paper plates and cups, commanders must 
insure that they are not haphazardly left in 
the unit area. Controlled disposal must be 
practiced by burning at squad level or by con- 
solidating at company level and returning 
them to the battalion trains area. This problem 
is minimized, and cooling of food is minimized, 
by the use of individual operational rations 
which may be consumed directly from their 
containers. 

3-23. Rations 

Many types of rations are used for opera- 
tions in cold weather. The type of ration to be 
used will be determined by the location, supply 
situation, mission, and duration of the oper- 
ation. Rations are normally prepared in the 
unit kitchens. Insofar as possible two hot meals 
per day should be served. These generally will 
be the breakfast and supper meals. In situations 
where this is not practicable, group rations are 
utilized and prepared by one member of the 
small unit. Under certain conditions an indi- 
vidual ration may be issued to each man. When 
serving meals without shelter, food may be- 
come cold or frozen before it can be eaten. 
Therefore, and whenever possible, shelters 
should be provided for the preparation and 
serving of food. Certain packaged rations and 
food packets are ideal under these circum- 
stances because they are precooked and some 
components or all of the ration can be eaten 
without heating. However, one of the com- 
ponents should be heated when possible. 

a. Buik Su-pv^ied Rations. Rations of this 
type are desirable whenever possible. They are 
characterized by a need for maximum time 
and effort for preparation, high palatability, 
a large variety in menus and a high caloric 
content. These rations are also heavy and 
bulky. 

(1) "A" Ration. The standard "A" Ra- 
tion consisting of fresh foods is is- 
sued whenever possible. The caloric 
content of the ration is increased to 
compensate for the added caloric re- 



36 



ACQ SSilA 



quirements of cold weather opera- 
tions. 

(2) "S" Ration. The standard "B" Ration 
13 the field ration used for mass feed- 
ing in areas where kitchen facilities, 
with the exception of refrigeration, 
are available. The ration consists of 
approximately one hundred nonper- 
ishable foods. These are canned and 
dehydrated. Hot meals furnish ap- 
proximately 3,900 calories per day 
with a 15-day cycle of menus. Caloric 
content may be varied to meet re- 
quirementa of varying climatic condi- 
tions or degree of physical activity. 

b. Packaged Operatumal Rations. Rations 
found in this category are characterized by a 
need for minimum time and effort for prepa- 
ration. They have a high ca^ ric content, 
limited menus and are lightweight. Maximum 
advantage is taken of dehydration and concen- 
tration. They are for the most part served hot, 
but certain components may be consumed cold. 

(1) Ration, mdividual, trails frigid. This 
ration is designed for trail use under 
cold weather conditions. While hot 
meals can and are intended to be pre- 
pared from this ration, all compo- 
nents, except the dehydrated soups 
and beverages may be eaten without 
preparation. Components of the ra- 
tion such as, processed cheese, fruit- 
cake bars and candy are especially 
adaptable to consumption in mobile 
situations. The inclusion of several 
condiments enables maximum flexi- 
bility in component preparation. The 
ration supplies a minimum of 4,400 
calories. It is intended for use by 
members of small patrols or trail 
parties for short periods of time dur- 
ing which resupply is not feasible. 

(2) Meal, coTnbat, individual. This ration 
is designed for and is issued as the 
tactical situation dictates. It can be 
used in individual units as a meal or 
in multiples of three meals as a com- 
plete ration. Twelve menus are avail- 
able. Each meal furnishes approxi- 
mately one-third of the minimum 



nutrient intake prescribed by Army 
regulations. 

(3) Food packet, long-range patrol. The 
packet was designed for use by forces 
in remote areas where resupply may 
be uncertain for as long as 10 days, 
under tactical situations that require 
men to eat as individuals, but where 
normal supply of water is available. 
There are eight menus, all flexibly 
packaged. Each furnishes over 1,000 
calories, and consists of a precooked, 
dehydrated, combination item as the 
main component, with a confection, 
a cereal, or fruitcake bar, coffee, 
cream, sugar, toilet paper and 
matches. Five menus also include 
cocoa beverage powder. The average 
volume is 40 cubic inches and the 
average gross weight is 11 ounces. 
The principal menu components are 
packaged in a flexible combination 
package attached to a chipboard base 
which gives the package a rigid bot- 
tom while the food is being reconsti- 
tuted in the bag. The main component 
may be eaten dry with drinking 
water or reconstituted. If hot water is 
used the main component will recon- 
stitute in 2 minutes, if cold water is 
used, in 5 minutes. 

(4) Survival rations. Survival rations are 
designed for use in emergency situa- 
tions. The food is highly concen- 
trated, lightweight and requires little 
or no preparation. Per volume it is 
high in caloric content but contains 
much less than the minimum re- 
quired nutrient prescribed by Army 
regulations. These rations, when 
available, are especially good to sup- 
plement the special rations discussed 
above. 

3-24. Individual or Small Unit Messing 

Frequintly, while on patrol or during com- 
bat conditions, individuals will find it neces- 
sary to prepare their own meals or to combine 
rations with other individuals within the unit. 

a. E qtiipTtient. 

(1) The one-burner M1950 gasoline cook- 



ACO SMIA 



37 



ing atove 13 a cooking and heating 
unit for a group of from 2 to 5 men 
operating in an isolated or forward 
area where the use of heavier equip- 
ment ia not practical. The mountain 
cookaet ia combined with the stove to 
make the one-burner cooking outfit. 

(2) Rations may also be heated on the 
M1950 Yukon stove. The top and to a 
small degree the area underneath the 
stove is used for this purpose. 

(3) Any fuel-burning device will give off" 
carbon monoxide, which is poisonous. 
Adequate ventilation must be pro- 
vided when using fuel-burning equip- 
ment under shelter. 

6. Preparation. 

(1) First priority is the procurement of 
water (para 3-^0). If snow or ice 
must be melted to obtain water, all 
available stoves are utilized for this 
purpose. After water is obtained, the 
stoves are used for food preparation. 
For convenience in preparation of 
meals and for conservation of fuel and 
labor, cooking should be done for as 
large a group as the situation per- 
mits. 

(2) Meals must be prepared efficiently 
and as quickly as possible. Areas 
sheltered from the wind should be 
chosen for stoves or fires. A few 
blocks of snow or ice or a hole dug 
in the snow will serve as a windbreak 
and provide for more efficient use of 
fires. Heating tablets are not efficient 
in extremely cold weather accom- 
panied by high winds. Individuals 
may have to prepare and eat one item 
at a time, but a hot meal will be 
worth the effort. 

(3) Instructions for preparing the com- 
ponents of the rations will be found 
on, or inside, the package. The possi- 
bility of combining the various ration 
components, i.e., mixing meat and 
vegetables to make stew, should also 
be considered. 

(4) Canned foods are cooked and require 



little heat to make them edible. Over 
cooking will waste fuel. The juices ir 
canned vegetables are tasty, and con 
tain vitamins and minerals. Drinkini 
them will conserve the water supply 
Cans must be punctured or openef 
before heating by open fires or stoves 
Failure to do this may result in ar 
explosion. No puncturing Is needed i: 
the can is submerged in water durin[. 
the heating process. 

<5) Food, including frozen meat, shouk 
be thawed before cooking. Parth 
frozen meats may cook on the outside 
while the center remains raw. Fresr 
meats must be cooked thoroughly tc 
kill any germs or parasites that maj 
be present. 

(6) Whenever possible, dried fruit should 

be soaked overnight in cold water 

then simmered slowly in the samt 

water until tender, and sweetened tc 
taste. 

{7) Canned rations, either frozen or 
thawed, can best be heated by immer- 
sion in boiling water. This water can 
then be used for making tea, coffee 
or soups and for washing soiled uten- 
sils or personal hygiene. 

c. Storage. 

(1) In winter the simplest way to pre- 
serve certain perishable foods such 
as meat products is to allow them tc 
freeze. Rations should be stacked out- 
side the shelter and their locatior 
carefully marked. Only as much food 
as can be thawed and consumed be- 
fore spoiling should be brought intc 
the shelter. 

(2) Frozen food should not be placed near 
heat where it may be thawed and 
later refrozen. Once thawed, certain 
foods may spoil. Meat thawed and 

refrozen two or three times is taste- 
less and watery, and resultant bac- 
terial growth may be sufficient to 
cause food poisoning. 

d. Eating. Meals should be prepared at regu- 
lar times and as much time as possible allowed 



38 



AGO SULA 



for cooking and eating. Men should be allowed 
to relax after each meal. There will be times 
when it may not be possible to prepare a meaL 
Under such circumatancea the meal or compo- 
nents of meals must be distributed to individ- 
uals before breaking camp. Any frozen food is 
thawed before issue to individuals. These items 
are wrapped in spare clothing and placed in 
the rucksack or in the pack to prevent them 
from refreezing. If time permits, halts should 
be made for the purpose of heating food and 
drink. To the extent possible, preparation of 
the following day's food should be done during 
the night bivouac in order to shorten the time 
required to break camp in the morning. 

e, Stiggestions. 

(1) Organize and control cooking. 

{2) Insure that all food is eaten; save any 
usable leftovers for snacks between 

meals. 

(3) The squad leader supervises the meals 
and makes sure that each man is re- 
ceiving his portion. 

(4) Check continuously to see that each 
man's mesa equipment is kept clean. 

(5) Food is prepared for as large a group 
as possible. 

(6) Fuel is conserved by prethawing 
food. This may be done by utilizing 
heat in the engine compartment of a 
vehicle or by placing cans of food 
under and around the tent heating 
stove. 

<7) Canned rations, either frozen or 
thawed, can beat be heated by im- 
mersion in a pot of hot water on the 
stove. This water can then be used 
for washing soiled utensils. 

(8) Adequate training of all men in the 
preparation and cooking of cold 
weather rations is imperative. 

(9) One-pot meals, such as stews, save 
preparation time and fuel and can be 
kept warm more easily than several 
different food items. 




Small Unit Messing 

a. One Man Responsible. On^ man should be 



responsible for the preparation of each meal 
and this job should be rotated throughout the 
squad. The squad leader is responsible for sup- 
plying any additional assistance needed by the 

cook. 

b. Ingenuity in Cooking. Ingenuity on the 
part of the man assigned to cook for the small 
unit will aid immeasurably in the success of 
field messing in cold weather. Potatoes, onions, 
or bacon, when available, will increase the 
palatabiiity of the food and can satisfactorily 
be added to many foods. The habit of making 
the morning coffee the night before, or using 
two stoves to melt snow or ice for the evening's 
water supply, and of thawing out those rations 
that are going to be used the next morning, 
will save time and greatly simplify food prep- 
aration at mealtime. 

c. Eating Arrangement. When the weather 
ia moderate, the mess line feeding system may 
be used. During cold weather in a bivouac area 
the food can be prepared hot and then carried 
in insulated containers to each tent for con- 
sumption in a heated shelter. Food may also be 
transported in this manner to frontline troops 
by using track vehicles or other methods of 
transport. 

3-26. Nafurai Food Resources 

a. In some cold regions, animals are abund- 
ant at certain seasons of the year. In other 
areas, very little game can be found during 
any season of the year. A person without food 
in these areas must know how to "live off the 
land" and subsist on what is available. Fish 
are present in fresh-water lakes and rivers 
during all seasons of the year, and some salt 
water near shore will normally yield fish. Fish 
will form the most readily available and larg- 
est portion of available nourishing foods. 

b. Small animals and birds are also present 
in most areas at all times of the year. Large 
animals, because of migratory habits or other 
characteristics, are not a reliable source of 
food in many areas. Game should not be shot 
unless necessary for survival. Animals to be 
used for food should be thoroughly bled, in- 
ternal organs removed, and the carcass chilled 
as soon as possible. This will prolong the 
keeping time of the meat. To expedite the 



AGO 8M1A 



39 



chilling clean snow can be packed in the body 
cavity. All meat should be cooked thoroughly 
as a safeguard against harmful micro-organ- 
isms and parasites that might be present in 
the carcass. Only healthy animals should be 
used; in the absence of a person qualified to 
determine if the animal is healthy, meat from 
the animals that appear sick should not be 
handled or eaten. For additional information, 
see FM 21-76. 

3-27, Animals of Cold Regions 
a. Caribou and Reindeer. 

(1) These are mainly herd animals found 
in the high plateaus and mountain 
slopes as well as in the grassy tundra 
areas. Their favorite year-round food 
is the lichens or "reindeer moss." 
Their summer diet consists of grasses, 
shrubs, and brush tips. They are very 
curious animals and will often ap- 
proach a hunter merely from curios- 
ity, thus presenting a good target. 
Sight of a human may have no effect 
on them but the slightest hint of hu- 
man scent will send them galloping- 
It is possible to attract them near 
enough for a shot by waving a cloth 
and moving slowly toward them on 
all fours. In shooting, the aim should 
be for the shoulder or neck rather 
than the head. 

(2) Reindeer have long been domesti- 
cated in Scandinavia and northern 
Asia for their meat, milk, hide, and 
as draft animals. 

(3) Both caribou and reindeer should be 
skinned promptly. Animal heat is the 
largest factor in meat spoilage. Fast 
and complete field dressing will elim- 
inate most of this hazard and airing 
will finish the work. The bones and 
muscles can hold heat for as long as 
48 hours, if the surrounding temper- 
ature is not below freezing. Fat 
should be kept with the carcass, not 
with the skin. If time does not allow 
skinning, at least the entrails and 
genitals should be cleaned out of the 
animal. 



(4) A poncho may be used for wrapping 
the meat, whether for packing it out 
or if it is to be left hanging for the 
second trip. Meat should be raised off 
the ground as soon as possible because 
this will cool it sooner and keep it 
away from predators. Dirt and con- 
tamination should be washed from 
the meat and the meat then dried, if 
possible. A carcass should never be 
washed until it has cooled and is 
ready to be butchered and stored. 

b. Mountain Sheep and Goats, 

(1) These animals are available in many 
northern areas. Although they nor- 
mally live in the higher elevations, 
during periods of heavy snow, they 
may be more readily available than 
other animals. 

(2) The procedures for skinning and 
care of caribou and reindeer are also 
applicable to sheep and goats. 

c. Moose. 

(1) The moose is the largest known 
species of the deer family. They are 
found in most areas of the northern 
hemisphere. Full grown bulls weigh 
from 1,000 to 1,200 pounds and may 
stand two meters (6') high at the 
shoulder. They require a large 
amount of forage and usually may be 
found in areas where food of this 
type is plentiful, such as burn-ofPs, 
swamps, and lake areas. 

(2) The procedures for the skinning and 
care of caribou and reindeer meat are 
applicable to moose. 

d. SecUs. 

(1) Seals are widely distributed and gen- 
erally common. Their flesh is an ex- 
cellent food. The liver should be 
avoided since it may contain toxic 
levels of Vitamin A, 

(2) The seals should be shot as they come 
to the surface of the water to breathe 
or as they are basking on rocks. The 
aim should be for the head. Most of 
the seals shot through the head will 



40 



AGO BS4tA 



float, while about half of those shot 
through the body will not. Seals will 
also be found in the open leads in the 
icepack or may be found at their 
breathing holes in the ice. However, 
hunting seals through breathing 
holes requires extreme patience and 
the hoJes are difficult to locate with- 
out the use of dogs. 

(3) In the spring, mother seals and their 
pups may sometimes be located under 
snow hummocks adjacent to and over 
breathing holes, where they have 
given birth to their young. In the 
spring, also, seals lie on the ice and 
bask in the sun. They must be care- 
fully stalked and the hunter must be 
close enough at the time he shoots to 
retrieve the dead seal before it slips 
into a hole in the ice. 

(4) It takes great skill to stalk a seal. The 
Eskimo usually tries to imitate noises 
made by the seal, and he may use a 
white screen behind which he crawls 
while the seal sleeps, remaining ab- 
solutely still when the seal raises its 
head to look around. Seals normally 
sleep only for a few seconds at a time 
and then look around for their ene- 
mies for a few seconds before sleep- 
ing again. Seal meat from which the 
blubber (fat) has not been entirely 
removed will turn rancid in a short 
time. 

e. Walrvs, The meat and blubber (fat) of 
walrus are edible, as are the clams which may 
be found in their stomachs. 

/. Bears. All bears are edible, although the 
flesh must be thoroughly cooked to guard 
against trichinosis. The liver of the polar bear 
should not be eaten because of toxic Vitamin 
A concentration. All bears are dangerous and 
hard to kill. There should be two or more hunt- 
ers in the party when hunting; soft-nosed bul- 
lets should be used. The shoulder shot is best. 
If the hear stands up, the aim should be at 
the base and center of the throat for a shot 
which will sever the vertebrae. 

g. Wolves and Foxes. Wolves and foxes are 
edible. Wolves follow caribou herds. Arctic 



foxes follow polar bear and eat their leavings. 
Foxes will hang around a camp or follow a 
trail party and try to steal food. 

h. Rabbits or Hares. Rabbits or hares can 
be snared or shot. They should be shot in the 
head or very little meat will be left. A whistle 
will probably cause a running one to stop long 
enough for an aimed shot. When cooking hare 
or rabbit, fat of 3ome sort, should be added as 
the meat is very lean. They should not be 
dressed or cut up with bare hands because of 
the danger of contracting tularemia (rabbit 
fever) from contact with the raw flesh. Com- 
pletely cooked flesh is safe to handle and eat. 

i. Marmots. Marmots are woodchuck-like 
animals that live above the treeline in the 
mountains. They are excellent food, especially 
in late summer when they are very fat. The 
hunter should wait until the marmot moves 
away from his den before shooting or he may 
fall into his burrow. 

/, Porcupines, Beavers, and Mttskrats. These 
animals are found throughout the colder re- 
gions. Porcupines are excellent food, as are 
both beaver and muskrat. AU are easily ob- 
tained. The porcupine, beaver, and muskrat 
when found on land, can be easily killed with 
sticks. 

fe. Ground Squirrels, Ground squirrels 
abound in most cold areas and are easy to 
catch. They can be easily dug out of their 
burrows. They are especially common along 
streams with sandy banks. 

3-28. Birds 

All birds and their eggs found in cold re- 
gions are edible. Certain nonmigratory birds 
are found in cold regions in wintertime. Sev- 
eral species of grouse, like the ruffed, sharp 
tail, spruce, and ptarmigan (which turn white 
in winter) are common. To obtain the greatest 
food value from birds, they should be plucked 
rather than skinned. 

3-29. Fish 

Fish form a large part of the native diet in 
cold regions and are almost the entire diet of 
work dogs in these areas. Along the coast, sal- 
mon, tomcod, flounder, sculpin, sand sharks. 



AGO 9M1A 



41 



herring and other fiah are found. Inland waters 
yield aaimon, several varieties of whitefish. 
blackfiah, and suckers. All fish and shellfiah 
are edible, with the exception of the biack 
mussel. Mussels from Pacific waters should be 
avoided entirely. Musseb are easily distin- 
guished from clams and oysters by their 
orange-pink flesh. Shellfish can be cooked by 
boiling them in water. 

3-30. Water 

Water points, operated by Corps of Engineer 
personnel, offer the beat source of water supply 
for all troop units in any area and in any 
season. Under normal operating conditions, an 
Engineer unit with a water point capability 
will be attached to task forces of brigade size 
or larger. Engineer water point operations 
under cold weather conditions are discussed in 
FM 31-71. This paragraph, together with 
paragraphs 3-31 and 3-56 offers possible solu- 
tions to the problem of water supply that con- 
fronts individuals and small detachments oper- 
ating in isolated areas away from normal 
support activities. 

du Water is plentiful in most cold regions in 
one form or another. Potential sources are 
streams, lakes and ponds, glaciers, fresh-water 
ice, and last year's sea ice. Freshly frozen sea 
ice is salty, but year-old sea ice has had the 
salt leached out. It is well to test freshly frozen 
ice when looking for water. In some areas, 
where tidal action and currents are small, 
there is a layer of fresh water lying on top of 
the ice; the lower layers still contain salt. In 
some cases, this layer of fresh water may be 
50 to 100 cm (20" to 40") in depth. 

h. If possible, water should be obtained from 
running streams or lakes rather than by melt- 
ing ice or snow. Melting ice or snow to obtain 
water is a slow process and consumes large 
quantities of fuel. 17 cubic inches of uncom- 
pacted snow, when melted, yields only 1 cubic 
inch of water. In winter a hole may be cut 
through the ice of a stream or lake to get 
water; the hole is then covered with snow- 
blocks or a poncho, board, or a ration box 
placed over it. Loose snow is piled on top to 
provide insulation and prevent refreezing. In 
extremely cold weather, the waterhole should 



be broken open at frequent intervals. Water- 
holes should be marked with a stick or other 
marker which wiil not be covered by drifting 
snow. Water is abundant during the summer in 
lakes, ponds, or rivers. The milky water of a 
glacial stream is not harmful. It should stand in 
a container until the coarser sediment settles. 

c. In winter or summer, water obtained from 
ponds, lakes and streams must be purified by 
chemical treatment, use of iodine tablets or in 
emergencies by boiling. 

d. During chemical, biological, and/or nu- 
clear warfare, precautions should be taken 
against using contaminated water sources. In 
general, cold weather conditions tend to pro- 
long or conceal contamination hazards, and 
unexpected contamination may thus be en- 
countered. When snow or ice is thawed to 
provide water supplies, detection tests should 
be conducted during or after the melting oper- 
ation, since frozen contamination may not be 
detectable. Radiological contamination which 
has been covered with snow or ice may or may 
not show up on radiac instruments, depending 
upon the thickness of the cover. Boiling or 
treating with water purification tablets has 
no effect on radioactive contaminants in water. 
In emergencies, water suspected of radiolog- 
ical contamination may be filtered through a 
15 cm (6") column of loose dirt and then 
chlorinated or iodinated. Purification of water 
showing, or suspected of containing, chemical 
contamination should not be attempted. 

e. After the water is obtained, the problem 
of transporting and storing it arises. Units op- 
erating in the field under cold weather con- 
ditions may store water in 5-gallon water cans 
with insulated covers, or other similar type 
containers for use by small detachments or in- 
dividuals. Immersion-type heaters may be used 
to prevent freezing of water supply tanks. 
Some points to be remembered are — 

(1) Transportation of water by wheeled 
vehicles in barren, sparsely settled 
areas under snow and ice conditions 
is practicable only when there is a 
road net established. The best way to 
transport water in cold regions is by 
the use of track-laying vehicles which 
are not dependent on roads for ma- 



43 



AGO SS41A 



neuverability. If 5-gallon cans are 
used to carry water, they are filled 

only three-quarters full to allow ajri- 
tation of the water and help prevent 
freezing while in transit. Cans are 
stored off the floor in heated shelters 
as soon as they are delivered. Sled- 
mounted, 250- to 300-gallon water 
tanks in which immersion-type heat- 
ers have been installed have proved 
satisfactory. 

(2) For small units of two to four men, 
the 5-gallon insulated food container 
is satisfactory for water storage. 
These can be filled at night and will 
hold enough water for the next day's 
needs for about four men. The insula- 
tion of these containers is sufficient 
to keep water from freezing for as 
long as 40 hours at an ambient tem- 
perature of —20*' F., if the tempera- 
ture of the water was at boiling 
point when the container was filled. 

3-31. Types of Ice and Snow 

a. When water is not available from other 
sources, it must be obtained by melting snow 
or ice. To conserve fuel, ice is preferable when 
available ; if snow must be used, the most com- 
pact snow in the area should be obtained. Snow 
should be gathered only from areas that have 
not been contaminated by animals, humans, 
or toxic agents. 

b. Ice sources are frozen lakes, rivers, ponds, 
glaciers, icebergs, or old sea ice. Old sea ice is 
rounded where broken and is likely to be pitted 
and to have pools on it. Its underwater part has 



a bluish appearance. Fresh sea ice has a milky 

appearance and is angular in shape when 
broken. Water obtained by melting snow or ice 
may be purified by use of water purification 
tablets, providing it has not been contaminated 
by toxic agents. 

c. If chemical, biological, or radiological con- 
tamination is detected, procedures as outlined 
in paragraph 3-30rf will be followed. 

3—32. Procedures for Melting Snow and Ice 

a. Burning the bottom of a pot used for 
melting snow can be avoided by "priming." 
Place a small quantity of water in the pot and 
add snow gradually. If water is not available, 
the pot should be held near the source of heat 
and a small quantity of snow melted in the 
bottom before filling it with snow. 

6. The snow should be compacted in the 
melting pot and stirred occasionally to prevent 
burning the bottom of the pot. 

c. Pots of snow or ice should be left on the 
stove when not being used for cooking so as 
to have water available when needed. 

d. Snow or ice to be melted should be placed 
just outside the shelter and brought in as 
needed. 

e. In an emergency, an inflated air mattress 
can be used to obtain water. The mattress is 
placed in the sun at a slight inclined angle. 
The mattress, because of its dark color, will 
be warmed by the sun. Light, fluffy snow 
thrown on this warm surface will melt and 
run down the creases of the mattress where it 
may be caught in a canteen cup or other suit- 
able container. 



Section V. HYGIENE AND RR5T AID 



3-33. General 

In cold weather, the care of the body re- 
quires special emphasis. If men are allowed to 
go without washing, fail to eat properiy, do 
not get suflficient liquids or salt, eflSciency will 
suffer. Lowered efliciency increases the possi- 
bility of casualties, either by cold injury or 
enemy action. 



3-34. Dehydration 

a. Definition and Principle. Dehydration 
means to lose or be deprived of water or the 
elements of water. A growing plant loses 
(uses) water in the growing process. If this 
water is not replaced by either natural means 
(rain) or by watering, the plant will wither 
and eventually dry up. The same principle ap- 
plies to the human body which loses water and, 



AGO S641A 



43 



an additional element, aalt. A certain amount 
of this lo33 is taking pJace constantly through 
the normal body processes of elimination; 
through the normal daily intake of food and 
liquids, these losses are replaced. 

b. Dangers. When individuals are engaged 
in any strenuous exercises or activities, an ex- 
cessive amount of water and salt is lost 
through perspiration. This excessive loss cre- 
ates what is known as "imbalance of liquids" 
in the body and it is then that the danger of 
dehydration arises, unless this loss of liquids 
and salt is replaced immediately and individ- 
uals are allowed sufficient rest before continu- 
ing their activities. 

c. Training and Discipline, The danger of 
dehydration for troops operating under cold 
weather conditions and over ice and deep snow 
is a problem that doe3 exist and cannot be 
overemphasized. It is equally important, how- 
ever, to recognize that the problem can be over- 
come and will present no great obstacle to well 
trained, disciplined troops who have been 
thoroughly oriented in the causes, the symp- 
toms, and the effects of dehydration and who 
have been properly instructed in preventive 
measures. 

d. Differences. It is important, therefore, to 
be aware that the danger of dehydration is as 
prevalent in cold regions as it is in hot, dry 
areas. The difference is that in hot weather 
the individual is conscious of the fact that the 
body is losing liquids and salt because he can 
see and feel the perspiration with its saline 
taste and "feel" it running down the face, 
getting in the eyes, and on the lips and tongue, 
and dripping from the body. In cold weather, 
it is extremely difficult for an individual who 
is bundled up in many layers of clothing to 
realize that this condition does exist. Under 
these conditions, perspiration is rapidly ab- 
sorbed by the heavy clothing or evaporated by 
the air and is rarely visible on the skin. 

e. Cause, Symptoms, Effects, Preventive 
Measures, and Treatment. 

(1) Dehydration results from failure to 
correct the body's "imbalance of liq- 
uids" through replacing liquid and 
salt which has been lost. 

(2) The symptoms of cold weather dehy- 



dration are similar to those encoun 
tered in heat exhaustion. The mouth 
tongue, and throat become parchei 
and dry and swallowing become 
difficult. General nausea is felt am 
may be accompanied by spells o 
faintness, extreme dizziness and vom 
iting. A feeling of general tirednes 
and weakness seta in and muscl 
cramps may occur, especially in th 
legs. It becomes difficult to keep th^ 
eyes in focus and fainting or '*black 
ing out" may occur. 

(3) The effect of dehydration on the in 
dividual is to incapacitate him for ; 
period of from a few hours to severa 
days. The effectiveness of the indi 
vidual's unit is likewise reduced b; 
the loss of his contribution to th* 
accomplishment of the unit mission 
Small patrols and detachments oper 
ating beyond range of immediate helt 
from the parent unit must be extra 
cautious to avoid dehydration sinci 
they run the risk of a secondary bu 
more dangerous effect of dehydration 
that of becoming cold weather casual 
ties while ihcapactiated. 

(4) Dehydration can be prevented durint 
cold weather operations by following 
the same general preventive measure; 
applicable to hot, dry areas. Salt anc 
sufficient additional liquids are con 
sumed to offset excessive body losse: 
of these elements. The amount wil 
vary according to the individual an< 
the type of work he is doing, i.e. 
light, heavy, very strenuous, etc. Res 
is equally important as a preventiv< 
measure. Each individual must real 
ize that any work that must be don. 
while bundled in several layers o 
clothing is extremely exhausting 
This is especially true of any move 
ment by foot, regardless of how shor 
the distance. 

(5) In treating a person who has becomi 
dehydrated, the individual should bt 
kept warm but his clothes loosenet 

, sufficiently to allow proper circula 
tion ; liquids and salt should be fed tc 
him gradually and, moat importan 



44 



AGO 3441^ 



of all, he must have plenty of rest- 
When salt tablets are not available, 
common table salt may be used. Ap- 
proximately one-haif of a level mess 
spoon of salt mixed in one gallon of 
water makes a paiatable solution. 
The individual ahould receive prompt 
attention of trained medical person- 
nel. 

3-35. Personal Hygiene 

Because of the extremes in temperatures and 
lack of bathing and sanitary facilities, keep- 
ing the body clean in cold weather will not 
be easy. 

a. The entire body should be washed at 
least weekly. If bathing facilities are not avail- 
able, the entire body can be washed with the 
equivalent of two canteen cups of water, using 
half for soap and washing, and half for rins- 
ing. If circumstances prevent use of water, a 
rubdown with a dry cloth will help. Care 
should be taken not to abrade the skin. The 
feet, crotch, and armpits should be cleaned 

daily. 

h. A temporary steam bath can be built in a 
large-size tent Stones are piled up to form a 
furnace. The furnace is either heated inside the 
tent (ventilation flaps wide open) or in the 
open with the tent pitched over the furnace 
after the stones are heated. Wood is used for 
fuel. Seats and water buckets are taken into 
the tent after the stones are nearly red-hot and 
the fire has died down, so that they do not get 
sooty. The pouring and washing water is usu- 
ally heated outside the tent. The water is 
thrown on the hot stones in small quantities. 
Thus it does not drop into the ashes and the 
temperature does not rise too fast. A naked 
person spends from 15 minutes to 1 hour in 
this steam bath. After thoroughly perspiring, 
the body is washed with tepid \vater. 

c. Beards should be shaved or clipped close. 
Hair should be combed daily and not allowed 
to grow too long. A beard or long hair adds 
very little in insulation value and soils cloth- 
ing with the natural hair oils. In winter, a 
beard or a mustache is a nuisance since it 
serves as a base for the buildup of ice from 
moisture in the breath and will mask the pres- 



ence of frostbite. AH individuals ahould shave 
daily, when possible. Because shaving with a 
blade and soap removes the protective face oils, 
the individuals should shave, if possible several 
hours before exposing his face to the elements. 
This action will reduce the danger of frostbite. 
Shaving with an electric razor will not remove 
the protective oils. Under chemical or biolog- 
ical warfare conditions, a beardless face and 
daily shaving are especially important, since 
an airtight seal of the protective mask is diffi- 
cult to obtain with even stubble on the face. 

d. Socks should be changed and the feet 
washed daily. If this is not possible, the boots 
and socks should be removed, and the feet mas- 
saged and dried. By sprinkling the feet liberal- 
ly with foot powder and then rubbing the 
powder off, the feet can be efficiently dry- 
cleaned. 

e. Sleeping bags should be kept clean. Sub- 
ject to operational requirements, the best 
method is to wear the minimum clothing in 
the sleeping bag. Never wear damp socks or 
underwear in the sleeping bag. Dry underwear 
and socks should be put on before going to 
sleep and the other set hung up to dry. Perspi- 
ration will soil a sleeping bag, and cause it to 
become damp, therefore, the bag should be 
aired as frequently as possible. In the morning, 
the bag should be opened wide and air pumped 
in and out to remove the moist air within the 

bag. 

/. Teeth should be cleaned daily. If a tooth- 
brush is not available, a clean piece of gauze 
or other cloth wrapped around the finger, or 
end of a twig chewed into a pulp may be used 
in lieu of a toothbrush. 

g. Underwear and shirts should be changed 
at least twice weekly; however, if it is not pos- 
sible to wash the clothing this often the cloth- 
ing should be crumpled, shaken out, and aired 
for about 2 hours. 

3-36. Cold Injury 

a. Frostbite, Frostbite is the freezing of 
some part of the body by exposure to tempera- 
tures below freezing. It is a constant hazard 
in operations performed at freezing tempera- 
tures, especially when the wind is strong. Usu- 



AGO S841A 



ally there ia an uncomfortable sensation of 
coldness followed by numbness. There may be 
a tingling, stinging, or aching aenaation, even 
a cramping pain. The skin initially turns red. 
Later it becomes pale gray or waxy white. For 
all practical purposes frostbite may be classi- 
fied as superficial or deep. Treatment and man- 
agement are based solely upon this classifica- 
tion. 

(1) It ia easier to prevent frostbite^ or 
stop it in its very early stages, than 
to thaw and take care of badly frozen 
flesh. Clothing and equipment must 
be fitted and worn so as to avoid in- 
terference with circulation. To pre- 
vent severe frostbite — 

(a) Sufficient clothing must be worn 
for protection against cold and 
wind. The face must be protected 
in high wind, and when exposed to 
aircraft prop blast. 

(6) Every effort must be made to keep 
clothing and body as dry as possi- 
ble. This includes avoidance of per- 
spiring. For heavy work in the 
cold, remove outer layers as needed, 
and replace as soon as work is stop- 
ped. Socks should be changed as 
needed whenever the feet become 
moist, either from perspiration or 
other sources. 

(c) Any interference with the circula- 
tion of the blood reduces the 
amount of heat delivered to the ex- 
tremities. All clothing and equip- 
ment must be properly fitted and 
worn to avoid interference with 
the circulation. Tight fitting socks, 
shoes and hand wear are especially 
dangerous in very cold climates, 

(d) Cold metal should not be touched 
with the bare skin in extreme low 
temperatures. To do so could mean 
loss of skin. 

(e) Adequate clothing and shelter must 
be provided during periods of in- 
activity. 

(/) The face, fingers, and toes should 
be exercised from time to time to 
keep them warm and to detect any 
numb or hard areas. The ears 



should be massaged from time to 
time with the hands for the same 
purpose. 

(.1?) The buddy system should always 
be used. Men should pair off and 
watch each other closely for signs 
of frostbite and for mutual aid if 
frostbite occurs. Any small frozen 
spots should be thawed immediate- 
ly, using bare hands or other 
sources of body heat. 

(2) Some cases of frostbite may be super- 
ficial, involving the skin. But if freez- 
ing extends to a depth below the skin 
it constitutes a much more serious 
situation, demanding radically diflTer- 
ent treatment to avoid or minimize 
the loss of the part (fingers, toes, 
hands, feet). If a part of the body 
becomes frostbitten it appears yellow- 
ish or whitish gray. Frequently there 
is no pain, so keep watching one an- 
other's face and hands for signs. The 
face, hands, and feet are the parts 
most frequently frostbitten. The 
problem is to distinguish between su- 
perficial and deep frostbite. This can 
usually be told with respect to the 
face. The hands and feet are a dif- 
ferent matter. A person may be able 
to judge by remembering how long 
the part has been without sensation. 
If the time was very short the frost- 
bite is probably superficial. Other- 
wise assume the injury to be deep 
and therefore serious. 

(3) For treatment of superficial frostbite 
in the field — 

(a) Cover the cheeks with warm hands 
until pain returns. 

ib) Place uncovered superficially frost- 
bitten fingers under the opposing 
armpits, next to the skin. 

(c) Place bared, superficially frostbit- 
ten feet under the clothing against 
the belly of a companion. 

id) Do not rewarm by such measures 

aa massage, exposure to open fires, 

cold water soaks, rubbing with 
anow. 



AGO 364IA 



<e) Be prepared for pain when thaw- 
ingr occurs. 
(4) In treatment of deep frostbite (freez- 
ing injury) the following measures 
must be taken: If freezing is believed 
to be deep, do not attempt to treat it 
in the field. Get to a hospital or aid 
station by the fastest means poasibie, 
// transportation is available, avoid 
walking. Protect the frozen part from 
additional injury but do not attempt 
to thaw it out by rubbing, bending, 
massage. Do not rub with snow; do 
not place in either cold or warm wa- 
ter; do not pxnosp ^r^ ^yn^ r^ir rir oi«n 
fires; do not use ointments or poul- 
tices. Thawing in the field increases 
pain and invites infection, greater 
damage, and gangrene. There is less 
danger of walking on feet while 
frozen than after thawing. Thawing 
may occur spontaneously, however, 
during transportation to a medical 
facility. This cannot readily be avoid- 
ed since the body in general must be 
kept warm. 

6. Trenckfoot Trenchfoot is the thermal in- 
jury sustained as a result of exposure to cold, 
short of freezing, in a damp or wet environ- 
ment. Arbitrarily, it is said to occur in the 
temperature range between 32** F. and 50" F. 
Partial causes include immobility of the limbs 
(legs and feet down as in sitting or standing), 
insufficient clothing, and constriction of parts 
of the body by boots, socks, and other gar- 
ments. This type of cold injury is almost iden- 
tical with gradual frostbite, which might be 
expected, since the primary causes are the 
same except for differences in the degree of 
cold. In the early stages of trenchfoot, feet 
and toes are pale and feel cold, numb, and stiff- 
Walking becomes difficult. If preventive action 
is not taken at this stage, the feet will swell 
and become painful. In extreme cases of trench- 
foot the flesh dies and amputation of the foot 
or of the leg may be necessary. Because the 
early stages are not painful, individuals must 
be constantly alert to prevent the development 
of trenchfoot. To prevent this condition — 
(1) Feet should be kept dry by wearing 

waterproof footgear and by keeping 

the floor of shelters dry. 



(2) Socks and boots should be cleaned and 
dried at every opportunity, prefer- 
ably daily. 

(3) The feet should be dried as soon as 
possible after getting them wet. They 
may be warmed with the hands. Foot 
powder should be applied and dry 
socks put on. 

{4) If it becomes necessary to wear wet 
boots and socks, the feet should be 
exercised continually by wriggling 
the toes and bending the ankles. 
Tight boots should never be worn, 

(5) In treating trenchfoot, the feet 
should be handled very gently. They 
should not be rubbed or massaged. If 
necessary, they may be cleansed care- 
fully with plain white soap and wa- 
ter, dried, elevated, and allowed to 
remain exposed- While it is desirable 
to warm the patient, the feet should 
always be kept at room temperature. 
The casualty should be carried and 
not permitted to walk on damaged 
feet, 

c. Immersion Foot. Immersion foot is a form 
of injury which follows prolonged immersion 
of the feet in water not sufficiently cold to 
cause freezing or frostbite. It has been ob- 
served after exposure in subtropical waters 
also. Clinically and pathologically, it is indis- 
tinguishable from trenchfoot which would be 
expected, since its cause is essentially the same, 
lowering of the temperature of the part of the 
body involved. It is usually associated with de^ 
pendency {legs and feet down as in sitting or 
standing) and immobility of the lower extrem- 
ities and with constriction of the limbs by 
clothing and shoes. Other factors which play 
more or less important roles are — body cool- 
ing, as the result of wind; total immersion; 
and inadequate clothing {protection ) , sick- 
ness, and starvation. The incidence and sever- 
ity of immersion foot however, is more direct- 
ly influenced by the other factors listed. The 
treatment is the same as that given for trench- 
foot. 

d. Total immersion. Immersion in near 
freezing water for but a few minutes, or ex- 
posure to severe dry cold while inadequately 
dressed will cause total body cooling, including 



AGO a«41A 



47 



a marked drop in the inner body (core) tem- 
peratures. For description and therapy gee ap- 
pendix F. 

e. Miscellaneoiis . The length of time that a 
casualty may be exposed to the weather with- 
out danger of coid injury varies directly with 
the temperature and wind velocity. The lower 
the temperature and the stronger the wind, 
the sooner injury will occur. There ia a great 
variation in individual reactions to cold. To 
give competent care to the injured in extreme 
cold, the medical personnel must have heated 
shelter in which to operate. Battle wounds in 
the cold are no different from those sustained 
in more temperate climates, and should be 
treated in the same manner. Morale is helped 
by the assurance that the sick and wounded 
can be rapidly evacuated from the battlefield 
to hospitals, and that for the nontransporta- 
ble cases requiring prompt lifesaving surgery, 
hospitals with highly skilled surgical person- 
nel are available adjacent to division clearing 
station level. 

3-37. Shock 

Shock is brought about by a reduction of 
the circulating blood volume within the body. 
This can be caused by severe injuries, loss of 
blood, pain, emotional disturbances, or any of 
many factors. The normal reaction of the body 
to severe cold, reduction of the volume of blood 
circulating to extremities, is very similar to 
the reaction of the circulatory system to the 
condition of shock. Shock will usually develop 
more rapidly and progress more deeply in ex- 
treme cold than in normal temperature. 

a. Sigtis of Shock, The signs of shock are 
apprehension; sweating; pallor; rapid, faint 
pulse; cold clammy skin; and thirst. If the pa- 
tient is not given good first aid treatment im- 
mediately the condition of shock may progress 
until the patient passes into unconsciousness 
and further into death. 

6. First Aid for Shock, 

(1) The injured person should be made 
as comfortable as possible. 

(2) Pain may be relieved by proper posi- 
tioning, good bandaging and splint- 
ing. Aspirin will also help, if it is 



available and if there is no knowr 
or suspected abdominal injury, 

(3) The litter should be positioned sf 
that the patient is comfortable anc 
not apt to inhale vomitus. 

(4) The patient should be kept warn 
with blankets and sleeping bags. 

(5) When the patient is conscious hi 
should be given warm soup, chocolate 
coffee, or tea if there is no known O] 
suspected abdominal injury. 

(6) The patient should receive medica 
attention as soon as possible. 

3-38. Sunburn 

An individual may get sunburned when thi 
temperature of the air is below freezing, Oi 
snow, ice, and water, the sun's rays reflec 
from all angles ; in a valley the rays come fron 
every direction. Sunlight reflected upwart 
from the bright surfaces attacks man when 
the skin is very sensitive — around the lips 
nostrils, and eyelids. The exposure time whicl 
w^JI result in a burn is reduced in the clear ai; 
of high altitudes. Sunburn cream and a chap 
stick should be carried in the pocket, and ap 
plied to those parts of the face that are ex 
posed to direct or reflected light. In milt 
weather protection of the neck and ears cai 
be improvised by draping a handkerchief ove> 
the back of the head which is held in place b: 
the cap in the manner of a desert neckcloth 
Soap or shaving lotions with a high alcoholi' 
content should not be used because they re 
move natural oils that protect the skin fron 
the sun. If blistered, report to an aid station a. 
soon as possible, as the blistered area, espe 
cially lips, may become badly infected, 

3-39. Snow Blindness 

Snow blindness occurs when the sun is shin 
ing brightly on an expanse of snow, and is du- 
to the reflection of ultraviolet rays. It is par 
ticularly likely to occur after a fall of ne^ 
snow, even when the rays of the sun are par 
tially obscured by a light mist or fog. The risj 
is also increased at high altitudes. In mos 
cases, snow blindness is due to negligence o 
failure on the part of the soldier to use hi 
sunglasses. Waiting for discomfort to develo: 



48 



AGO 8U1. 



before putting on glasses is folly. A deep burn 
of the eyes may already have occurred by the 
time any pain is felt. Putting on the glasses 
then is essential to prevent further injury but 
the damage has already been done. Symptoms 
of snow blindness are a sensation of grit in the 
eyes with pain in and over the eyes made worse 
by eyeball movement, watering, redness, head- 
ache, and increased pain on exposure to light. 
First aid measures consist of blindfolding, 
which stops the painful eye movement, or cov- 
ering the eyes with a damp cloth, which ac- 
complishes the same thing. Rest is desirable. 
If further exposure to light is unavoidable the 
eyes should be protected with dark bandages 
or the darkest available glasses. The condition 
heals in a few days without permanent damage 
once unprotected exposure to sunlight is 
stopped. 

3-40. Constipation 

a. When operating under cold weather con- 
ditions there is a general tendency for individ- 
uals to allow themselves to become constipated. 
This condition is brought about by the desire 
to avoid the inconvenience and discomfort of 
relieving themselves under adverse conditions. 
This condition is also caused by changes in 
eating habits and failure to drink a sufficient 
amount of liquids. 

b. Constipation can usually be prevented by 
adjusting the normal eating and drinking hab- 
its to fit the activities in which engaged, and 
by not "putting off" the normal, natural, proc- 
esses of relieving the body of waste matter. 
Medical personnel should be consulted if con- 
stipation persists. Each individual must be ed- 
ucated concerning the consequences of neglect- 
ing personal hygiene habits. 

3-41 . Carbon Monoxide Poisoning 

a. Whenever a stove, fire, gasoline heater, or 
internal combustion engine Is used indoors 
there is danger of carbon monoxide poisoning. 
A steady supply of fresh air in living and 
working quarters is vital. Carbon monoxide is 
a deadly gas, even in low concentration, and 
ia particularly dangerous because it is odorless. 

b. Units should appoint a qualified carbon 
monoxide safety officer. AR 385-55 and TB 



Med 269 should be used as references by these 
safety officers. 

c. Generally there are no symptoms. With 
mild poisoning, however, these :^iB:n3 may be 
present — headache, dizziness, ya'.vning, weari- 
ness, nausea, and ringing in the ears. Later on. 
the heart begins to flutter or throb. But the gas 
may hit without any warTiing Vnatsoever. A 
soldier may not know anything is wrong until 
his knees buckle. When '.his happens, he may 
not be able to walk or crawl Unconsciousness 
follows; then death. Men may be fatally poi- 
soned as they sleep. 

d. In a case of carbon monoxide poisoning, 
the victim must be moved into the fresh air at 
once, but must be kept warm. In the winter, 
fresh air means merely circulating air that is 
free from gases. Exposure to outdoor cold 
might cause collapse. If the only fresh air is 
outdoors, the patient should be put into a sleep- 
ing bag for warmth. A carbon monoxide victim 
should never be exercised, because this will 
further increase his requirements for oxygen. 
If a gassed person stops breathing or breathes 
only in gasps, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation 
should be started immediately. In the latter 
case, the operator's movements must be care- 
fully synchronized with the victim's gasps. 
Breathing pure oxygen removes carbon monox- 
ide from the blood faster than does breathing 
air and greatly hastens recovery. Carbon mon- 
oxide is serious and a victim who survives it 
must be kept absolutely quiet and warm for at 
least a day. Hot water bottles and hot pads are 
helpful in maintaining body temperatures. 

3-42. Care of Casualties 

If any member of a group is injured, the 
most important course of action is to get him 
to competent medical aid as soon as possible. 
The casualty should be given first aid treat- 
ment, protected from the cold and shock ef- 
fects, and evacuated to an aid station with a 
minimum of delay. He should be placed in a 
casualty bag, sleeping bag, or the best avaiU 
able substitute. He should have warm drinking 
water or other hot drinks, except in the case 
of abdominal injury. 

Warning: Once a tourniquet has been ap- 
plied, the wounded man should be examined by 
a medical officer as soon as possible. 



AGO S641A 



49 



If po33ib3e, the tourniquet should not be 
loosened by anyone except a medical officer 
who 13 prepared to atop the hemorrhage or 
bleeding by other means and to administer 
other treatment as necessary. Repeated loosen- 
ing of the tourniquet by inexperienced persoTi- 
ne is extremely dangerous, can result in con- 
siderable loss of blood, and endanger the life 
of the patient. Halting of circulation to the 
extremities is an invitation to frostbite. If 
morphine is to be administered, caution must 
be exercised to avoid overdosage. 




Figure 3-19. Evacuation of wounded on sUd. 

3-43. Emergency Evacuation 

Personnel who have been wounded should be 
evacuated to the nearest medical facility by 



the fastest means of transport available. Sleds 
can be used if oversnow vehicles or air evacua- 
tion facilities cannot be obtained. It may be 
necessary to use manhauled sleds to move the 
wounded a safe distance behind the frontlines 
before they can be transferred to faster means 
of transport (fig. 3-19). Speed in evacuation 
is essential because of the combined effects of 
severe cold and shock on the wounded. 

3-44, Body Parasites 

a. General Body parasites are very common 
in the more populated cold regions because of 
the crowded living conditions and shortage of 
bathing and cleaning facilities. When in the 
midst of a native population, or when occupy- 
ing shelters which have been used before, in- 
dividuals must inspect clothing and body each 
night for parasites. 

b. Means of Control If clothing has become 
infested with lice, the following methods of 
removing them are recommended: 

(1) While extreme cold does not kiil lice, 
it paralyzes them. The garments 
should be hung in the cold; then 
beaten and brushed. This will help 
rid the garments of lice, but not of 
louse eggs. 

(2) An appropriate insecticide powder 
can be used to free the body and 
clothing of body parasites. 



Section VL BIVOUAC ROUTINE 



3-45. Location of Bivouac Sites 

The selection of bivouac sites in northern 
areas is all-important and requires careful con- 
sideration. The problem of selection varies 
with the tactical situation, weather conditions 
and terrain. Terrain hazards such as steep roclc 
faces concealed by snow, glaciers, crevasses and 
avalanches are typical, especially in moun- 
tainous areas. Guides familiar with terrain 
peculiarities must be used to the greatest ex- 
tent during the troop movement. 

a. If possible, the bivouac area should be 
tactically located in accordance with the 
principles of security and defense. It should be 



50 



located so that it would be advantageous for 
future operations. If contact with the enemy 
is imminent, the bivouac should be located on 
high ground; this, at times, is disregarded in 
favor of cover and concealment, more suitable 
ground conditions, etc. 

b. Cover and concealment against air and 
ground observation is essential for the bivouac 
area. Forested areas pose few problems in com- 
parison to that area north of the treeline. Par- 
ticular attention must be given in selecting 
areas in cold regions to insure that local cam- 
ouflage materials are available. 

c. In the winter, protection from the wind is 

AGO MUA 



a prime consideration. This ia particularly true 
in areas of northern operations, where violent 
local gales frequently occur. In wooded areas 
the wind has little effect on tentage or in- 
dividuals. 

d. The condition of the ground is important 
and, if possible, the bivouac should be located 
on hard, dry ground. 

e. Construction materials play an important 
part in the selection of a bivouac. When mak- 
ing a reconnaissance for the area, such things 
as the availability of firewood, water, snow 
for snow shelters, boughs, etc., must be consid- 
ered. 

3—46. Bivouac in Forests 

a. Most forests in cold regions provide excel- 
lent bivouac sites and should be utilized when- 
ever possible. Forests provide many natural 
materials such as boughs for insulation, fire- 
wood, and camouflage construction materials. 
They also provide excellent concealment 
against enemy air and ground observation. Co- 
niferous (cone-bearing trees) provide better 
protection from wind and better insulation ma- 
terial and firewood than deciduous forests. Pine 
and spruce forests, normally found on well 
drained soil , offer the best har datand for 
shelter. 

&. Tracks are visible in both sun ner and 
winter. On dry ^ound, however, tuey nor- 
mally are not as noticeable as on wet soil. Con- 
sideration should be given to building dummy 
positions for the purpose of misleading the 
enemy (fig. 3-20). Track discipline must be 
rigidly enforced in the bivouac area. Once 
tracks are made, all movement within the 
areas should be restricted to those tracks. 



"float" may be built under the shelter (fig. 
3-21). In the absence of tree trunks, brush 
matting will serve the same purpose, 

b. Areas to be used for extended periods of 
time require draining, clearing of existing 
creeks, digging of ditches around the shelter, 
or preparing a water trench inside the shelter. 




• *" -V ** * 






CCCEPTIVE CAMPSJTf^ 



Bivouac on Marshy Ground 

a. In winter, when the ground is frozen, good 
bivouac sites may be found in areas which 
otherwise would not be usable. Some swampy 
areas may not freeze during the winter, be- 
cause of warm water springs or gases. They 
provide poor facilities for the bivouac site. If 
it becomes necessary to establish the bivouac 
on swampy ground, flooring for shelters must 
be constructed. If tree trunks are available, a 



Figure 3-20. Selection of routi when entering bivouac 

in forest. 



_- ^- 



J- 




^'f^ --*"-- 



^ 



:^ --"^ --.-^■■^ ^^'Tr^^--- 



w^ 



Figure 3-21. "Float" under shelter. 

3-48. Bivouac in Open Terrain and on Ice 

a. Due to strong winds, drifting snow, and 
poor concealment, bivouac areas in the barren 
tundra must be carefully chosen. 

h. Tents should be pitched where they can 
be sheltered by natural windbreaks whenever 
possible. The windbreak may consist of de- 
pressions in the ground or pressure ridges on 
the ice. A visual inspection will indicate the 
degree of drifting, direction of the prevailing 
wind, and more suitable protected areas for 
locating the shelters. In areas where natural 
windfalls do not exist, snow walls may be con- 
structed to provide protection from winds and 



AGO SUIA 



51 



enemy small arms fire, as well as concealment 
from ground ob3ervation. In open areas with 
high winds, snow gathers rapidly on the lee 
side, making it necessary to clear the sides 
and tops of the tents periodicaUy to prevent 
the weight of the drifting snow from collaps- 
ing the tent The entrance to the shelter should 
face downwind from the prevailing wind. 
This will prevent the snow from blocking the 
exit and cutting off the ventilation. 

c. When the tent is pitched on ice, holes 
are chopped where the tent pins are normally 
set. "Deadmen" are inserted in the holes at 
right angles to the tent The holes are then 
packed with snow or filled with water and left 
to freeze. 

3-49. Bivouacs in Mountains 

a.. Mountainous terrain is characterized by 
strong turbulent winds, cold and general lack 
of concealment above the timberline. The 
wind overhead creates an extensive lee near 
the mountain. The overhead lee resembles the 
dry space behind waterfalls caused by water 
having such speed that it shoots over the edge 
of the cliff and descends in a curve. An inland 
wind blowing 50 miles an hour (43 kts) may 
not strike the ground for several kilometers 
after passing the edge of a cliff or a very steep 
slope. While such a lee is an attractive bivouac 
site from the standpoint of wind protection it 
should be noted that such a lee area is often 
an area of maximum snow deposit. The re- 
quirement to constantly dig out vehicles, walk- 
ways, and weapons positions may offset the 
windfree advantages of a lee site during snow- 
fall or snowblowing weather. 

b. Cold air is heavier and frequently settles 
in valleys. The point where the temperature 
starts changing is low in summer and higher 
and more noticeable in winter. Therefore, in 
some instances it is better to establish a biv- 
ouac up the hillside above the valley floor and 
below the timberline, where applicable. Ava- 
lanche hazard areas must be carefully avoided. 

3-50. Estoblishing Bivouac 

a. General. Setting up a bivouac is a routine 
based on SOP which enables the commander 
to control the bivouac area, have it always 



protected, camouflaged, and the personne 
ready to fight Only the minimum amount oi 
time should be devoted to pitching and striking 
the shelters and to general housekeeping 
Bivouacking in a routine manner allows mort 
time for daily movement, establishing an ef 
fective security system, and defense of tht 
bivouac site. Finally, it allows more time foi 
rest and to make preparations for the continu 
ation of the operation. 

6. Responsibilities of Unit Leader. On en 
tering the bivouac site, the unit leader is re 
sponsible for — 

(1) Posting a security guard. 

(2) Checking the bivouac site. 

(3) Determining exact tent locations pro- 
viding the best natural shelter anc 
camouflage. 

(4) Designating an area from which con- 
struction material and firewood wil! 
be obtained. 

(5) Selection of a water point, or mark- 
ing off the snow area to be utilized 
for water. 

(6) Designating latrine and garbage dis- 
posal sites- 

(7) Designating a site for weapon and 
ski racks. Temporary placement for 
weapons and equipment must be ar- 
ranged until the bivouac has been es- 
tablished. 

(8) Breaking a minimum number of 
trails between the tent site and ares 
assigned for firewood and construc- 
tion material, water point, and la- 
trine. 

(9) Maintaining camouflage and traclc 
discipline at all times. 

(10) Organization and assignments for 
the work details as follows: 

(a) Clearing and leveling the shelter 
sites. In winter the snow is dug to 
the ground level or in an emer- 
gency, packed down by trampling 
with skis, snowshoes, or tracked 
vehicles. 

(&) Pitching tents (when used). 

(c) Cutting, trimming, and hauling 



53 



AGO aS41A 



trees and boughs for conatruction 
of improvised shelters and boug-h 
beds (when tents are not avail- 
able) . 

(d) Construction of improvised shel- 
ters best suited to the area con- 
cerned. 

(e) Construction of windbreaks, if 
necessary, 

(/) Building necessary weapon and ski 
racks. Special care must be given 
to the protection of the weapons 
from the elements. 

(g) Construction of field latrines and 
garbage disposal sites. 

(h) Preparing a water point. 

(i) Gathering and cutting a supply of 
firewood. 

<7) During cold weather, situation per- 
mitting, starting fires and prepar- 
ing hot drinks for all individuals. 

{k) Upon completion of shelter con- 
struction, starting a warm meal 

(11) Maintaining and emphasizing clean- 
liness, tidiness, and teamwork. 

(12) Upon completion of the bivouac, ar- 
ranging equipment within the out- 
side of shelters. 

(13) Preparing defensive positions and 
breaking and marking a trail from 
the shelters to the positions. 

(14) Maintaining a duty roster for ex- 
terior guards, fire guards, and similar 
assignments. 

(15) Rotating individuals on all jobs on a 
daily basis. 

(16) Assigning specific sleeping areas for 
all individuals in accordance with 
the duty roster. 

(17) Upon establishing the bivouac, re- 
moving the exterior guard in case the 
parent unit has taken over the secu- 
rity of the area. 

(18) Inspecting the area, examining the 
security, camouflage, cover, weapons, 
skis, sleds, vehicles (if applicable), 
and the conditions of the men and 
their equipment. 



(19) 



(20) 



Outlining and rehearsing the action 
to be taken in the event of attack. 

Assuring that necessary safety pre- 
cautions are taken to eliminate or 

control any hazards that could result 
in unnecessary accidental loss of men 
and their equipment. 



3-5 T. 



Shelter Discipline 

a. When a shelter is finished, the first man 
entering it will arrange all equipment in the 
proper place. The stove, water can, firewood, 
tools, and rations are placed in the most con- 
venient place by the door of the tent In a 
snow shelter, a special storeroom may be dug 
for these items. 

5. In low temperatures, weapons should be 
left outside on improvised weapon racks in 
order to avoid condensation. However, as a 
word of caution commanders must insure 
that weapons left outside are properly secured, 
e.g., providing security guards or securing the 
weapons in an unheated shelter. When cold 
weapons are taken into heated shelters, con- 
densation will form as the warm air comes in 

contact with cold metal. This "sweating" will 

continue for about one hour. If weapons are 
brought into a warm shelter they should be 
placed at floor level away from direct heat to 
minimize condensation. To avoid freezing of 
moving parts, moisture must be removed and 
Lubrication Oil, Weapon (LOW) applied to 
the weapon before it ia taken outside. If the 
situation requires that weapons be taken in- 
side and later outside before they can be dried, 
the working parts must be hand operated until 
the moisture is frozen and there is no danger 
of parts freezing together, 

c. Before entering the shelter, hoarfrost 
and snow must be brushed off clothing and 
equipment. This keeps the clothing dry and 
the shelter clean. 

d. To live comfortably in a shelter is not an 
easy art. Individuals usually are crowded and 
must keep their equipment orderly and out of 
the way of other occupants of the shelter. Un- 
necessary running in and out of the shelter 
should be avoided whenever possible. 

e. The use of fire and lights in the shelter 



AGO Se41A 



53 



must be carefully supervised. Security, fuel 
economy, and the prevention of fire and 
asphyxiation are essential. When wood is 
available, it is burned in the stoves in place of 
gasoline- Lamps must be extinguished before 
retiring for the night All lamps and cooking 
stoves must be filled and lighted outdoors. A 
stand or bracket should be made for the lamps 
or candles and they should be placed where 
they are least likely to be knocked over. Sparks 
on the tent or lean-to must be extinguished at 
once. Smoking while in the sleeping bag is 
not permitted. 

/. As many tasks as possible should be ac- 
complished before retiring in order to con- 
serve time in the morning. All eating utensils 
should be cleaned, snow melted, canteens or 
thermos bottles filled, and all weapons should 
be checked. 

g. Upon breaking the bivouac in the morn- 
ing all personal equipment should be rolled, 
warm drinks and breakfast should be con- 
sumed, and last-minute details accomplished 
prior to resuming the march. 

3-52. Heat Discipline and Fire Prevention 

Heat discipline presents a paramount prob- 
lem during periods of extreme cold. 

a. Overheating the shelter is very common 
and can and should be avoided. It causes sweat- 
ing of individuals and increases the fire 
hazard. 

h. There are many ways to save fuel. Cook- 
ing and heating may be combined- The melting 
of snow and ice uses large amounts of fuel 
and should be avoided when water from other 
sources is available. In cooking, liquid fuel is 
used sparingly. Wood should be burned when 
available. In extreme cold it may be necessary 
to keep the fire burning throughout the night 
in order to keep the men warm, especially 
when living in temporary shelters which pro- 
vide little heat. The drying of wet clothing 
and the providing of hot drinks for combat 
reliefs are also necessary throughout the night- 

c. Fire prevention during both summer and 
winter seasons is extremely important- The 
combination of low humidity and the drying 



effect of continuously heated shelters is con- 
ducive to fire. Shifts in wind and the accumu- 
lation of frost or soot in the stovepipe lead to 
backfiring of flaming fuel into the shelter. The 
excessive spilling of fuel containers, lamps, 
and candles create additional hazards. The 
stamping of feet to shake off snow or frost 
may cause stoves and small heating units to 
spill and spread fire. The strict enforcement 
of all regulations is necessary in order to avoid 
fire hazards. No set rules can be given for 
each occasion. Commonsense in the handling 
of all kinds of fires, fuels, and flammable ma- 
terials is essential ; alert, wide-awake fire 
guards must be on duty in each shelter at all 
times when men are sleeping and a fire is 
burning- Applicable technical manuals should 
be consulted prior to operating tent stoves, 
cooking stoves or gasoline lanterns. 

d. A base made from green logs must be 
placed under the stove if the snow has not 
been shoveled away from the tent site. Fire 
reflectors may be used not only to get more 
warmth, but also to keep the fire burning 
evenly and to help avoid sparks. 

e. Care must be exercised when lighting the 
gasoline-type stove; it may flare up and either 
damage the tent or set it on fire. All stovepipes 
must be cleaned frequently. When using wood 
as fuel, cleaning must be done every day in 
order to maintain a good draft and avoid fires 
in the stovepipes. Stoves burning petroleum 
fuels tend to accumulate more soot when op- 
erated at low settings because of cooler pipe 
temperatures. It is better to turn the stove off 
in mild weather than to run it at low settings. 
Detailed instructions for operating stoves are 
covered in TM 10-735 (Yukon stove) and TM 
10-725 (Stove M1941). Precautions against 
forest and ground fires in summertime are ex- 
tremely important. Coniferous forests are 
highly inflammable during the summer season. 
Ground fires can burn for months in muskeg 
and are extremely hard to to put out. A 
fire ditch is always dug before lighting fire. 
A base of green wood, gravel, or rocks must 
be used under the fire ; the fire must be made 
on high ground when the forest is dry. Be- 
fore leaving the campsite, individuals must 
always be sure that the fire is completely out. 



54 



AGO 3M1A 



3-53. Drying Clothes 

a. Keeping dry is important in low tem- 
perature. At times it is impossible to avoid 
sweating'. The drying of clothes and footgear 
ia therefore a necessity. Every opportunity 
must be used by each individual to dry his 
clothing. 

b. When drying outside using an open fire, 
ciothea should not be placed downwind from 
the fire, due to the sparks and smoke, Clothes 
hung for drying should be frequently checked 
and not left unattended. Clothing should never 
be placed too close to the fire or stove in the 
shelter. Leather items are extremely vulner- 
able to extreme heat. Clothing being dried in 
the shelter is placed on drying lines. 

c. The use of a "Christmas Tree" (ftg, 
3-22) for drying in the shelter is handy when 
operating in a wooded area. Branches are cut 
off a dry or green, tree which is then made to 
stand up in the shelter next to the center pole 
so that it is in the air current. This offers an 
excellent place for drying heavy items such as 
boots and parkas. The Tent, 10-Man, Arctic, is 
also equipped with strong hooks at the inside 
peak for suspending lighter weight clothing 
for drying. 



where hia relief is sleeping. Therefore, the 
floorspace is occupied by the individuals in ac- 
cordance with the duty roster. The number 
one man sleeps next to the door, number two 
man towards the rear. In this manner, start- 
ing from the door, the relief is easily located 
wi*->inuf: wnking ud all occupants. The syste- 
matic sleeping arrangement will also permit 
exit from the tent in an organized manner in 
case of alert. 

b. Ground insulation is most important- 
Often the occupants may have to improvise in- 
sulation using all available material. Pack- 
boards, snowshoes, man-hauled sleds, and 
empty cartons may be used. In timbered areas 
evergreen boughs are especially suitable. On 
the tundra, dry lichen, grass, or shrubs pro- 
vide effective insulating material. To make a 
bough bed, one single bed is constructed for 
al! ; the size varies with the number of persons. 
For improvised shelters, logs approximately 8 
cm {3") in diameter are pegged or fitted around 
the bough or grass bed. This helps to keep the 
boughs in place. If material and time permit, a 
15 to 30 cm (6" to 12") thick shingled bed made 
from spruce, fir, or balsam boughs (fig. 3-23) 
gives excellent insulation and provides a soft 
mattress. 



KU. rCNT. TELEKOnC 



TDfTCUirM 



«1«MV>W5 




Figure 3-2S. "Christmas Tree" for drying clothing. 

3-54. Sleeping Arrangements in Bivouac 

a. When arranging the sleeping procedures 
in a tent or improvised shelter, the position 
of every man, especially the position of reliefs 
for sentries, is planned. Each man must know 




Figure 3-2S, Building bough bed, 

c. The tactical situation dicates whether or 
not sleeping bags are used. The amount of 
clothing to be worn when sleeping on a bough 
bed or in the sleeping bag can be best judged 
by experience and will depend on temperature 
and the tactical situation. As a minimum, 
outer clothing is usually removed when the 
sleeping bag is used. The removed clothing is 
placed beneath the individual for additional 



AGO M41A 



55 



insulation and instant availability. In an emer- 
gency it may be necessary to dress in the dark. 
In the morning aH ice and froat is removed 
and the bag ventilated before roiling it up. 
Time permitting, it is hung up by the strings 
and thoroughly dried. 

d. When sleeping in a heated tent without 
a sleeping bag, boots are usually removed, sit- 
uation permitting. The parka is used like a 
blanket. The rucksack makes a good pillow. 
The clothing is always loosened. 

3-35. Water Points and Snow Area 
Locations 

During the winter it may be necessary to 
obtain water by melting snow or ice. When 
such a source ia utilized for drinking purposes, 
an area should be set aside and restricted to 
Uiis purpose only, A preferable site is one up- 
wind from the bivouac and isolated from the 
latrine and garbage disposal areas. If such an 
area is not available, then snow should be 
gathered from the branches of trees or lightly 
skimmed from a carefully isolated area adja- 
cent to the individual shelters. Water obtained 
in this manner must be boiled for one minute 
or chemically treated. Chemical sterilization of 
water under freezing conditions requires a 
longer period because the disinfecting com- 
pounds act with retarded efficiency under such 
conditions. The time allotted for contact with 
purification tablets should be two to four times 
the normal period of one-half hour. Eating ice 
or snow is unsatisfactory and may result in 
injury to lips or tongue. Contamination may 
also be a hazard. If no other water source is 
available, as in a survival situation, snow can 
be eaten but it must first be brought to the 
melting point by holding it in the bare hand. 
It may then be eaten slowly and in small 
amounts. This is best done during periods of 
temporary heat excess, as during marching, or 
while in the sleeping bag. The risk of frostbite 
to the hand must be considered and balanced 
against the need for fluids. Should some water 
be available in an uninsulated canteen during 
a survival situation, this should be warmed 
under the clothing or in the sleeping bag. Then 
snow may be added to the canteen after each 
drink to replace the water consumed. Body 
heat stored in the slightly warmed water will 



36 



thus melt the snow with less risk of cold injun 
to hands or lips. A glass bottle or plastic baj 
can be used in place of an uninsulated canteen 

3—56. Bough and Firewood Areas 

The areas for cutting boughs and firewooc 
should be immediately designated when a biv 
ouac site is selected. 

a. Bough Area. The area for cutting bough; 
for bedding as well as for construction of im- 
provised shelters should be common to all in- 
dividuals of the group. It is selected in a dens* 
area of woods in which springy, unfrozen 
boughs are available, and should not be toe 
close to the bivouac site. It is advisable to use 
sleds in hauling material to the shelter site. 
Due to the camouflage and track discipline, 
only one well-concealed trail is used. When 
cutting boughs, the unnecessary felling of 
trees should be avoided because trees lying on 
the ground can be easily observed from the 
air. Instead of felling trees, only the lower 
branches should be used. 

6. Firewood Area. It is advisable to have the 
firewood area nearby the area designated for 
bough cutting so that the same track can be 
used. Dry, dead pine trees make the best fire- 
wood. If no dead trees are available, green 
birch trees may be chopped; they possess ex- 
cellent burning qualities even when frozen. 
The top parts of dead trees should be burned 
during the daytime, as they give off lighter 
colored smoke. The lower part of the trunk 
has more resin and tar, and burns better, but 
makes more and much darker smoke. 

3—57. Storage 

Storage problems in winter are increased by 
snow, low temperatures, thaws, limited stor- 
age space, and the increased problems of trans- 
portation. Space in any shelter is limited. Only 
items which are affected by cold, or which 
must be immediately available, should be 
stored inside. All other stores must be con- 
centrated, well marked, covered, and left out- 
side. On the other hand, some perishables 
which are difficult to preserve in summer may 
be kept during the winter months in a natural 
"deepfreeze" over an extended period of time. 
In areas where permafrost exists, a hole can 

AGO SS41A 



be dug or blasted out and then covered with 
insulating material, such as boughs. A con- 
atant low temperature can thus be maintained. 

a. Rifle Stand and Hanging of Weapons. In 
wooded terrain a weapon rack may be built 
from poles placed in a horizontal position and 
covered with boughs (fig. 3-24). When boughs 
are not available, various other materials such 



as empty cardboard boxes, tent or sled covers, 
waterproof bags or ponchos can be utilized to 
protect the weapons from rain, dust, and fall- 
ing or drifting snow. When weapons are hung 
outside on stacked skia, or suspended above 
the snow in some other manner, they are hung 
with the muzzle down to keep falling or blow- 
ing snow out of the barrel and working parts. 




-/^^-^li-^^cSi 



Figure 3-ii. RifU and ski stand. 



b. Ski Racks and Stacking of Skis. Care of 
skis in the field is highly important because 
unit and individual mobility depends upon 
them. If left lying on the snow in the bivouac 
area^ the bindings and running surfaces will 
freeze and render the skis unusable for a long 
period of time, or they may be entirely lost 
under drifting snow. Therefore, the skis and 
ski poles are placed on an improvised ski rack 
made of one or two long poles which have 



been secured between two growing trees in 
horizontal position (fig. 3-24). In open areas, 
skis are simply stuck upright or stacked in 
the snow as described in appendix C. 

c. Sleds. Sleds are placed on their sides or 
on end outside. If loaded sleds are left on the 
snow, sticks, poles, or branches are laid under 
the runners to prevent them from freezing to 
the snow- Heavy cargo sleds, 1-ton or larger, 
must be placed on top of heavy poles or logs 



TACO SS41A 



57 





ROPE OR WIRE 



50-60cm 



Figure 3-25. Field latrine in the forest. 



due to the fact that sled runners remain hot 
after extensive usage and tend to settle into 
the snow and become frozen, making move- 
ment of the sled difficult the following day. 

d. Vehicles. Vehicles are driven under a big 
tree or in lee of a shelter or snowdrift. Ve- 
hicles should be parked so the least amount of 
snow can get into the engines and parked on 
brush, logs, dry ground, or other surfaces not 
liable to thaw from heat of tires and tracks 
and refreeze. 

e. A-nvmunition and Ficel. Ammunition and 
fuel are stored separately outside. Ammuni- 
tion boxes should be stacked off the groang in 
a dry place and covered with canvas or boughs. 
In order to locate stacks if snow-covered, a 
pole should be erected near them. Boughs or 
poles are placed under fuel containers to pre- 
vent them from freezing to the snow. 

3-58. Field Sanitation 

a. Waste Disposal, Field sanitation in the 



colder regions is based on the same principles 
as in temperate climates. The extremes in cli- 
mate and weather, however, make the problem 
more acute. The wastes that present constant 
and real problems are human excreta, gar- 
bage, and trash. 

(1) In bivouac areas, pit or "cross-tree" 
type latrines are used for the disposal 
of human waste (fig. 3-25). One la- 
trine will usually serve the needs of 
individuals occupying 3 to 4 shelters, 
or a unit of platoon size. The latrine 
is placed downwind from the bivouac, 
but not 30 far from the shelters as 
to encourage invididuals to break 
sanitary discipline. Ration boxes or 
similar material should be used to 
collect waste. A urinal, designated for 
each shelter, should be located within 
4 to 5 meters (4 to 5 yards) of the 
shelter. A windbreak of boughs, tar- 
paulins, ponchos, or snow wall should 



58 



AGO 3S41A 



be constructed to protect the latrine 
from the wind. 

(2) When breaking bivouac, the human 
waste that has accumulated in the 
latrine will be burned or buried. All 
closed latrine sites, tactical situation 

permitting, will be clearly marked. 

h. Trash and Garbage Disposal. 

(1) In winter the edible portion of food 
waste may be collected in receptacles 
and disposed of by burial in the snow 
at a safe distance from the bivouac. 
Every effort should be made to burn 
the bulk of the trash and garbage. 
During seasons and in locations 
where bears are found, all edible 
garbage should be burned to avoid 
attracting bears to campsites. 



(2) 



(3) 



All trash and garbage dumps should 
be marked with appropriate signs to 
warn troops who might occupy these 
disposal sites at a later time. 

Strict camouflage of all trash and 
garbage is essential. Dark trash on 
the white snow is easily seen from 
the air. Glittering tin cans or bottles 
may be seen by the enemy. Trash 
and garbage should be placed under 
any available cover and camouflaged 
with snow, branches, or other ma- 
terials. 

c. Rats and Mice. Rats and mice will be 
found in most of the habitable cold regions 
of the earth. They are a definite menace to 
health and property and should be kept under 
strict control. Rat poisons or traps should be 
used when available. 



AGO 8641A 



59 



CHAPTER 4 



SKIING AND SNOWSHOEiNG 



Section I. INTRODUCTION 



a. 



4-T. Purpose and Scope 

a. The purpose of this chapter is to provide 
information concerning— 

(1) Techniques used in military skiing 
and snowshoeing. 

(2) Application of these techniques to fa- 
cilitate the oversnow mobility of 
troops engaged in military operations. 

b. This chapter also describes — 

(1) Equipment available for military ski- 
ing and snowshoeing. 

(2) Maintenance and care of that equip- 
ment, 

4-2. General Considerations 

The Need for IndimduaX Mobility. 

(1) Warfare in snow-covered areas re- 
qu ires oversnow mobility off the 
roads. Well-trained ski and snowshoe 
troops are a definite asset on the 
snow-covered battlefield. In deep snow 
(61 cm {2') or greater in depth) the 
individual has almost no mobility 
without the aid of skis or snowshoes. 
Troops on skis attain mobility, are not 
roadbound, and are able to move cross- 
country over all types of snow- 
covered terrain. They are ideally 
suited for reconnaissance, security 
missions, and deep penetration patrols 
conducting unconventional type op- 
erations. Aggressive action can be 
carried out with advantage against 
the enemy flanks, rear, or communi- 
cation lines by lightly equipped, fast- 
moving troops on skis. 

(2) Deep snow hinders movement on foot. 



By using snowshoes, individual mo- 
bility will be restored to a point ap- 
proximately equal to that of foot 
movement on hard ground. Skis, on 
the other hand, provide individual mo- 
bility usually exceeding that possible 
on foot. 

b. Need for Certain Techniques. 

(1) During cross-country marches and in 
combat the soldier on skis or snow- 
shoes will be required to negotiate 
various types of terrain conditions. 
He will be moving and operating in 
different weather and snow condi- 
tions. Carrying a rucksack and a wea- 
pon, he will be required to move in 
forests, over open terrain, uphill and 
downhill, and often while pulling a 
sled. 

(2) In order to execute his mission with 
the least wasted effort, the soldier 
must appiy the proper techniques of 
skiing and snowshoeing required for 
the various conditions under which 
he will operate. 

c. Use of OversTiow Equipment to Achieve 
Mo bility. 

(1) The means available to the individual 
soldier for obtaining oversnow mo- 
bility are skis and snowshoes. When 

operating in snow-covered terrain the 
soldier must be equipped with either 
skis or snowshoes at all times. Using 
skis, he is normally abie to execute 
[ong marches with less effort and in 
less time than when using snowshoes. 
Cross-country movement by soidiera 
on skis can be facilitated by towing 



60 



AGO SMI A 



(2) 



the akiera with tracked vehicles or 
animals (skijoring)- Snowshoea are 
more suitable than skis in confined 
areas, when working cloae to heavy 
weapona, or when training time ia 
limited. 

Ratea of movement over anew-covered 
terrain cannot be given in exact time 
requirements- They vary in each situ- 
ation. However, as a guide, the fol- 
lowing rates are listed- Rates are 
given for movement over flat or 



gently rolling: terrain while individu- 
als are carrying a rifle and loaded 
rucksack. 



Unbroi^en tmii BToktnt traii 



On foot (less than 30cni 1-2 mph 

<V) of snow)- 

On foot ('over Mem {!') 'i-^ mph 

of snow)- 

Snowshoeing 1-2 mpo 

Skiing L-3V2 mph 

Skijoring N/A 



lH-2 mph 

lH-2 mph 

2-2',^ mph 
3-314 mph 
5-15 mph 
(depending 
on terrain) 



Section II. SNOW AND TERRAiN 



4—3. Snow Composition 

Snowflakea are formed from water vapor, 
at or below 32*' F., without passing through 
the liquid water state. Newly fallen anew 
undergoes many alterations on the ground. As 
the snowmass on the ground packs and be- 
comes denser, the snowflakes consolidate and 
the entrapped air is expelled. These changes 
are caused by effects of temperature, humidity, 
sunlight and wind. 

a. Temperature. In general^ the lower the 
temperature, the drier the snow and the less 
consolidation. As the temperature rises, the 
snow tends to compact more readily. Tempera- 
tures above freezing cause wet snow condi- 
tions. Lowered night tempratures may re- 
freeze wet snow and form an icy crust on the 
surface. 

b. Sunlight. In the springtime, sunlight may 
melt the surface of the snow even though the 
air temperature is below freezing. When this 
occurs, dry powder snow is generally found 
in shaded areas and wet snow in sunlight 
areas. Movement from sunlit areas into shaded 
areas is difficult because the wet snow will 
freeze to skis and snowshoes. After sunset, 
however, wet snow usually refreezes and the 
ease of movement improves. 

c. Wind, Wind packs snow solidly. Wind- 
packed snow may become so hard that skiing 
or even walking on it makes no appreciable 
impression on its surface. Warm wind followed 
by freezing temperatures may create an icy, 
unbreakable crust on the snow. Under such 
conditions, skiing and snowshoeing are very 



difficult. Another effect of wind is that of 
drifting the snow. The higher the wind ve- 
locity and the lighter the snow, the greater 
the tendency to drift. All troop movement is 
greatly affected by drifting snow and wind, 
the effect depending on the relative direction 
and velocity. In addition, as the wind, in- 
creases, the effect of extreme cold (windchill 
effect) on the body may slow down or tempo- 
rarily stop movement, possibly requiring troops 
to take shelter. The snowdrifts created by wind 
usually make the snow surface wavy, glowing 
down movement, especially in darkness. 

4-4. Snow Characteristics 

The characteristics of snow which are of 
greatest interest to the soldier are — 

a. Carrying Capacity. Generally, when the 
snow is packed hard, carrying capacity is 
greater and movement is easier. Although the 
carrying capacity of ice crust may be excellent, 
movement generally is difficult because of its 
slippery surface, 

h. Sliding Characteristics, All-important to 
the skier are the sliding characteristics of 
snow. They vary greatly in different types of 
snow and temperature variations and material- 
ly increase or decrease the movement of the 
skier, according to the conditions that exist. 

c. Holding Capacity. The holding capacity 
of snow is its ability to act upon ski wax in 
such a way that backslipping of the skis is 
prevented without impairing the forward slid- 
ing capability. Holding capacity changes great- 
ly with different types of snow, making it 



AGO 8G41A 



61 



necessary to have a variety of 3ki waxes avail- 
able. 

4-5. Effects of Snow and Terrain on 
Individual Movement 

a. Skis or anowahoea are usually employed 
in military operations when the depth of snow 
is 30 cm (1') or more. This equipment is 
needed in deep snow conditions to provide the 
necessary oversnow mobiUty of the individual 
and the maneuverability of troops. 

b. Snow cover, together with the freezing" 
of waterways and swampy areas, changes the 
terrain noticeably. Generally, the anow covers 
minor irregularities of the ground. Many ob- 
stacles auch as rocka, ditchea, and fences are 
eliminated or reduced. Lakes, streams, and 
muskeg, impassable during the summer, often 
afford the best routes of travel in the winter 
when they are frozen and anowcovered. Dur- 
ing breakup periods this advantage is reduced, 
since the snow becomes aluahy and the carry- 
ing capacity is poor. Even ao, skiing or anow- 
shoeing, although slow, is often the only prac- 
tical way to move during this period. The 
drop in temperature at night will still freeze 
the snow surface, creating a good route for a 
akier or snowahoer during the night and early 
morning, 

c. The effects of snow and terrain on indi- 
vidual movement vary in different areas. 

(1) The arctic tundra and vast subarctic 
plateaus are similar. They are char- 
acterized by large plains and gently 
rolling terrain with scant vegetation 
where rocky ridges, scattered rock 
outcropping s, riverbanks, and 
scrubby brush still create obstacles to 
individual movement, when encoun- 
tered. The shallow anow cover nor- 



mally found in these areas, as a rule, 
ia firmly packed by wind action and 
will usually support a man on foot. 
When the snow has not been wind 
packed an^ is still soft, mobility will 
be increase^ by the use of skis or 
snowshoes. 

(2) Forested areas include vast conifer- 
ous forests, dense brush, swamps, and 
numerous lakes and rivers. Skiing 
and snowshoeing are relatively easy 
on frozen, snow-covered rivers, lakes, 
and swamps. In wooded areas conceal- 
ment is best, but movement is ham- 
pered by vegetation and soft snow, 
therefore, greater skill is required in 
skiing to avoid trees and other obsta- 
cles. These disadvantages are reduced 
by careful selection of the best routes 
and following proper trailbreaking 
procedures. Woods retard the melting 
of anow in spring often allowing ski- 
ing after the open fields are clear of 
snow. In autumn, the situation ia re- 
versed; the deeper snow is generally 
found in the open fields allowing 
skiing earlier than in wooded areas, 

(3) Mountains present special problems. 
Their varied and steep terrain place 
additional demands upon the skill of 
a skier and make movement on snow- 
shoes or skis very difficult Slopes 
which are easy to negotiate in sum- 
mer often become difficult and dang- 
erous to cross in winter because of 
deep snow cover which is prone to 
avalanche. Large drifts and snow 
cornices present other obstacles and 
dangers. Snow cover on glaciers ob- 
scures crevasses and makes their 
crossing hazardous (FM 31-72). 



Section III. MILITARY SKIING 



Advantages and Disadvantages 

a. Advantages, 

(1) In 3nowH2overed terrain the weakest 
and the most vulnerable points of the 
enemy are usually the open flanks, 
rear areas, and the lines of communi- 
cation. Attacking, defending, or de- 



(2) 



laying troops require a high degree 
of oversnow, cross-country mobility 
to reach these objectives. Units on 
skis are the most suitable troops to 
be used for surprise attack on distant 
objectives. 

A trained individual or a unit on skis 



63 



AGO S441A 



can execute cross-country marches on 
roadless, variable, and snow-covered 
terrain more efficiently and quickly 
than on snowshoes or on foot. 

(3) Skiing over snow-covered terrain by 
properly trained troops is compara- 
tively leas tiring than marching on 
snowshoes or on foot. Sliding char- 
acteristics obtained by the skier in- 
crease speed, mobility, and rate of 

march. 

(4) Due to increased weight hearing sur- 
face, a skier or a unit on skis is able 
to cross frozen lakes and rivers when 
the ice will not support a man on 

foot. 

(5) The use of oversnow vehicles and 
other suitable means of towing troops 
further increases their mobility. 

b. Disadvantages. 

(1) Individuals require a considerable 
amount of training before becoming 
proficient in the use of skis for mil- 
itary purposes. 

(2) Certain terrain features, such as very 
dense brush and windfall areas, ma- 
terially decrease the rate of march 
of a ski unit. 

(3) Skis often require rewaxing for 
changing snow conditions, which 
consumes time. Skis also do not pro- 
vide good traction regardless of wax 
used, for pulling loads. 

4-7. Training Objectives 

a. General Considerations, A soldier on skis 
must be capable of moving under control across 
diversified, snow-covered terrain while carry- 
ing the arms and equipment necessary for 
tactical operations. Since skis are often the 
most efficient means of transportation in 
winter warfare, the soldier should be so skilled 
in their use that skiing becomes a natural 
method of movement. Since the skiing soldier 
will utilize his skis for the greater portion of 
movement over snow-covered terrain, it is im- 
portant that he acquire good skiing technique 
in order to be able to move anywhere required 
both quickly and with the least expenditure of 
energy. The soldier must develop these tech- 



niques so that his movement either uphill or 
downhill will not delay the movement of his 
unit. When operating in mountainous areas, 
the soldier must possess efficiency in both basic 
and advanced military ski techniques in order 
to move easily and safely over steep and rough 
terrain; the soldier must possess endurance 
and must be in top physical condition. 

&, Training Time Required. To walk on 
snowshoes, one day of instruction is generally 
sufficient. However, several days use of snow- 
shoes during normal training will rapidly in- 
crease proficiency. In a period of 2 weeks a 
soldier can be taught enough ski techniques 
to enable him as an Individual to negotiate 
flat or rolling terrain with greater speed than 
if he were on foot or snowshoes, but he will 
not yet be able to operate effectively as a com- 
bat skier within a unit. At least 8 weeks of 
intensive training are needed in order to be- 
come a military skier capable of operating pro- 
ficiently in any type of terrain. It should be 
noted that the level of skiing skill developed 
by the soldier during any period of ski in- 
struction is improved by participating in unit 
training which is done on skis. 

4-8. Ski Equipment 

a. Skis. Military skis were formerly issued 
in 198 cm {GW)^ 213 cm (7') and 229 cm 
{IV2) lengths. The standard issue ski is now 
213 cm long (7') ; however, until stocks are 
depleted the other length skis may be issued 
in lieu of the standard ski. The standard skis 
are of laminated wood construction with 
hickory tops and running surfaces. They are 
all terrain cross-country skis with steel edges 
(fig. 4-1). The metal edges give better grip- 
ping action in turns and on icy and hard 
packed snow which results in better control. 
All skis are painted white and have a hole in 
the tip through which a cord can be threaded 
when it is necessary to pull them as ski bundles 
or as an improvised sled. 

b. Ski Binding, All Terrain. The binding 
consists of a toeplate, toe straps, soleplate, heel 
cup, quick-release fasteners and mounting 
hardware (fig. 4-2). The toeplate is aluminum; 
the toe strap and heel cup are made of white 
rubber and three plies of dacron, the soleplate 
is made of fiberglas. This binding will accom- 



ACO 3M1A 



63 




Figure i-l. SIci, military, all terraijt. 

modate all types of cold weather footgear and is 
easily put on and removed. The soleplate is 
flexible and allows free vertical movement of 
the heel which assists normal foot movement. 

c. Ski Poles. Nonadjustable tubular steel 
poles, 130 (51"), 137 (54") and 147 cm (58") 
in length, are the standard item of issue, how- 
ever, the adjustable ski pole is being used until 



stocks are depleted. Figure 4-3 illustrates the 
different parts of the ski pole. In an emer- 
gency, the poles can also be used for tent poles 
markers^ or in the construction of emergency 
litters. 

rf. Ski Repair Kit and Emergency Ski Tip, 
This kit contains pliers, screwdriver, screws, 
wire, driil, strips of steel edging, and leather 
thongs for use in emergency repair of skis, 
poles or bindings while in the field. An emer- 
gency ski tip is also available. This can be 
used to repair or replace broken ski tips and 
allow the individual to continue the march un- 
til replacement skis can be obtained. Ski repair 
kits and emergency ski tips are usually issued 
to units and are not intended for individual 
issue. One ski repair kit per rifle platoon and 
one emergency ski tip per squad is usually 
sufficient. 

e. Ski Waxes. Ski wax is used to obtain the 
sliding and climbing characteristics necessary 
for efficient military skiing. The waxing of 
skis is covered in paragraph 4-10. 

/. Ski Climbers. Climbers are strips of can- 
vas with mohair secured to the running sur- 
face, which are attached to the bottom of the 
skis by means of straps (iig. 4^). When at- 
tached, the mohair material lies with the ends 
pointing towards the heel of the skis. Forward 
movement of the ski does not disturb the ma- 
terial, thereby allowing the ski to slide. Back- 
ward pressure, however, causes the material 
to become roughened, preventing the skis from 
backslipping. Climbers are used by troops to 
make the climbing of steep slopes faster and 
less tiring, providing the ascent is sufficiently 
long to justify the time required to put them 
on and take them off. They may also be used 
to ^ive more traction while pulling sleds, and 
for descents where sliding is not desired. 



Preparation of Skis 

a. General. Pine tar or ski lacquer is ap- 
plied to the running surface of the skis to fill 
the pores of the wood and to furnish a base so 
that the skis may be properly waxed. They 
are also applied to the running surface of the 
skis to prevent moisture from being absorbed 
by the wood. For military skiing, pine tar is 
preferred as a base. If this is not available, 
ski lacquer is a suitable substitute. They must 



64 



AGO B641A 




Figure 4-2. Ski bindijiffy all terrain. 



wnft strop 




^-hond^rip 



t: 



■bajbst 



potnl' 



Figure 4-3. Ski pole. 

be used separately since they do not mix to- 
gether. 

b. Application of Pine Tar or Ski Lacquer. 

(1) Preparation of ski3. The running sur- 
face must be clean to prepare the skis 
for pine-tarring or lacquering. If the 
ski has been used, the old base and 
wax must be removed. The easiest 
way to accomplish this is to use a 



<2) 



scraper and sandpaper. Caution 
should be exercised to insure that the 
running surface of the ski is not 
damaged. Old wax can also be re- 
moved by the use of steel wool or a 
rag moistened with a high flashpoint 
solvent. Solvent should only be used 
in an adequately ventilated working 
area with no smoking or open flames. 
If conditions are such that these ma- 
terials are not available, heat can be 
used to remove the wax. 

Tarring procedure. After the ski has 
been cleaned, a light coat of pine tar 
is then applied with a soft brush or 
a rag. If the pine tar is stiff, it should 
be heated slightly so it can be evenly 
distributed. Heat is then applied to 
the running surface to cause penetra- 
tion of the pine tar into the pores of 
the wood. The source of heat may be 
a blowtorch (fig, 4^5), one burner 
stove, or an open fire (fig. 4r-6). To 
obtain the best penetration, work 



AGO a641A 



65 




Figure U-U. Attaching sAri climbera. 



progressively on one section at a time 
rather than heating the whole surface 
of the ski. Care must he taken to 
avoid burning or scorching the wood 
hy application of too much heat. It 
may be necessary to repeat this proce- 
dure several times to obtain a suffi- 
cient coating. Excess pine tar is re- 
moved during the heating process by 
means of a rag. When finished, the 
running surface of the ski should be 
dry and not sticky to the touch. 
(3) Lacquering procedure. After the ski 
has been cleaned, the surface is al- 
lowed to dry thoroughly before apply- 
ing the lacquer. The lacquer is ap- 
plied with a clean brush, rag, or 
sponge, starting at the tip and work- 
ing towards the heel using smooth, 
even strokes in a continuous motion. 
None of the lacquered areas should be 
touched until the lacquer is complete- 
ly dry. This requires several hours. 
The application should be made at 



room temperature for best results. At 
least two separate coats should be ap- 
plied, making certain that each one 
is compJetely dry before the next one 
is applied- It is recommended that the 
surface be lightly sanded with fine 
sandpaper or steel wool, between 
coats. Care must be exercised not to 
inhale toxic lacquer fumes. For pro- 
longed or repeated exposure to such 
fumes, an approved respirator should 
be worn. No smoking or open flames 
should be permitted in or around the 
work area and adequate ventilation 
should be provided. 

4-10, Waxing of Skis 

a. General, There are no standard ski waxes 
available in the supply system therefore com- 
mercial waxes must be procured and used. The 
purpose of ski wax is to provide the ski with 
necessary climbing and sliding qualities to pre- 
vent backslip in various snow conditions. When 
snow conditions and temperature change, the 



66 



AGO 364IA 




Figure 4.—S. Heating pine tar with a bloiotoreh. 

type and method of application of ski wax Tvill 
also differ. Before wax can be properly se- 
lected and applied, the individual must learn 
to recognize the different types of snow con- 
ditions. It is also valuable to have some knowl- 
edge of how ski wax performs in relation to 
snow. After snow has fallen on the ground, 
its crystalline structure is continuously altered 
by the effects of temperature, wind, and hu- 
midity. In very cold weather these changes 
occur much more slowly than when tempera- 
ture is near 32" F. Therefore, the most im- 
portant factor of waxing is the effect that 
temperature has on the character of the anow 
and its sliding qualities. 

&, Snow and its Effects on Wax. 

(1) The effects of snow crystals. It is im- 
portant to understand the relation of 



wax to the holding and sliding cap- 
abilities of the snow. For this reason 
there are specific waxes to use in 
cross-country skiing under different 
snow surface conditions. 
(a) Prosper wax. When the soldier is 
skiing on the level, or uphill, his 
body weight gives maximum pres- 
sure to the skis. The soft quality of 
the wax allows the crystal structure 
of the snow to penetrate the wax 
under this pressure and thus keep 
the ski from backsiipping. When 
the pressure is lifted and the ski 
allowed to slide forward, the pene- 
trating snow crystals will slide free 
from the surface of the wax reduc- 
ing friction. Continuous forward 
motion, as in sliding, keeps the 
crystals from penetrating the wax. 
<&) Wax too soft. When the skis slide 
poorly, the following condition gen- 
erally exists: the snow crystals 
have penetrated into the wax but 
will not slide free. This causes clog- 
ging of the snow on the running 
surface and may eventually cause 

ice to form. Under these conditions 
the soldier will find that even vig- 
orous sliding of the ski will not 
break the snow loose from the wax 
surface. Little or no forward slide 
can be gained, 
(c) Wax too hard. When the skis slide 
well, but backslip on the level and 
when moving uphill, the following 
condition exists: the snow crystals 
are not penetrating the wax. The 
soldier will find he has excellent 
sliding when going downhill, but 
climbing uphill or skiing on level 
ground is very exhausting because 
of backslip. This is the primary 
deterrent to the use of "downhill" 
waxes for cross-country skiing. 

(2) Classification of snow. Snow is classi- 
fied here into four general types. This 
classification is intended to assist the 
soldier in snow identification, choice 
of wax, and its proper application 
under these different conditions, 
(a) Wet snow. This type of snow is 



AGO S841A 



67 




Fiffure ^— fi. Heating skis over an typen /lame. 



mostly found during the spring, 
but it may also occur in the fall 
or late winter, particularly in re- 
gions of moderate climate. This 
type of snow can be readily made 
into a heavy, solid snowball. In ex- 
treme conditions, wet snow will be- 
come slushy and contain a maxi- 
mum amount of water. 

(b) Moist 3710W. This type of snow is 
generally associated with early 
winter, but may also occur in mid- 
winter during a sudden warmup 
period. This type of snow can be 
made into a snowball^ but will not 
compress as readily or be as heavy 
as a wet snowball- It will have a 
tendency to fall apart. 

(c) Dry snow. This type of snow is gen- 
erally associated with winter at its 
height, but it can occur in late fall 



as well aa in spring, when abnorm- 
ally low temperatures occur. This 
snow is light and fluffy. It cannot 
be compressed into a snowball un- 
less the snow is made moist by 
holding it in the hand. At extreme- 
ly low temperatures, such as those 
found in the far northern regions, 
this snow is like sand, and has very 
poor sliding qualities. 
(d) New snow. This is snow which is 
still falling or has recently fallen 
on the ground, but has not been 
subject to changes due to the sun 
or temperature variation. It can be 
wet, moist, or dry in nature. 

c. Proper Selection and Application of 
Waxes, Cross-country ski waxes are formulated 
to provide optimum sliding and climbing char- 
acteristics for various types of snow conditions. 
Each type is labeled with appropriate instruc- 



6B 



AGO SUIA 



tions on its intended use, i.e., wet, moiat or 
liry 3now conditions. Since the types of wax 
vary between manufacturers, no particular 
type of wax can be prescribed for each classi- 
fication of snow; however, the instructions on 
each container specifies the weather conditions 
and type of snow where performance of the 
wax is best. Proper application of all waxes 
IS important to achieve desired results whether 
they be traction or sliding action. As a general 
rule, the wax that gives the best sliding sur- 
face for all types of snow provides an excellent 
base for application of other waxes. To pro- 
vide traction, varying amounts, combinations, 
and methods of application of other waxes are 
used. When pulling a sled or carrying a heavy 
load, thicker coats of wax may be required to 
insure traction. 

d. Waxing Procedure. 

(1) Whenever possible, the waxing of 
skis should be done before the march 
when shelter and heat are available, 
aa the running surface of the ski 
should be warm and dry to obtain 
best results. When on the march, ski 
wax should be carried in the pockets, 
if possible, so that body heat will 
keep the wax soft and easy to use, 
K the skis need waxing during the 
march, the running surfaces are 
dried as much aa possible by the use 
of paper or dry mittens. Whenever 
possible, old wax should be removed 
before rewaxing skis particularly 
when a different type of wax is being 
used. Refer to paragraph 4-96(1) for 
proper method for removing old wax. 

(2) To apply, cover the running surface 
with wax. Next, smooth the wax by 
rubbing it with the hand, using the 
heel of the palm or the fingers (fig. 
4-7), a waxing cork, or a heated iron. 
When heat is available, this process 
can be made easier by warming the 
wax that has been applied. It is norm- 
ally beat to work progressively on a 
section at a time, from the ski tip 
towards the heel. If the waxing is 
done in a shelter, or heat is used, the 
skis should be allowed to cool to out- 
side air temperature before being 



used. Do not place the running sur- 
faces of skis on snow immediately 
after waxing if heat is used or if wax- 
ing is done in a heated room or shelter 
as the snow may stick and freeze to 
the running surface. For the same 
reason protect the running surfaces 
against wind driven snow. To insure 
that wax is properly chosen and ap- 
plied, the skis should be tested before 
being used on an extended march. 




Figure U-7. Synoothinj wax with bottom of hand. 

4—1 1. Care of Ski Equipment 

a. General. 

(1) A broken ski or binding may put a 



AGO SUIA 



69 



h. 



soldier at the mercy of the enemy and 
the elements and prevent him from 
accomplishing his mission. If the 
soldier keeps hig akia and equipment 
in good condition, he will find that 
ski marches are easier and less tiring 
and that he will not be the cause of 
any unnecessary delays and halts by 
his unit Care of ski equipment is the 
responsibility of the individual sol- 
dier — he must check it before start- 
ing out on a mission, during breaks, 
and when in bivouac. At least once a 
week the ski equipment should be 
thoroughly checked by unit leaders. 
During combat the inspection must 

be done whenever the situation per- 
mits. 

(2) Skis must be checked for proper base 
of pine tar, evidence of possible warp- 
ing and splitting, loss of camber, de- 
fective edges, and broken steel edge 
sections or screws. At the same time 
bindings must be checked for worn 
straps, missing rivets and screws, and 
proper adjustment Ski poles should 
be checked to insure that wrist straps, 
handgrips, baskets, and points are 
firmly fastened and that no breakage 
has occurred. 

Daily Care. 

(1) After each day's use, the skis and the 
skiing equipment should be checked 
and necessary repairs made by the in- 
dividual as follows: 
(a) Skis, Remove any snow or ice that 
has frozen to the ski. This may be 
done with heat. If heat is not avail- 
able, this can be done with a mit- 
ten, wooden stick, or piece of metal. 
Check the heels and tips of the skis 
for cracks. Badly cracked skis must 
be replaced, as they are weakened 
and break easily. At the same time, 
check for and replace defective or 
missing edges and screws. The con- 
dition of ski bottoms is then 
checked and, if needed, additional 
pine tar or base wax is applied. The 
surface waxing for the next day's 
march is deferred until snow con- 



c. 



ditions are determined in the morn- 
ing or shortly prior to departure. 
After maintenance of skis is com- 
pleted, they should be placed in- 
doors, preferably in a ski rack (fig. 
4-8). Under field conditions, skis 
are placed in an improvised ski 
rack, planted upright in the snow 
or stacked. 

(b) Bindings. Insure that all straps, 
buckles, screws and rivets are pres- 
ent and in good condition. Replace 
parts which are unserviceable. If 
necessary, readjust the fit of the 
bindings. 

(c) Poles. Check wrist straps, hand- 
grips, shafts, baskets, and points to 
insure that they are in good con- 
dition. Broken parts should be re- 
placed at the first opportunity. 
Temporary repairs can be made 
with wire, cord, or tape. 

(2) When snow cover is comparatively 
thin, be careful not to damage the 
skis while skiing in rocky or stumpy 
terrain. Sometimes there is water 
under the snow cover on frozen rivers 
or lakes. Try to cross them at a dry 
place ; make an improvised hasty 
bridge from trees or boughs, if time 
permits. If the skis become wet dur- 
ing a crossing of water, the ice which 
forms on the skis must be removed 
after reaching the bank. A long 
march or sudden change in tempera- 
ture may require rewaxing of skis 
during the march. When skis are re- 
moved, do not leave them on the snow. 
It may stick and freeze on the run- 
ning surface. Remove the snow from 
the skis and stack them beside the ski 
tracks or lean the skis against a tree. 
A ski stack can be built by each aquad. 

Repair. 

(1) General. Repair of unserviceable ski 
equipment requires qualified person- 
nel with necessary tools and facili- 
ties. Therefore, the soldier will only 
be permitted to make emergency re- 
pairs such as replacing bindings, 
screws, and steel edges. 



70 



AGO 8641A 



MOVEABLE' 




STATION ARY" 




Figure i-3. Two types of ski racks. 



d. 



2) Emergency repair. The repair of ski 
equipment under field conditions is 
emergency repair. In many cases 
broken skis or worn out parts of aki 
equipment must be replaced. To fa- 
cilitate this, the following arrange- 
ments are necessary: 
(a) Every unit should have replace- 
ment skis, bindings, and poles. 
There should also be available, ski 
repair kits, pine tar or lacquer, and 
waxes. 
(6) Every squad should have one emer- 
gency ski tip (fig. 4-9) and each 
platoon, one aki repair kit. 
(c) Every man should have the follow- 
ing in his possession at all times : 

1 . Emergency thong. 

2. Pocketfcnife. 

3. Piece of light wire {malleable) or 

nylon cord. 

(3) Combat revaxr. During combat, the 
most suitable time for maintenance 
and repair of skis and aki equipment 
ia when the unit is in reserve. 

Storage. 

(1) Proper atoring of skia and skiing 
equipment is most important during 
off aeaaona. Improper care in storage 




Figure U-S- Attaching an emergency ski (tp. 

procedures will damage thia equip- 
ment, making it unaerviceable. 

(2) When the akiing aeason ia over, skis 
and poles are turned in by the using 
unit for storage. Before doing so, the 



AGO SUIA 



71 



skis must be cleaned and old waxes 
removed. 

(3) Skis and poles are then checked 
thoroughly. Thoae in good condition 
are separated from those in need of 
repair or salvage. Necessary repairs 
are made. Ski bindings are not re- 
moved. Ail skis should be pine-tarred 
or lacquered. If needed, skia are re- 
painted. Skilled personnel are needed 
for repairing skis and poles and for 
preparing them for storage. 

(4) In further preparation, the skis are 
tied together by matching pairs ac- 
cording to their factory markings not 
unit markings. A piece of string or 
cord la used to tie the skis at their 
tips and heels with running surfaces 
facing each other. A wooden block 
(waxing cork may be used) is then 
placed between the skis at the metal 
toe plates. The correct spread is about 
6 to 8 cm (2" to 3")- After being 
blocked, the skis are stored in a verti- 
cal position, with the tips down. If 
the skis must be stored horizontally, 
they should be supported at both ends 
and at the middle, with the end sup- 
ports on the top side of the ski and the 
middle support beneath and arranged 
so that tension is maintained on the 
camber. Each ski should be supported 
individually when stored horizontally. 
The storage room should be dry with 
an even temperature and good venti- 
lation (fig. 4-10), 

(5) After ski poles are checked, repaired, 
and reconditioned, they should be 
placed in the game storage area as 
the skis. 

4—12, Bask Movement 

a. General. In moving on skis for the first 
time, most beginners find that skis are awk- 
ward to handle due to the difliculty of obtain- 
ing the necessary balance and coordination. To 
overcome these difficulties, the first instruc- 
tional phase is devoted to step turns and walk- 
ing on level ground in order to obtain the bal- 
ance, correct body position, coordination, and 
rhythm necessary in skiing. In addition, this 



STRAP 




6-8cm 




STRAP 




Figure ^-10. Blocked skis for storage. 




I From the starting: position the right ski wiU be 
placed approximately 45"' to the right. 

Figure i-U. Step turn. 



72 



AGO SUIA 




\^^:^^ 'tw^ 




,j" 



-F 



\ 



^>:^i= 



-*-.Ts-- - - ^'^V^ -* 






After placing the right ski, the left ski will be 

brought alongside and placed parallel. 

Figure i.-ll — Continued- 











3 As the left ski po3e is finally brought in alongside 
the [eft ski, the cyc5e is completed. 

Figure ^~I1 — Continued. 

basic movement is a means of forming the 
foundation for further instruction. Ski drill 
techniques are covered in appendix C. 

b. Skiing Without Poles. The soldier wiil 
find that in performing duties, especially in 
combat, he will be required to ski either with 
poles carried in one hand or without poles. For 



4 As many repetitions of this cycle as necessary are 
made until the new desired direction of travel is 
reached. 

Figure i-?J — Continued. 

this reason, it is important that he practice 
all techniques with and without the use of ski 
poles. This is especially important in the begin- 
ning stages of skiing, as practice without ski 
poles will aid in learning proper transfer of 
body weight, balance, timing, and control of 
the skis. 

4-13. Step Turn 

a. Use. The step is the simplest means of 
changing direction from a standing position. 
It is particularly valuable in brushy and 
wooded terrain (fig, 4^-11). 

b. Technique. 

(1) From the standing position the right 
(left) ski tip is raised, the ski is ro- 
tated to the right (left) side, using 
the heel of the ski as a pivot. 

(2) The ski is placed on the snow and 
the body weight shifted onto it. 

(3) The left (right) ski is moved along 
side the right (left) in the same man- 
ner. 

(4) Each pole is raised, moved, and placed 
with the corresponding ski (i.e., right 
ski, right pole). 

(5) The same movement is repeated until 
the desired direction is obtained. 



AGO 364IA 



73 



(6) In confined areas it may be necessary 
to use the tip of the ski instead of the 
heei as a pivot point In turning to 
the ri^ht (left) the heel of the left 
(right) ski i-s raised off the snow and 
moved to the left of its original posi- 
tion. Then the right (left) ski is 
moved alongside the left (right) ski 
and this sequence repeated until the 
desired direction is achieved. 

4-14. Kick Turn 

a. Use. The kick turn is a method for re- 
versing the direction of a skier when in a 
standing position. It is used on both flat and 
steep terrain. In combat, it is also useful to 
conceal a change of direction in a ski track 
(fig. 4-12). 



5. 



TechTiique. 

(1) Beginning in the standing position 
with skis level, the left (right) pole 
is placed alongside the left (right) 
ski approximately 45 to 60 cm (IS" 
to 24") in front of the toe of the foot. 
At the same time the right (left) pole 
is placed alongside the right (left) 
ski about 45 to 60 cm (18" to 24") 
behind the heel of the foot. 




-k ^ 



Prepared for a kick turn to the right by swinging 
the right foot and ski to the rear a slight amount- 

Fignre 4-^-* Kick turn. 

{2) The right (left) kg is swung forward 
and upward until the ski is momen- 







The right ski is then swung forward and the heel 
placed in the snow, approximately even with the 
left ski tip- 

Figure 4.-12 — Continued- 







r:-\ 

A 



-J 












b--- 









J .-r 



From the vertical position the right ski is allowed 
to swing away from the body, keeping the heel in 
place, and rotated until it is parallel with the left 
ski. 

Figure 4-12 — Continued- 

tarily perpendicular, its heel along- 
side the tip of the left (right) ski. 
To obtain suiRcient momentum for 
this movement, a preliminary back- 
ward movement of the right (left) 
ski should first be made- 

(3) The right (left) ski is then pivoted 
on its heel and lowered, pointing in 



74 



AGO a64lA 




'HC- -, 




The left ski is tifted and rotated around to the new 

position, parallel with the right ski- 
Figure j[-J2 — Continued- 



the opposite direction and parallel to 
the left (right) ski, 

(4) The body weight is shifted to the 
right (left) ski, bringing the left 
(right) ski and pole around and 
alongside the right (left) ski in the 
new direction^ placing the ski pole in 
the snow. 

(5) On a gentle slope the procedure is 
the same, except the uphill ski should 
be turned first. 

(6) On a steep slope, the skis are placed 
horizontally across the slope and 
edged into the slope for necessary 
stability* The movements in executing 
the turn are the same as described 
above except that both ski poles are 
initially placed in the snow above the 
skis and the downhill ski is turned 
first. Then the uphill ski and pole are 
brought around simultaneously to 
complete the turn. 

4^15- The Walking Step 

a. Use. This is the simplest movement in 
skiing and is used as the basic step in forward 
motion. In military skiing, its application is 
for situations where walking or climbing is 
necessary. On level ground, sliding action of 
variable degrees can be obtained. 



( 1 ) From the position of attention on 
skis (para C-17) left unweighted nki 
is slid flat over the surface of the 
snow and straight forward as in 
normal walking, 

(2) At the same time, both knees are bent 
and the body weight is gradually 
shifted onto the advanced foot The 
heel of the rear foot ss raised. 

(3) The right ski pole is moved forward 
and the basket is placed close to the 
right skij towards the tip. with its 
shaft leaning to the front, 

(4) A push to the rear with the pole is 
made, assisting in the forward body 
motion, 

(5) The above motion is repeated with 
the right ski, 

(6) On level ground the skis are kept flat 
and parallel, 

(7) The skis are not Sifted oflf the snow, 
and the weight of the skis is carried 
by the snow. 

4-16. One Step 

a. GeneraL The basic movement of the one 
step is the walking step- Forward motion and 
glide are increased when the skier applies more 
effort to his step. This added effort is obtained 
by a lunge coordinated with an increased push 
from the poles. 

b. Use. The one step is the most widely used 
of all skiing steps. It is applied under all types 
of snow conditions on level ground (fig* 4- 
13), 

c. Technique, 

(1) The one step is started by a forward 
lean of the body, with well bent knees 
and ankles. The feet are kept flat and 
the body weight is on the right ski, 
from which the initial movement 
(lunge) is made. 

(2) The left, unweighted ski is slid flat 
and straight forward by a springing 
motion from right ankie, knee, and 
hip, straightening the body and 
transferring the weight to the left 
sliding ski- 

(3) The springing motion (lunge) above, 



AGO B641A 



75 






.u^ M It 






Lift ptt rfwvn^ -ahv^d rt 
from rtqht Mi «#« tcfT M. 








4 



;:uis 



More IB rhia m4 tha 

tha liMd aritti dandit* 

itw iii4tEaii4 la^ ar shi. 



1h« nwrr cycH. 



Figure U-13, One step. 



is completed by atrai ghteising the 
right knee and pushing off from the 
right foot, thus completing the weight 
transfer. 

(4) The body weight is kept on the slid- 
ing (left) ski and, as the glide nears 
completion, the left knee and ankle 
are bent in preparation for the next 
lunge. Meanwhile, the right leg is re- 
laxed and moves the ski forward in 
preparation for the next step. As this 
leg reaches a position approximately 
alongside the left leg, the next step 
is made with the right ski by lunging 
from the left leg. 

<5) When using the poles, the lunge is 
executed as above except that as the 
left foot is slid forward the right ski 
pole is swung straight to the front 
and placed towards the tip of the 
right ski or, when the right ski is 
slid forward, the left ski pole is 
brought forward. 

(6) The slide is increased by a push with 
the ski pole. The ski pole is leaned 
slightly to the front and the arms 
kept close to the body. 

(7) The pushing action of the ski pole is 
increased progressively by the mus- 
cles of arms and shoulders. The push 
is finished off by a sharp straighten- 



ing of the arm for added power. 
When the push has been completed 
the arm is relaxed and brought for- 
ward close to the body in preparation 
for the next poling action. 

(8) During the coordinated movement of 
poles and lunge, correct timing and 
a long glide are emphasized. The 
main power glide is obtained from 
the lunge executed by each leg, the 
poling action provides only a second- 
ary source of momentum. All motions 
are rhythmic and fluent. Poles are 
used in a relaxed manner and the 
pressure of pushing is allowed to come 
on the wrist strap. 

4-17. Two Step and Three Step 

a. Use. This step is used to attain a longer 
and faster glide on the level. It is also used 
as an aid through dips and over bumps. 

h. Technique. The technique of the two step 
is a combination of an accelerated walking 
step and a one step. In the two step the push 

is obtained by the use of double poling (fig. 

4-14). 

(1) From a standing position with the 
knees slightly bent, a walking step is 
made with the left ski to start the 
body in motion initially. 

(2) A lunge is then made from the left 



76 



AGO 8641A 



L«ft MI ut« brtti pet*t teJnq 
farwuqrit 4ti«ad ta^ «th*r 



Lvn-g* wrto nqW riu 
ii brau9nf ansad. 



Uinq* onto right pU n«ar 
totnp^atlon. Pu*r> from bofh 




ant* riflit Ml 




Left *■ 

m«n urtttl M^ MU 



by puafi wHh petal. 



uft «a and both «ot«a bamo 
broufnt oiMOd % r«(wcxt mc 
drdk twfcj-s monwntum at 
9t]d« Is kHf. 



Fiffure -J-^i- Tujo step. 



leg, in a continuous rhythmic motion, 
to produce a long glide on the right 
ski. 

(3) While gliding on the right skL the 
left ski 13 brought slowly forward and 
even with the other ski to complete 
the first two step and in preparation 
of the next two step. This action 
should be started before the momen- 
tum of the glide has been lost. 

(4) As the first step is made, both ski 
poles are brought straight to the front 
in a comfortable reach and set into 
the snow alongside the skis in coordi- 
nation with the lunge of the second 
step. 

(5) The pushing action with the poles is 
applied in the same manner as de- 
scribed above in using one pole. As 
the poles leave the snow, they are 
brought forward in a straight line in 
preparation for the execution of the 
next step. It is most important to time 
this motion properly to coordinate 
with the next lunge. 

c. Three Step. In addition to the two step, 
the three step may be used anytime when 
changing ski steps and when sliding is poor. 
The initial steps are intended to produce more 
initial power. It has an advantage over the 
two step since it allows double poling and lung- 



ing from alternate feet. The step is made in 
the same manner as the two step except that 
two walking steps are taken before each lunge. 

4-18. Variations and Applications of Ski 

Steps 

o. In long, cross-country movement, parti- 
cularly when skiing with pack and rifle, it is 
most important to apply techniques properly 
according to the terrain to insure that energy 
is spent wisely and conserved as much as possi- 
ble. To this end, the individual must attempt 
to obtain as much glide as possible from his 
skis during each step. Although lasting only 
for a short moment, the glide will allow the 
skier to rest temporarily. In addition, all 
movements must be made in a relaxed manner, 
which necessitates continuous individual train- 
ing. The constant use of the same step is monot- 
onous and increases fatigue. To avoid this, 
various steps are used temporarily. The same 
effect is also necessary in poling. In order to 
re;L arm and shoulder muscles, a series of 
:-+eps may be made without poling. In the one 
step, for instance, the first two steps can be 
made without using the poles. Any additional 
combination of steps and poling may he made 
at one's discretion for the same reason, placing 
more emphasis on leg rather than arm work. 
or vice versa. 

b. In bumpy terrain, ski steps and poling 



AGO S641A 



77 



may be used individually or in various com- 
binations to provide a strong pushoff to provide 
the skier with sufficient glide for a continuous 
motion through a dip and over a bump- WTien 
a series of bumps and dips is encountered, the 
poling action is generally applied on the crest 
of the first bump in order to obtain sufficient 
momentum to reach the top of the next bump 
in a continuous glide. A step supported by 
double poling may be applied when skiing 
through the dip. There are other situations 
where double poiing may be applied to gain 
or increase forward motion of the ski without 
taking a step. 

4-19. Falling 

a, GeneraL In military akiing there are two 
types of falls, controlled and unintentional. 

(1) Controlled falls. The controlled fall 
has definite value. It can be used to 
avoid excessive speed or to avoid hit- 
ting obstacles if other means are not 
possible- The controlled fall can be 
done safely only at slow to moderate 
speeds. It is used to take cover quick- 
ly, assume a firing position or for a 



quick stop to avoid hitting an object. 
When properly used, it can be accom- 
plished without injury to the indi- 
vidual- 

(2) Unintentional falls. Unintentional 
falls are undesirable and may cause 
serious injury. Other undesirable re- 
suits of an unintentional fall are in- 
creased fatigue, pos.stble frostbite, and 
holes in the snow which may cause 
other skiers to falL Factors which 
may contribute to unintentional falls 
are poor skiing ability, lack of con- 
trol^ snow conditions, fatigue, and ex- 
cessive speeds. 

b. Technique of Falling, 

(1) If a fall is imminent, an attempt is 
made to relax, lower the body, and to 
land sideways and to the rear. 

(2) While falling, an attempt should be 
made to stretch the body, to extend 
the arms and to keep the ski poles 
to the rear (fig. 4-15), Care should 
be taken to keep the knees from dig- 
ging into the snow, as such action ia 
a major cause of injury. 



w" 



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1 Falling on the slope 
Figure i-J5. Falling and recovery. 



78 



AGO S«41A 




7_^- '--^ ■...—:■■•'...,. 



2 Recovery from a fall on the slope. 
Figure i~15 — Continued. 



C. 



(3) The impact of the fall should be ab- 
sorbed by the hips or buttocks. 

(4) The UTiintentioTial fall is avoided as 
much as possible. It is often prevented 
by the correction of a faulty ski or 
body position. 

(5) Landing directly on a knee or hand 
must be avoided since the resulting 
blow may cause serious injury. This 
is especially serious in heavy wet 
snow or breakable crust because the 
extended arm or knee may penetrate 
and be locked firmly in place before 
the body has lost momentum. 

(6) Although falling or "sitting down" 
with the skis facing downhill is the 
preferred method, occasionaHy a fall 
"over the tips" cannot be avoided. The 

important thing to remember is RE- 
LAX. 

Recoveinf. 

(1) To recover from a fall, the skier 
must first figure out what to do before 
attempting to rise, A little planning 
will save time and energy. 



(2) If necessary, the pack and other re- 
strictive loads are removed. 

(3) Skis are untangled and brought paral- 
lel, feet together. Knees are pulled up 
to bring the skis close to the body. 
The body ia then moved forward and 
raised, pushing with the pole if as- 
sistance is needed. 

(4) To use the ski poles, both hands are 
first removed from the straps. The 
poles are then placed together with 
baskets in the snow slightly to the 
rear, grasped with one hand above 
the basket, palm facing downward, 
and with the other hand close to the 
top, palm facing upward. 

(5) The procedure for recovery from a 
fail on a slope is the same except that 
the skis are placed below the body 
and perpendicular (at right angles) 
to the fall line. To obtain this posi- 
tion it may be necessary to roll onto 
the back, lifting the skis in the air 
and then in the proper position. Poles 
are then used as described on the up- 
hill side (fig. 4-15). 



AGO B64IA 



79 



4-20. Straight UphiH Climbing 

a. Use. Straight uphill climbing ia a method 
of ascending gentle and moderate alopea. 

&. Technique. 

(1) Take the first step as in walking the 
body leaning forward with knees well 
bent. 

(2) On gentle slopes, slide the skis for- 
ward without lifting them from the 
anow. On steeper slopes, more knee 
bend is required which causes a trans- 
fer of body weight. It may become 
necessary to lift the ski as the step 
is made, and to place it with a stamp- 
ing action upon the snow. This will 
give the ski wax better holding quali- 
ties because it will not break down 
the snow crystals by first sliding over 
them. 

(3) Use the ski poles to assist the body 
in its uphill movement and to mini- 
mize backslip. 

(4) The degree of slope which may be 
ascended using this method is limited 
by the holding characteristics of the 
wax used. With repeated backsiipping 

of the skia, the slope should be tra- 
versed thereby decreasing the angle 
of climb, or a different method of 
climbing should be used. 

4-21. Sidestep 

a. Use, The sidestep ia an effective method 
of climbing a short, steep slope, where space 
is confined ; it may be the only practical means 
of ascending slopes. It is also useful for step- 
ping sideways over logs, stumps, and other 
obstacles. 

b. Technique. 

(1) The skis are placed together and per- 
pendicular (at right angles) to the 
slope (fall line). To prevent slipping 
sideways, the uphill edges of both skis 
are forced into the snow by pushing 
both knees forward and toward the 
slope. Avoid leaning into the slope. 
Initially, the weight of the body is 
placed on the lower ski. 

(2) The uphill is lifted in a sideways step 
up the slope (fig. 4^16) and the body 



weight placed upon it The upper ski 
pole is moved at the same time and 
placed above and alongside this ski. 



^"^■- 



■ :-j-^ 




_ J -* ■ - 






^^■ili-i-u/ifj^ .t\t^'d i" 



(3) 



Figure ^-16. Sidestep. 

The lower ski ia then moved up as 
close as possible to the uphill ski, 
while the skier is supported by a push 
on the lower pole. This pole is then 
brought up and placed alongside the 
lower ski. This completes one cycle 
of the sidestep. Merely repeat until 
the desired elevation is reached. 



Uphill Traverse 

a. Use. This method of climbing is used 
when the slope becomes too steep for going 
straight uphill- Although a traverse generally 
involves a zigzag route, it will often be th( 
least tiring method of ascending, thereby con- 
serving time and energy. 

b. Technique. 

(1) An angle of ascent is selected which 
will allow climbing without backslip- 

(2) The skis are edged into the slope or. 



80 



AGO B64lJi 



each step with the aki poiea used as 
in straight uphill ciimbing. 

(3) In changing the direction of ascent 
a kick turn or a herringbone turn, 
(para 4-24d) can he utilized. Long 
traverses should be used whenever 
possible, since eievation is gained 
more effectively and with less expen- 
diture of ener^ in this manner. 

4-23. Sidestep Traverse 

d. Use. This step is a combination of a side- 
step and the uphill traverse. It allows greater 
vertical climb in each traverse. 

ft. Technique. 

<1) The movement is the same as in the 
uphill traverse, except the ski ia 
raised slightly and placed uphill as it 
ia brought forward with each step. 

(2) The skis are kept parallel and edged, 
as in the sidestep. 

<3) The ski poles are moved in the same 
sequence as in the sidestep. 

4—24. Herring bone 

a. Use. The herringbone is used to climb 
short, moderate, or steep slopes. It provides 
a quicker ascent than the sidestep. It is more 
tiring and should be used only for relatively 
short ascents. 

b. Technique. 

(1) The body is faced uphill with skis 
spread to form a wide V. This is ob- 
tained by spreading both ski tips out- 
ward. The skis are edged sharply in- 
ward, to prevent backslip, by bending 
the knees forward and inward (fig. 
4-17). 

<2) The first step ia made by placing the 
weight on one ski, raising the other 
slightly above the snow and moving 
it forward and upward. This ski is 
then placed in the snow, edged in- 
ward, and the body weight trans- 
ferred to it. The other ski is then 
moved in the same manner and 
placed slightly ahead. 

(3) The ski poles are used in the same 
manner as the sidestep, except they 
are alternately placed to the rear of 




1 Herringbone 




2 Half herringbone 

Figure U~17. Herringbone and half -herringbone 

methods of aaeenditig. 



AGO 8641A 



81 



the body and to the outside of each 
ski to act as a brace and to aid in 
the climb. 

c. Half-Herringbone. 

(1) Use. The half -herringbone is a varia- 
tion of the herringbone technique and 
ia used to aid in preventing backalip 
on gentle to moderate slopes in both 
straight uphill climbing and travers- 
ing (fig. 4-17). 

<2) Technique. The half -her ringbone is 
executed with one ski in the herring- 
bone position, the other pointing in 
the direction of movement. The poles 
are used for support to prevent the 
ski pointed uphill from backslipping 
while the other ski i3 advanced. The 
downward angle and edging of this 
ski is Increased with the steepness of 
the slope ascended. 

d. Herringbone Turn. 

(1) Use. The herringbone turn is a 
method of changing direction while 
traversing a slope, while climbing, or 
when in confined areas where a kick 
turn may be difficult to use. It is also 
used to change direction from a her- 
ringbone position. 

(2) Technique. From a traversing posi- 
tion the upper ski is moved first in 
the desired direction, using its heel 
as a pivot point. This ski Is then 
placed into the snow, as in a herring- 
bone step, with the full body weight 
on it. The other ski is moved up in 
the same way and placed into the 
snow. This brings the skier into a 
herringbone position. Both poles are 
held to the rear to brace the body 
during this movement. This cycle is 
repeated until the lower ski has 
reached the desired direction. The up- 
per ski is brought parallel with the 
lower ski into a traversing position 
again, completing the herringbone 
turn. 



vides the individual with the balance which 
he must have before he can effectively descend 
a slope or 5earn more advanced techniques. Al- 
though it is the fastest means of descending, 
speed must be kept within the capabilities of 
the skier (fig. 4-18). 





Straight Downhill Running 

a. Use. Straight downhill running is the first 
technique learned in skiing downhill. It pro- 



Figure i-13. Straight downhill running. 

b. Technique. 

(1) In a normal standing position with 
skis flat and parallel, one ski is ad- 
vanced 10 to 15 cm (4" to 6"). 

(2) Body weight is evenly distributed on 
both skis. The knees are bent and 
pushed forward from the ankles, keep- 
ing the heels flat on the skis. 

(3) The body is leaned slightly forward 
in a rela.Ked and natural upright po- 
sition, head up, knees and ankles 
flexed without bending the body at 

the waist to the front. 

(4) Ski poles are held pointing to the rear 
with baskets above the snow. The 
arms are bent slightly at the elbows 
and held close to the body with hands 
to the front, 

(5) Body and arms are kept relaxed. 
Knees are kept supple to act as shock 
absorbers. The skier must be alert at 
all times. 

4-26. Downhill Traverse 

a. Use. This is the method most commonly 
used in descent; either used by itself or in 
combination with other techniques. An indi- 
vidual who has learned the techniques and has 
chosen a gradual route of descent can, in com- 



82 



AGO B641A 



bination with a kick turn, travel over a great 
variety of terrain (fig. 4-19). 





Figure i-19. Downhill travtrse. 

b. Technique. 

(1) The basic position ia that of straight 
downhill running, except that the up- 
hill shoulder and ski ia always aiightly 
advanced and most of the weight is 
on the lower aki. 

<2) Stand directly over the skis and avoid 
leaning into the slope. Both skis be- 
ing edged into the slope. 

(3) If more edging is needed, it ia con- 
trolled by knee and ankle action, and 
ia kept even and constant. 

<4) The aki poles are held as in the 
straight downhill poaitiona. 

4-27. Snowplow 

a. Use. The snowplow is a meana for con- 
trolling and slowing down forward motion in 
all types of terrain. In gentle or moderate ter- 
rain it can be used for stopping. The snowplow 
uses fundamental positions which are employed 

for furthering other skiing techniques (fig. 4— 

20). 

b. Techniques. 

{1) From straight downhill ninning. 
(a) To move into a snowplow, both 
heels are puahed outward evenly, 
keeping the aki tips even and close 
together, forcing the skis to form 
a wide V. 
(6) The body weight ia kept even on 
both akia. The knees are bent well 



Normol Poiit»an — ^ 





for Brahii^ 



(c) 



id) 



Figure i-20. SnowploiL\ 

forward in the direction of the ski 
tips, causing the skis to be edged 
aiightly inward. The heels are kept 
constantly on the skis while con- 
tinuous outward heel pressure upon 
the skis is applied. 
The upper part of the body and the 
ski poles are held as in the straight 
downhill running position* 
To increase the braking action, 
the skis are moved into a wider V 
and edged more* 

(2) Half snowplow, 

(a) When only one ski is brought into 
snowplow position, this is referred 
to as a half snowplow. The half 
snowplow is used in confined areas 
and in traversing where a full 
snowplow is impractical for brak- 
ing action- It is also used in con- 
junction with basic and advanced 
turns. 

This motion is executed by pushing 
only one ski outward in the snow- 



ed) 



ACO 3641A 



83 



plow position described above. 

Braking action ia controlled by the 
degree of weight placed on this ski 
and the amount of edging applied* 
It is important that the 3ki he edged 
to a pronounced degree on the in- 
side to eliminate the possibility of 
"catching" an outside edge. 

(3) The snowplow while traversmg doivn- 
kill 

(a) To move into a snowpiow from a 
downhill traverse, the body weight 
is shifted momentarily to the up- 
hill aki- The lower ski \s then moved 
downhill into a half snowplow po- 
sition by dropping the tail and 
keeping the ski tips in the same 
relative positions and edging slight- 
ly. The body weight is then trans- 
ferred back onto this lower ski. Ad- 
ditional braking action can be ob- 
tained by increasing the edging of 
this ski and placing more weight 
on it. To complete the snowplow^ 
the upper ski is flattened and push- 
ed uphill in full V (fig. 4-21). 



fined areas where ability to control descent ia 
limited by snow conditions, terrain features, 
or obstacles. Two different methods are used 
(lig. 4^22). 




1 Straight downhill 






Figure 1^—21. Method of gettinff mto a snowplow 

while in a dorvnhill traversB. 

{h) If it ia desired to continue travers- 
ing in a snowplow, most of the 
weight is kept on the lower ski. 
Braking action is increased by a 
wider spread of the skis and in- 
creased edging of both skis, 

4-28. Ski Pole Riding 

CL Use. Ski pole riding ia a braking method 
which is sometimes necessary to use in con- 







■'■I- ..\^- '-^-t -wr 



>VT.^>.^ ^ 



■■-^ ^ -K-- ^' -" ■ -\jr 9 - 



2 On 3 dawnhill traverse 
Figure i-22. Ski pole riding. 



Z4 



AGO S64JA 



b- Technique. 

(1) Poles are kept together and to the 

rear and held between the legs for 

vertical descents. 

(rt) From a straight downhill running 

position the lateral spread of the 

skis ia increased and both hands 

are removed from wrist straps. 

Both poles are held together and 

placed to the rear between the legs 

and the heeia of the skis. 

(b) The body is placed in a squatting 
position with the weight over the 
skis and one hand grasping the 
pole handles in front of the body 
with the palm facing upward, while 
the other hand is placed to the rear, 
grasping the shafts above the bas- 
kets, palm facing down. 

(c) Control of descent is obtained by 
applying the required pressure on 
the ski poies to force the baskets 
into the snow. 

{d) The braking action may be in- 
creased by using the half snow- 
plow or snowplow position. 

(2) Poles together and on either side of 
the body for traversing. 

{a) From a downhill traversing posi- 
tion both hands are removed from 
wrist straps and the poles are held 
together on the uphill side. 

(6) The hand on the uphill side grasps 
both pole shafts near the baskets 
with palm facing down and the 
other hand is held near the pole 
handles, palm facing upward. 

(c) The uphill arm is braced tightly 
against the hips to increase the 
braking action. 

4-29. Sideslipping 

a. Use. Sideslipping is a braking method 
used in descending slopes at all speeds. It is 
especially useful in confined areas and in steep 
terrain where the snowplow or pole riding is 
impractical. It is the least tiring method of 
braking. In addition, it employs a sliding ac- 
tion which is characteristic in advanced skiing 
techniques. 

h. Technique, 



(1) 



A downhill traverse position is as- 
sumed. The edging ot both skis is 
decreased by bendinc; both knees well 
forward and slightly outward. This 
minimizes the holding power of both 
ski edges so that gravity will cause 
the skier to slide sideways down a 
hill (iig. 4-23). 



V 




\ 



V 



^ 



Figure i-2S. Sideslipping from traverse, 

(2) Care must be taken that the weight 
is kept well centered on the skis and 
that the lower ski pole is not placed 
in the snow during the sliding action. 
The uphill pole may be used to initiate 
the sideslipping action and for bal- 
ance. Avoid the tendency to lean on 
the uphill ski pole which will hinder 
the skier's ability to maintain a good 
sideslipping body position. 

(3) By shifting the body weight in front 
of the center of the skis while side- 
slipping, the tips will drop toward 
the fall line; by bringing the weight 
to the rear, the heels of the skis will 
move toward the fall line. This is a 
means of correcting or controlling the 
angle of descent during the sideslip 
(fig. 4-24). 

(4) The speed of descent is controlled by 
the degree of edging applied to the 



AGO SE41A 




\ 



\ 



\ 



\ 



\ 



\ 



\ 





. * 



/ 



Figure ^-Ji. How the body position affects the skU in 

sideslipping. 

skis. To atop aidesJipping, the edging 
is gradually increased by pressing the 
knees forward and toward the slope. 

(5) In adverse terrain and snow condi- 
tions the aid of both ski poles may be 
used on the uphill side while side- 
slipping. The poles are used in the 
same manner as in pole riding on a 
traverse. This method adds a third 
point of suspension and braking ac- 
tion. 

(6) At all times during sideslipping, deli- 
cate control of knee and ankle action 
is important to prevent the downhill 
edges from "catching." 

4-30, Sfep Turn in Motion 

a. Use. This method of changing direction 
while in motion is usefui at slow speeds in all 
snow and terrain conditions. It is particularly 
useful in adverse snow conditions and in con- 
fined areas. 



b. Techniques. 

(1) Before turning, lead with the ski 
which corresponds with the direction 
of the turn, i.e,, right ski ahe:id when 
turning to the right, 

(2) In turning to the right the weight is 
placed upon the left ski, which is then 
edged to the right. The unweighted 
right ski is then raised and placed on 
the snow in the new direction. The 
weight is transferred to this ski by 
moving the body in the new direction 
while pushing off from the left ski. 
The unweighted left ski is then lifted 
off the snow, and placed close to the 
right ski to complete the turn. Com- 
plete transfer of body weight is es- 
sential, and the movements must 
follow smoothly and almost simul- 
taneously. The ski poles are held to 
the rear (fig. 4-25). The higher the 
speed, the more the center of gravity 
is lowered by bending the knees and 
ankles. This adds stability and aids 
in keeping up with the turn. 




Figure i-25. Step turn in motioTu 

(3) If desired, the steps can be continued 
as long as the skier is in forward mo- 
tion and until the desired direction 
is obtained. 

c. Variation, 

(1) Use. A variation of the step turn in 
motion is the skating step. It is used 
to accelerate forward motion on level 
ground or gentle slopes and is a useful 
aid in developing balance, weight 
shifting, and coordination. Basically, 
the movements of shifting body 
weight from one ski to the other are 



AGO d641A 



the same as in the step turn in mo- 
tion except that direction ia not 
changed and the skis are edged in- 
ward on each pushoff, 

(2) Technique. 

(a) From a straight downhill position 

body weight ia placed upon either 

ski and knee and ankle bend is 

stressed. 
(6) The other ski is lifted above the 

snow with the tip pointed siightJy 

outward- 

(c) The weighted aki is edged inward 
as the body is pushed off at a alight 
angle to the front, i.e., in the direc- 
tion the lifted ski is pointed. 

(d) The lifted aki ia moved to the front, 
placed flat on the snow and weight 
ia shifted to it. 

(e) The unweighted ski is lifted from 
the snow and brought to the front 
near the weighted ski in prepara- 
tion for the next step. These push- 
ing steps are alternated left and 
right. 

(/) A strong puahoff should be made 
with each step to lengthen the 
glide and gain acceleration. Knee 
and ankle bend should be stressed 
with each step. 

{g) The step can be aided by double 
poling, eapecially to gain initial 
momentum. 

4-31, Siiowplow Turn 

a. Use. The snowplow turn is efficient for 
use at slow speeds, especially when carrying 
a pack and rifle. Because the snowplow position 
is retained, this turn enables the individual 
to maintain good control. In this turn, funda- 
mental body positions and movements are 
used which are an important part of advanced 
turns. 

b. Technique (fig. 4^26), 

(1) Straight down the slope. 

(a) In executing a snowplow turn to 
the LEFT while snowplowing di- 
rectly down a slope, the body 
weight is transferred smoothly 



onto and over the ri^rht ski I note 
that this ski Is ah-eLidy pointed to 
the left) by a rotation of the body 
to the right and by a pronounL-ed 
bend of the riirht knoe to drop ail 
body weight onto the right ^^ki. 
This transfer of body weight initi- 
ates the turning action, 
{b) As the turn p^ogre^5.'=e3. the body 
is not allowed to rotace beyond the 
new direction of travel, i.e.. face 
straight ahead, not uphill. The left 
knee ia kept well bent with this ski 
flat and unweighted throughout the 
turn. 

{c) Ski tips remain even and the V- 
angle of the skia constant. Avoid 
leaning into the slope. Ski poles are 
carried aa in the snowplow posi- 
tion. Care must be exercised to 
keep them pointed to the rear as 
the body is rotated. 

(d) Aa the turn ia completed the body 
weight ia either placed evenly on 
both skis to continue in a snow- 
plow or gradually transferred to 
the left ski to start a turn to the 
right. 

{2) From doivnhill traverse. 

(a) In making a turn while traversing, 
the snowplow position ia assumed 
as deacribed in paragraph 4-2T& 
{3) (a). The edging of the lower 
aki is decreaaed and the body 
leaned forward and both ski tips 
allowed to drop into the fall line 
in order to bring the skier into the 
fall line in preparation for the 
turn, as described above. As the 
tips come downhill the snowplow 
position must be maintained by a 
holding push on the tails. The turn 
should be continued until the skier 
has obtained the desired angle of 
descent (fig. 4^27). As the tips pass 
the fall line, body weight must be 
transferred to the downhill ski to 
complete the turn. 
ib) After the snowplow turn has been 
completed and it is deaired to con- 
tinue with both skis together, as 



AGO 964 IA 



87 




Figure ^-26. Snowptow turn- 
in the downhill traverse, the body 
weight ia kept on the lower ski 
while the upper unweighted ski is 
brought parallel with it into a 
traversing position (fig. 4r-27). 
This turn is also known as stem 
turn. 

(3) Variation, To make a snowplow turn 
from a traversing downhill position 
in variable snow conditions, and when 
skiing with a pack, it is advantageous 
to make the half snowplow with the 
uphill ski. In this method the body 
weight remains on the lower ski. The 
upper, unweighted ski is moved into 
a half snowplow, kept flat, and the 
tips of both skis even. The edging of 
the lower ski is decreased, knees bent 
more, and the body leaned further 
forward to bring the skier into the 
fall line. In reaching the fall line, 
both skis are brought into a full snow- 
plow and the body weight is gradu- 



ally shifted over and onto the other 
ski in executing a snowplow turn ag 
described above, 

4—32, Advanced Turns 

The advanced turns used in military skiing 
are the christiania turns. These are applied at 
all speeds to change directions, to reduce speed 
or to stop. These are the m.ost advanced turns 
taught in military skiing and are executed 
with the basic motions already learned, such 
as forward lean, edge control, and body rota- 
tion. The application of these turns may be 
limited by terrain and snow conditions, as well 
as the degree of proficiency attained and the 
load carried by the individual soldier. The 
christiania turns are started from a variety of 
positions, but ail are completed in the game 
manner (fig. 4-28). 



Uphill Christiania 

The uphill christiania is used to turn uphill, 
to reduce speed and to stop. It also forms the 
basic movement which is used in completing 
other christiania turns. 

a. In preparing for the uphill christiania 
during a downhill traverse, the upper shoulder 
is brought well forward in order to increase 
the body rotation that will be applied during 

the turn. 

b. The turning action of the skis is started 
by decreasing the amount of edging and, at 

the same time rotating the lower shoulder and 
hip forward in the direction of the turn. For- 
ward lean of the body and knee bend are in- 
creased and the upper ski leads throughout the 
turn (1, fig. 4-28). 

c. During the turn, both skis are controlled 
by gradually edging them into the slope. The 
weight is directly over the skis. Avoid leaning 
into the slope. 

d. Forward lean and body rotation are in- 
creased and continued as the turn progresses. 
Forward speed will gradualJy decrease, per- 
mitting the skier the choice of continuing in a 
new direction or coming to a stop. 

e. Care must be exercised so that the ski 
poles are not allowed to swing to the front 
during the rotation of the body. 



58 



AGO StilA 










Figure U~27. Snoivplow turn made from downhill traverse back into traversing position. 



f. This turn can be made from any angle 
across the slope to and including the fall line. 

g. From a fall line the turn can he made in 
either direction. In preparation, the ski cor- 
responding with the direction of turn is ad- 
vanced (i.e., left ski leads for a left turn) and 
more of the hody weight placed on the other 
ski. Emphasis is given to body rotation and 
knee bend to initiate the turning action of the 
skis. 

h. To assist the turning action, a down-up 
motion can be used in this turn. As the turning 
action is stnted as in h above, the body is 
lowered and returned to normal as the turn is 
completed. 

4—34. Snowplow ChristianJa 

a. Technique. The snowplow christiania, 
also referred to as the stem ehristiania, is 



used on turns made downhill while traversing 
at greater speeds than employed in the basic 
turns. For this reason the turn looks compli- 
cated to the student. Basically, it is a com- 
bination of the snowplow turn and the uphill 
ehristiania. The basic techniques of the snow- 
plow turn made from a traverse position are 
also used here to reach the fail line. The uphill 
ehristiania is then applied to either change 
direction or to stop. In combining these methods 
the speed must be greater, the body weight 
shifted more rapidly, and the spread of the 
skis in the snowplow position at a narrower 
angle. Using the snowplow ehristiania it is 
possible to link a number of turns together to 
control speed in a continuous descent. A break- 
down of the technique is as follows: 

(1) In making a downhill turn to the left 
from a downhill traverse, the body 
weight is shifted momentarily to the 

uphill ski. The lower ski is then 



AGO B611A 



89 






1 UphUL chriitlRDU, 



if 








Left ski brouqhf paraJIcl 
umiqht ski-Ffacf to nW ^ ,n 
anc mortion by shouldar nD+sti an 




6. 




2 Snowplow christiania and variations. 
Figure ^-2S. The christiania turtis. 

moved downhill into a half snowplow 
position, keeping the ski tips even. 
At the same time, the lower shoulder 
is brought forward. The uphill ski is 
then pushed uphill to form a snow- 
plow. 

(2) Body weight ia then transferred back 
to the upper ski by body rotation, 
initiating the turning action. 



(3) A3 the fall line is reached, the un- 
weighted left ski 13 brought aiightly 
forward and parallej with the right 
ski. The turn ia then completed as in 
the uphill christiania (2, fig. 4-23). 

(4) The upper body is kept from leaning 
into the slope throughout the turn, 
especially during the initial turning 
phase. Forward [ean and knee bend 
are increased. A[l motions are fluent 
and smooth and must be well timed 
during the turn. 

(5) When a decrease in speed is desired 
before starting the turn^ there are 
two methods which can be used. In 
the first method the lower ski is first 
placed into a half snowplow position. 
Temporarily transferring the body 
weight to the ski and edging it will 
cause a braking action. When speed 
has been decreased as desired, the 
upper ski is pushed upward, the edg- 
ing of the lower ski decreased, and 
the turn continued as in (2), (3), and 
(4) above. In the second method both 
skis are kept parallel and a sideslip 
from the moving traverse position is 
started. Edging of the skis in this 
movement will provide braking ac- 
tion. When speed has been decreased 
as desired, the turn is started as from 
the downhill traverse position. 

VariatioTis. 

(1) In diiRcuit snow and terrain condi- 
tions another method may be used to 
execute a snowplow christiania. In 
making a downhill turn to the left 
from a downhill traverse with this 
method, the upper ( right) ski is 
brought into a half snowplow position. 
Leaning well forward, increasing the 
knee bend and decreasing the edging 
of the lower ski will bring the skier 
smoothly towards the fall line; the 
body weight is transferred over and 
onto the right ski in a smooth for- 
ward and downward motion, assisted 
by bringing the right shoulder for- 
ward. As the transfer of body weight 
is completed, the unweighted left ski 
is brought forward and parallel with 



90 



AGO 8e4U 



the right bIci and the turn completed 
from the fal] line as in the uphill 

chriatiania, 

(2) As more skills and balance are ac- 
quired, the anowplow chriatiania may 
be done at higher speeds with the 
ang-Ie of turn kept cJoser to the tall 
line. In this method only a half 
snowplow with the upper or lower ^ki 
is used in the preparatory position, 
or skis are kept parallel and the fall 
line is reached with a pronounced 
knee bend and forward lean of the 
body while the turn is completed \vith 
an uphill chriatiania, 

4-35. The liffed Christiania 

a. Use. The lifted chriatiania turn is very 
useful in adverse snow conditions and in con- 
fined terrain where a short radius turn is neces- 
sary- It is also useful for skiing at night and 
with heavy loads, since it is a slow turn made 
with one ski pole being used to increase 
lateral stability. 



b. Technique. 

<1) The turn is started by applying either 
of the methods described for chris- 
tiania turns, except that the speed is 
adjusted to suit the circumstances. 

(2) For a turn to the left as the skier 
approaches the fall line, the left ski 
pole is placed in the snow forward 
and down the slope, but not directly 
in front of the left ski tip. The reach 
should not be overextended. The right 

pole is held in the normal manner. 
Weight is then applied to the left ski 
pole, using it for means of support 
a.nd as a pivot point. 

(3) Body weight is then shifted to the 
right ski. Since it is difficult to turn 
the left ski in such a short radius, 
this ski is lifted and placed parallel 
to, and slightly ahead of, the right 
ski, and the turn completed as in the 
uphill christiania. 



Section IV. MILITARY SNOWSHOEING 



4-36. Purpose and Scope 

a. Snowahoes are individual aids for over- 
snow movement. Like skis, they provide floata- 
tion in snow and are useful for cross-country 
marches and other activities which require 
movement in anow-covered terrain- 

b. The snowahoe is an oval or elongated 
frame braced with two of three crosspieces and 
the inclosed apace filled with a web lacing, A 
binding or harness attached to the webbing se- 
cures the wearer's foot to the snowshoe. Float- 
ation is provided by the webbing, which is 
closely laced and prevents the snowshoe from 
sinking^ too deeply into the snow when weight 
is placed upon it. Depth and consistency of 
anow will determine the amount of support ob- 
tained on the snow cover and the rate of move- 
ment- 

c. Snowshoes are particularly useful for in- 
dividuals working in confined areas such as 
bivouac sites and supply dumps, for drivers of 
various types of vehicles, gun crews, cooks, 



mechanics^ and for similar occupations where 
a ids to movement in snow are necessary. 
Transporting, carrying, and storing snowshoes 
is relatively easy due to their size and weight. 
Maintenance requirements are generally negli- 
gible and little skill is required to become pro- 
ficient on snowshoes. However, the require- 
ment for physical conditioning is as great, or 
greater, as that needed for skiing. The use of 
snowshoes when pulling and carrying heavy 
loads is particularly practical, as the hands 
and arms remain free. On steep slopes, how- 
ever, the use of snowshoes is considerably 

limited because traction becomes negligible and 
the showshoe will slide, causing loss of footing. 
Generally, the rate of movement in any type 
of terrain is slow because snowshoes will not 
glide over the snow. The gliding properties of 
the ski are not obtained with the snowshoes; 
this adversely affects the amount of time and 
energy spent in movement. In deep snow the 
trailbreaker must be changed frequently. Es- 
pecially when wet, snow tends to stick to the 



AGO 3&41A 



91 



webbing, thereby acldinp weif,^ht tn the snow- 
shoe. 

d. There are three types of standard issue 
anowshoes: the trail, the bearpaw, and the 
magnesium. They can be n.sed with ail types 
of winter footgear. The trail snowshoe weijrbs 
approximately 6.5 pounds, the bearpaw. o.d 
pounds and the magnesium, 4.6 pounds. 

(1) Trail. The trail-type snowshoe is lonj?:. 
with a rather narrow body and up- 
turned toes (fig. 4-29). The two ends 
of the frame connect and extend tail- 
like to the rear. The turned-up toe has 
a tendency to ride over the snow and 
other minor obstacles. The excellent 
floatation provided by its large sur- 
faces makes the trail snowshoe best 
for cross-country marches, deep snow 
conditions, and trailbreaking. 



"Eindinir. Smiw.shoe, Bearpaw and Trail Type" 
has been developed for u.se on all throe typeg^ 
This bintiing consists generally of a toe strap 
and a heei and instep strap. The scraps are 
made of tiylon and are seuun'd by keepers and 
cam lever quick-release buckles. The method of 
securing the binding to the magnesium anow- 
shoe is snown in figure 







Figure i—^0. Bearpaw stiojcuhoe. 








Figure i.-29. Trail snowshoe. 

(2) Bearpaw. This type of snowshoe is 

short, wide, and oval in shape, with 
no frame extension (flg, 4-30), The 
bearpaw snowshoe is preferable to the 
trail type for close work with weapons 
and vehicles, in heavy brush, and in 
other confined areas. Carrying or 
storing is also easier. 

(3) Magnesium. The magnesium snow- 
shoe is the lightest and most durable 
of the three types (fig. 4-31). The 
snowshoe has a magnesium frame 
with the center section made of steel, 
nylon-coated wire. The magnesium 
snowshoe is 17.70 cm (approx T") 
shorter than the standard wooden 
trail snowshoe but is 9.50 cm (approx 
4") wider giving it approximately 
the same floatation characteristics. 

e. The trail and bearpaw snowshoes have 
their own individual bindings, however, the. 




Figure U-31. MagnesiuTn snowshoe. 

4-37. Care and Storage of Snowshoes 

a. Care. Snowshoes must always be kept in 
good condition. Frequent checks are necessary, 
particularly of webbing and binding, because 
individual strands may be ripped or worn out. 
Repairs must be made immediately, otherwise 
the webbing will loosen and start to unravel. If 
unvarnished, the rawhide webbing on \vooden 
snowshoes will absorb moisture, stretch and 
turn white, particularly in wet snow. It should 
be dried out slowly, avoiding direct flames, ana 
be revarnished at the first opportunity. Wooder 
frames may fray from hard wear and should 
be sanded and varnished. When needed, other 
minor repairs should be made as soon ^^ 
practicable. When snow cover is shallow, can 
must be taken not to step on small tree stumps 
branches, or other obstacfes. since the webbint 
may be broken or damaged. Stepping into wa- 
ter is to be avoided; the water will freeze ant 
snow will stick to it. When not in use in th' 



92 



AGO 56-ll--^ 




Front view 




Rear view 

Note. After Uk'AteninK, airap should be doubled b»ck under keeper- 

Figure i-?l\ Bi7tdit\g^ snowshce, bearpaiv, and trail t^pe. 



AGO 3641 A 



93 



fieM, gnowshoes are placed in temporary 
racks, hung in trees, or placed upright in the 
snow. They should he kept away from open 
fires and out of reach of rodents. 

b. Storage. In off-seasons, wooden anowshoes 
are stored in a dry, weil-ventilated place so 
that the rawhide will not mildew or rot and 
the frames warp. Each snowshoe is closely 
checked for possible damage, repaired if need- 
ed, and revarnished. As in the field, snowshoes 
are protected against damage and from rodents. 
Magnesium anowahoea are cleaned and repaint- 
ed if necesaary. Webbing is examined and re- 
paired or replaced if needed. 

4-38. Snowshoe Technique 

a. A striding technique is used for movement 
with snowshoea. In taking a stride, the toe of 
the snowshoe is lifted upward, to clear the 
anew, and thrusted forward. Energy is con- 
served by lifting it no higher than is necessary 
to clear the snow and slide the tail over it. 
If the front of the snowshoe catches, the foot 
is pulled back to free it and then hfted before 
proceeding with the stride. The best and least 
fatiguing method in travel is a lose-kneed 
rocking gait in a normal rhythmic stride. Care 
is taken not to step on or catch the other 
snowshoe. 

6. On gentle slopes, ascent is made by climb- 
ing straight upward. Traction is generally 
very poor on hard-packed or crusty snow. 
Steeper terrain is ascended by traversing and 
packing a trail similar to a shelf across it. 
When climbing, the snowshoe is placed as hori- 
zontally as possible in the snow. On hard snow, 
the snowshoe is placed flat on the surface 
with the toe of the upper one diagonally uphill 
to get more traction. In the event the snovir is 
sufficiently hard-frozen to support the weight 
of a person, it is generally better to remove the 
snowshoes and proceed temporarily on foot. In 
turning around, the best method is to swing 
the leg up and turn in the new direction, as 
in making a kick turn on skis (fig. 4-33). 

c. Obatacles such as logs, tree stumps, 
ditches and small streams should be stepped 
over. Care must be taken not to place too much 
strain on the snowshoe ends by bridging a 
gap, since the frame may break. In shallow 




Figure i~33. Making a kick turn on snowshoes. 

snow there is danger of catching and tearin 
the webbing on tree stumps or snags whic 
are only sightly covered. Wet snow will fr( 
quently ball up under the feet, interfering wit 
comfortable walking. This snow should t 
knocked off with a stick or pole as aoon i 
possible. Although ski poles are generally rv 
used in snowshoeing, one or two poles ai 
desirable when carrying heavy loads, expecial- 
in mountainous terrain. The bindings mu: 
not be fastened too tightly or circulation w 
be cut off, and frostbite may occur. Durir 
halts, bindings should be checked for fit ai 
possible readjustment. 

4—39, Training 

Snowshoe training requires little technic 
skill. However, emphasis must be placed on tl 

physical conditioning of the individual and t: 



94 



AGO 86J 



development of muaclea which are aeidom used 
in ordinary marchinj?. The technique, as such, 
can be learned in a few periods of instruction. 
Stiffness and soreness of muscles are to be ex- 
pected at first. The initial training should be 
gradual with regard to loads carried and 
distances covered. It shouM be progressive, 
with ample time allowed for the individual to 
acquire physical proficiency, gradually increas- 



ing the distance covered and weight carried or 
pulled. Overcoming obstacles such as dense 
brush, fallen timber, and ditches should be 
emphasized during training. Trailbreaking, 
with frequent change of lead man. should also 
be stressed. Snowshoe training can be accom- 
plished concurrently with other training re- 
quiring individual cross-country mo\''ement. 



Section V. APPtlCATlON OF SKI AND SNOWSHOE TECHNIQUE 



4-40. Skiing In Variable Terrain and Snow 

a. General. As a military skier the individual 
must be prepared to move in a great variety 
of terrain and snow conditions during daylight 
and darkness. He must be constantly alert in 
order to judge conditions on the route ahead 
and to offset the sudden changes often encoun- 
tered. The techniques of skiing which he has 
learned will allow him to operate effectively on 
slopes only if he is capable of applying these 
methods properly and of keeping his skis under 
control at all times. 

6. Variable Terrain. The forward lean of the 
body must be increased as a slope suddenly 
steepens, since skis will slide faster. The oppo- 
site is true as the slope is lessened. Generally, 
the body should be nearly perpendicular to the 
slope regardless of pitch, to insure proper 
balance. When skiing over bumpy terrain, the 
stability of the skier is greatly disturbed. To 
minimize this the knees are kept supple to act 
aa shock absorbers, permitting the center of 
the body to maintain as straight a line as 
possible. To further increase stability on large 
bumps the skier increases Itnee bend, lowering 
the body when approaching the top of the 
bump, riding over it in this position, and then 
assuming a normal running position as soon 
as the top is passed (fig. 4-34), i.e., allowing 
the skis to drop away. This action will lessen 
the chance of the skier being thrown into the 
air. When moving through a hollow the normal 
ski and body position is maintained, with the 
knees absorbing the sudden change of pressure. 
In deep snow the leading ski should be fur- 
ther advanced to improve balance. The center 
of gravity must be kept lower by more bend- 
ing of the knees. As forward lean of the body 
is not practical under these conditions, weight 



shift will need to be controlled to a greater 
extent by the knees and the advancement of 
one ski in front of the other. 




1 0>er ttaa erwt of * bnuit. 




2 Thraush the boUow of • tnaoip. 

Figure i-Si. Position of the body in downhill 

bump riding. 

c. Variable Snow. When skiing from soft 
snow onto hard snow the forward lean of the 
body must be increased, since the skis will 
gain speed and have a tendency to run from 
under the skier. The opposite is true when run- 
ning from hard snow onto soft snow. In this 
case the body leans slightly to the rear and 
the leading ski is advanced farther ahead just 
before the soft snow is entered. Lateral stabil- 
ity can be increased by extending the arms 
sideways as is done when attempting to keep 
balance when walking a log or a railroad 
track, but the ski poles must still be kept point- 
ing to the rear. When skiing on icy crust, 
stability is improved by keeping the skis far- 
ther apart or by running in a slight snowpiow 



AGO B«41A 



95 



position. However, if the slope is rutted snow- 
plowing- may become hazardous because the 
tips tend to get caught To control speed under 
these conditions, sideslipping and pole riding 
may be used- Pole riding is less effective and in 
extreme cases the use of sideslipping- may be- 
come necessary. On icy snow the skis may 
chatter in a turn. To correct this, body weight 
33 kept wel! forward and the edging of the 
skis carefully controlled as the turn is made. 
Crusty snow which will not support the skier's 
weight {breakable crust) is the most difficult 
to cope with. Speed is kept slower while mak- 
ing all turns. It may become necessary to use 
the step turn in motion or a kick turn to change 
direction, 

d. Forest Due to the limited skiing room 
in wooded terrain^ movements for changing 
direction must be rapid and of shorter radius 
than in open terrain, especially during down- 
hill movement In addition, the skier must be 
more alert so that obstacles may be quickly 
overcome with a minimum of delay. The step 
turn in motion is a very useful technique for 
changing direction in this type of terrain, but 
speed must be reduced to use this technique. 
In descending narrow trails in wooded terrain 
or during night movements, the half snowplow 
or pole riding are useful for control of speed. 
During unit movement in wooded terrain, one 
man falling can block the progress of all per- 
sonnel behind him. If an individual falls he 
should remove himself from the track in the 
fastest way possible, even if this results in los- 
ing his original position in the column. The 
baskets of ski poles have a tendency to snag 
branches during movement in wooded terrain, 
resulting in loss of balance. To avoid this as 
much as possible, the shafts of the ski poles 
should be pointed directly to the rear. 

4-41. Obstacles 

a- General, Snow-covered terrain will contain 
many small obstacles such as fences, tree 
windfalls, and small streams or ditches. The 
individual must be skilled enough to cross them 
easily to save time and energy. Crossing ob- 
stacles can be very time consuming for a unit. 
Wherever possible, the men should be dis- 
persed so as to enable them to cross on a broad 
front. In some cases the overall time needed can 



be reduced if skis are removed while overcom- 
ing the obstacles. 

h. Fences and Windfalls. Low fences and 
windfalls 30 to 60 cm high (1' to 20 are 
crossed by skiing or snowshoeing beside the 
obstacle so that the skis or snowshoes are 
parallel and alongside it, then stepping over 
first with one foot then the other, or a kick 
turn may be made over the obstacle. In the 
case of rail fences or large diameter windfalls 
it may sometimes be easier to sit on the ob- 
stacle and swing both feet simultaneously to 
the other side. High barbed wire fences can be 
crossed by removing pack and rifle and crawl- 
ing underneath (fig, 4-35). 

c. Ditches or Small StreaTns. These are 
crossed by stepping over them side^vays, using 
the ski poles for support (fig- 4-35)- If the 
ditches are deep and wide it is better to descend 
to the bottom either by sidestepping or side- 
slipping and then climb the other side by 
sidestepping. However, care must be taken to 
avoid rocks or other obstacles which might 
damage the skis or snowshoes. 

d. Steep Slopes, When it is necessary for 
troops to descend or ascend slopes which are 
too steep for their ability, or where traversing 
is not practical^ the sidestep should be used or 
the skis should be removed and the slope ne- 
gotiated on foot whenever snow depth will per- 
mit. 

4-42. Skiing With Pack and Weapon 

a. General, When skiing with pack and 
weapon the same techniques apply- However, 
the added weight carried, changes the center 

of gravity and will affect the manner in which 
movements are made, 

6- Effects on MoveTnents. 

(1) Lunges are shorter and pushes with 
poles less powerfuL 

(2) To aid in maintaining balance when 
skiing downhill over rough terrain, the 
leading ski is advanced farther anc 
the knees kept more flexible than 
when skiing without a load* 

(3) Speed of descent is reduced and tech- 
niques are applied more cautiously. 

(4) Rotation of arms and shoulders i^ 



96 



AGO 8641A 




Figuyp 1-T5. Crossing obstacles. 



made with less vigor and emphasis. 
(3) Slopes are climbed with a more 
gradual traverse. 

(6) When skiing through woods cr in 
brushy terrain, care must be exercised 
in order to prevent any protruding 
parts of the weapon from catching 
on branches, causing loss of balance. 

(7) In the event of a fall it is sometimes 
more efficient to remove the pack and 

weapon before attempting to regain 
footing. 

4-43. Sled Pulling 

a. General. Pulling a sled is hard work, but 
it wil! be easier if proper techniques are used. 
The movements and techniques used should be 
within the ability of all members of the team, 
and, where possible, teams should be formed 
with this in mind. Generally speaking, the 



methods of hauling sleds apply to both skiers 

and snowshoers. 

b. Preparation for Sled Pulling. 

(1) The tow ropes must be of the proper 
length and also properly laid out and 
fastened by snap buckles in tandem 
system (fig. 4^6). The sled harnesses 
are adjusted to fit loosely on the in- 
dividuals. 

(2) If skis are to be used for pulling, they 
must be properly waxed. More empha- 
sis must be placed on insuring good 
holding capacity of the wax on the 
snow. However, sliding capacity 
should not be entirely forfeited. 

(3) Proper loading and lashing of sled 
must be checked before moving out. 

c. Pulling on Varied Terrain. When pulling 
a sled over comparatively flat terrain^ skiers 
normally use the one step ski technique. When 



AGO 9641 A 



97 




Figure i— ?^, Modified tandem system. 



-^^Sfci^ SUCKLE 




K«*IESS. MAN S 



a 






9UP BiKXLE 







IDwnoPC 



a- Pulling arrangement. 
b. Harness, man's sled. 

Figure 1^5— Continued. 

crossing small ditches, the sled is stopped in 
the ditch while the puHers go as far as the 
two ropes allow. Then, by a simultaneous pull, 
the sled is brought up out of the ditch. To 
change direction in woods, the pullers con- 
tinue to move straight forward until the sled 
comes to the desired turning point. The pullers 
then move in the new direction with the turn 
being controlled by the puller nearest the sled, 
assisted, if necessary, by the man behind. When 
the forest ia dense and space does not allow 

93 



the men to move far enough ahead before the 
turn is made, the pullers must start the turn 
by gradually making as gentle a curve as possi- 
ble while the two men nearest the sled (in 
front and behind) guide, lift, and otherwise 
assist in turning the sled. While turning, the 
pullers must watch the movements of each 
other in order to avoid confusion. 

d. Uphill Climbing. To pull a sled uphill the 
following methods can be applied: 

(1) On short, gentle slopes the herring- 
bone can be used. 

(2) On a steep, short slope the pullers can 
use the sidestep (fig. 4-37). In this 
case the rear man moves to the front 
and side of the sled and, while side- 
stepping, assists in pulling the sled by 
using the rope fastened to the front 
end- 

(3) On very gentle slopes and in snoiP 
with good trackability an uphill tra- 
verse may be employed. Ski climbers 
can be used if the length of the slope 
justifies the time required to put 
them on. 

(4) In difficult terrain a relaying tech- 
nique may be used when the necessary 
equipment is available. In this tech- 
nique a climbing rope, 36.50 meters 
(1200 long, or similar item, ia fas- 

AGO asiiA 



:^:';.^;— ^ 



;{^r-.:i 









^ h 






1 Sidestep 



.^ p^" 



^^^^i.: ■■--: 













2 Herringbone 
Figure U-S7. Sled team using the sidestep and herringbone techniqiit for ascending a slope. 



tened to the sled. The pullers then 
climb uphill as far a3 the rope allows. 
Standing in place, the sled is then 
pulled up to their position. This 
procedure is repeated as many times 
as is necessary to reach the top. 
When using this technique care must 
be taken to insure that the sled is 
well anchor,ed each time the pullers 
move up since a runaway sled may 
not only damage itself but is a serious 
hazard to anyone below. Where steep 
slopes must be ascended for considera- 
ble distances, less energy will be 
expended if the sleds are left behind 
and the sled load backpacked to the 
objective. 

e. Downhill Movement. In descending a slope 
the following methods can be used: 



(1) On very gentle slopes and in poor 
snow conditions where the sled will 
not descend on its own accord, the 
skier can use a double poling tech- 
nique or one step. However, it will be 
necessary to control the speed to 
prevent the sled from overrunning 
the pullers. The rear man can assist 
in this by braking the sled, although 
in most cases very little braking will 
be needed. If the team is on snow- 
shoes, the pullers can descend nor- 
mally while the man in the rear in- 
sures that the sled does not overrun 
those in front. 

(2) A short, steep slope can be descended 
by sidestepping either on skis or 
snowshoes. If necessary, the rear 
man is assisted in the braking action 



AGO 8G41A 



99 



_ 1^ _ - 






'j' r„.^ 




*?-|^^J 



-^p^A^fcU^-^_ 



^ - -^ 



A-V . ^»- 



->^ 









— ^ ^ 










^.^■■-^:>. 






^ili 



r fc 












-■^ 



Figure i-3S, iSted team descending a slope using the snowplow for braking. 



by one or more members of the team. 
Skiers can also use sideslipping for 
this type of terrain. For short descents 
in wooded areas, the braker should 
position himself behind a tree for 
added stability in lowering the sled. 
If necessary, a succession of position 
moves are made. 

(3) On long, moderate slopes skiers can 
use the snowplow as a braking method 
(fig. 4-38). If more braking is neces- 
sary than can be supplied by the rear 
man, the puiler closest to the sled may 
move to one side or he may remove 
his rope and refasten it to the rear 
of the sled and assist the rear man 
for more effective braking. Snow- 
shoers on this type of slope may also 

change pullers to brakers to aid in 
descent. 

(4) On a long, steep slope requiring the 
team to go straight down, all men will 



be needed to brake the sled. This can 
be done by fastening all tow ropes to 
the rear of the sled with all men brak- 
ing from the rear and/or one skier 
controlling the sled by straddling the 
front of the sled (fig. 4-38), and con- 
trolling the sled by himself or assisted 
by one or more brakers. The snow- 
plow or sideslipping techniques are 
used as the braking method. 

(5) Traversing by both skiers and snow- 
shoers may be used on long, steep 
downhill slopes. In this case the puiler 
nearest the sled and the rear man 
should remain above the sled and as 
far from it as the ropes will allow. 
From this position they can brake, 
preventing the sled from sideslipping- 

(6) In very steep terrain a long rope, 
when available, may be used to lower 
the sled straight down the slope. This 
procedure is the reverse of the uphill 



100 



AGO SHIA 




Figure ^-39. Skijoring. 



relay method described in d(4) above. 

and 13 a very practical method for 
evacuating wounded. 

t-44. Skijonng 

a. General. Skijoring, as used in this manual, 
3 the term applied to moving men on skis 
ver snow by towing them with vehicles. This 
provides a faster and less tiring method for 
ndividual movement than is possible under 
heir own locomotion, Oversnow vehicles, track 
.nd wheeled vehicles can be used for pulling 
ikiers {fig. 4-39). The best routes for skijor- 
ng are snow covered roads and trails, frozen 
akes, rivers, or paths made by tracked ve- 
licles. Speeds up to 24 KmPH (15 MPH) may 
;e maintained on level ground by trained 
roops, depending on weather and trail condi- 
ions. Normally, one rifle squad can be towed 
;ehind a light carrier and two squads behind 
I squad carrier. Towing more than two squads 
'jy one vehicle is impractical, due to the in- 
■reased length of the column, difficulty in mak- 
ng turns, and the limitations of the vehicle 
md the skiers using the technique over steep 
■r wooded terrain, and during poor or spotty 
now conditions. 

b. Use of Tow Rope. (For a description of 
■':not3 see FM 31-72.) 

(1) Two ropes 36.50 meters (120') long 
are used for towing a rifle squad be- 
hind a vehicle and for the purpose of 
securing sufficient space between the 
individuals. The skiers, in columns of 



of twos, are spaced at equal intervals 
behind the vehicle and outside the 
ropes. A gap of approximately 4 

meters (120 is left between indivi- 
duals. 

(2) Several methods of towing can be 
used according to the situation, the 
terrain, and the distance of move- 
ment: 
(a) The skier grasps a bight of rope 
and makes a 25 cm (10") loop by 
tying an overhand knot. The loop 
13 held with one hand and poles 
are held in the other, or a long 
loop can be formed by tying an 
overhand knot in a 1.50 to 2 meter 
(5' to 70 bight of rope. The skier 
leans against the loop after placing 
it around the buttocks. He does not 
place the body through the loop 
(1, fig. 4-40). 
(&) Using the ski pole method (2, fig. 
4-40), the skier rests both arms 
and body and can arrive at the 
destination in better physical con- 
dition. Another advantage in this 
method is that a skier can easily 
exercise his hands to prevent frost- 
bite during movement in extreme 
cold. 
(c) When being towed through dense 
wooded areas, or when contact with 
the enemy is imminent, skiers may 
simply grasp the rope without ty- 
ing a knot or using the ski poles as 



\GO SSJIA 



101 



(3) 



a rest- Thu3^ they can maneuver 
through narrow trails and are more 
ready for immediate combat- 
No matter what method of towing is 







1 Long overhand knot 




^smm^f^ 







. lA. 



2 trying ski poles as a rest 

Figure i-4fl. Methods of towing or skijoring. 



beinj? used, individuals must never be 
aJlowed to fasten themselvea to the 
tow rope- In case of a fall they muat 
be able to release their hold imme- 
diately to avoid serioua injury to 
themselves or other skiers. The slci 
poies are usualiy held in one hand 
and available for instant use. During 
training and in combat situations 
when contact with the enemy is not 
probable, the ski poles may be loaded 
on the vehicies to avoid accidents, 

c. Skijoring Technique. 

(1) The track is made as simple as the 
terrain permits. Steep slopes^ obsta- 
cles^ and sharp turns are avoided. 
When these cannot be bypassed the 
speed must be reduced in order that 
the skiers can maneuver. A high 
degree of cooperation between the 
driver of the towing vehicle and the 
skiers is necessary. One man, usually 
the assistant driver, is responsible for 
stopping or slowing the vehicle in or- 
der to prevent casualties due to speed 
or obstacles. He constantly observes 
the skiers and other vehicles^ gives 
the driver orders^ and signals the 

skiers when the vehicle will alow 
down^ speed up, or stop. 

(2) When the vehicle begins its forward 
movement each man on the rope 
should move forward under his own 
power for a few steps, gradually plac- 
ing tension on the towing rope to 
prevent being suddenly jerked into 
motion, causing a fall. When under 
way, the skier's body is leaned 
slightly backward, the knees are bent 
slightly, and the upper body is nearly 
straight- Skis may be farther apart 
than in normal skiing. One ski is kept 
slightly ahead- The position should be 
one in which the skier can relax but 
still be alert to sidestep quickly in 
order to avoid obstacles and maintain 
his balance- If a skier falls, he should 
release the towing rope immediately- 

(3) When approaching a sharp curve 
where the area for movement is con- 
fined, the vehicle should be slowed 



102 



AGO BfiilA 



(4) 



down or, in some instances, stopped- 
When negotiating' a sharp turn, the 
vehicle should be slowed to a walking 
speed and skiers walk around the 
curve being careful not to drop or 
step on the tow rope. Normal speed 
13 resumed after the last man has 
made the turn. Failure to do this may 
result in being pulled off balance by 
the rope as the vehicle completer the 
turn and proceeds in the new direc- 
tion. Vehicle stops and starts must be 
in a gradual manner which allows for 
a smooth rather than a jerky ride for 
the skier. 

When descending hills the men can 
brake by using the snowplow or haif 



snowpJow, if space allows, to prevent 
overruning the vehicle or, if condi- 
tions warrant it, they may move to 
the side of the Jrack where the softer 
.snow will decrease their speed. If the 
terrain will not allow tor controlled 
braking and collision with the vehi- 
cle seems imminent, the individuals 
should relea-se the rope and disperse 
to the sides of the track. On short 
downhill slopes the vehicles should in- 
crease speed temporarily 30 that the 
skiers need not brake. On long, steep 
slopes the men can descend independ- 
ently of the vehicle and reattach 
themselves after the slope has been 
negotiated. 



^CO 3641A 



103 



CHAPTER 5 



MOVEMENT 



Section L PROBLEMS AFFECTJNG MOVEMENT 



5—1. Genera[ 



a. 



The lack of roada, the soft, wet terrain 
prevalent in the summer, the snow and bliz- 
zards in winter, thick forests in mountains 
and hills, and the innumerable waterways are 
some of the barriers to movement in most cold 
areas of the world. The ability to overcome 
the many obstacles to movement may well be 
the deciding factor in winning or losing a war 

in these cold areas. Mobility begins with the 
individual. 



- Influence of Seasonal Changes in 
Weather and Terrain on Mobility 

Spring Breakup and Fail Freezeup 

(1) The spring breakup and fall freezeup 
periods are by far the most difficult 
seasons in which to maintain mobil- 
ity. The period of breakup may last 
from 3 to 6 weeks and will present 
restrictions to movement (fig. 5-1). 
The snow becomes slush and will sup- 
port little weight. Winter roads break 
down, the ice in waterways melts, 
rivers are swollen and become tor- 
rents. Movement at this time of year 
poses many problems, however, move- 
ment is possible in cold areas at all 
times. Normally, at this time of year, 
temperatures drop at night, freezing 
the surface, and mobility during this 
period can be maintained. During the 
day caution should be exercised in 
shady areas as they may contain ice 
and snow even though daytime tem- 
peratures are above freezing. 

(2) The period of freezeup with rain and 
open or half-frozen waterways will 



(3) 



also present barriers to movement. 
Complete freezeup may take up to 3 
months, often restricting the move- 
ment of heavy equipment across lakes 
until late January. 

The early winter period, when there 
is little snow and the ground and 
waterways are firmly frozen, will pro- 
vide excellent trafficability for foot 
soldiers and vehicles. 




Figure 5~l. Breakup season. 

h . Win te r. The low temperatures, snow, 
blustery winds, and bulky clothing and equip- 
ment required during winter hinder movement 
as it is known in more temperate climates. By 
the proper use of specialized equipment for 
cold weather operations, mobility can be main- 
tained. Using skis, snowshoes, oversnow vehi- 
cles, and aircraft, mobility is possible. In the 
barren tundra or on icecaps the hard snow 
found in these areas ^vill readily support an 
individual on foot as well as oversnow vehicles. 
In the forested areas the snow will normally 



104 



AGO 9HL* 



be deeper and the temperatures lower- The 
depth of the snow nncl the trees in these lxt^h^ 
;vil] prove to be the greatest obstacles to mo- 
biiitv- With Qversnow equipment auch as ^ikis 
:ind snowshuea, properly trained, equipped, 
motivated and conditioned troops can maintain 
mobility. 

f:. Forcsti'd Areas. A great portion of the 
Morth is covered with evergreen forests and 



with numeroLus swamps and water courne^i- 
Few trails exist through the forests and those 
that do exist are of poor construction, makinp 

pro^re^ss dilTlcult and slow. The n^lmerour^ wa- 
terways, once they become frozen, will nor- 
mally provide exceJlent routes for foot and 
some vehicle movement- Whenever possible 
they should be used to the maximum for the 
ease of movement they offer. 



Section IL FOOT MOVEMENT 



5-3- General 



Winter cross-country travel in the North is 
difficult and complex. Of necessity, travel will 
be slower. However, with the proper training- 
in the use and maintenance of equipment, the 
proper enthusiastic leadership, and the will to 
accomplish the mission, nothing- is impossible- 

5^. Basic Rules for Foot Movement 

The following guides are based on experience 
factors and should be considered in preparing 
for cross-country movements in the northern 
areas* 

a. Insure that all personnel participating in 
the move are fully aware of the nnission, route, 
etc. Equipment must be checked and loads 
evenly distributed. Dispatch trailbreaking 

teams far enough in advance to insure con- 
tinuous, uninterrupted movement of the main 
body- Men should be dressed as lightly as pos- 
sible consistent with the weather to reduce 
excessive perspiring and subsequent chilling* 
Complete cold weather uniforms must be avail- 
able while operating in cold environments- A 
large proportion of cold weather casualties re- 
sult from too few clothes being available to 
individuals at such time as a severe change in 
the weather occurs- Therefore, unit clothing 
discipline must be enforced consistent with 
prevailing weather- 

b. The first halt after initiating a march 
should be made in approximately 15 minutes. 
This will allow adjustment of clothing and 
equipment- Subsequent halts should be fre- 
quent and of short duration to insure rest and 
to prevent chilling. Halts should, so far as pos- 
sible, be made in sheltered places which will 



provide protection from the elements, 
drinks should be provided during the 
if possible- 



Warm 
march 



c* The buddy system is mandatory in the 
North and men must be instructed to watch 
their buddy carefully for eariy signs of frost- 
bite. Individuals must not be allowed to fall 
out of the line of march, except in an extreme 
emergency. If this should occur, proper care 
must be taken to insure that he does not be- 
come a cold weather casualty, NormaJly, the 
second-in-command will bring up the rear of 
the column and, in each halt, will check the 
men and report their condition to the leader. 

d. Prior detailed reconnaissance is most im- 
portant to insure successful mobility in the 
northern areas. Maps may or may not exist 
and those that do exist may not always be 
accurate. In planning a move, maximum ad- 
vantage must be taken of map studies^ aerial 
photographs, ground and aerial reconnaissance- 
Without detailed reconnaissance and prior 
planning, unit movement may be slowed or 
stopped by long detours or obstacies, 

e. Marching in single file is often the best 
formation. It maintains track discipline, cam- 
ouflage, and reduces the number of trailbreak- 
ers and reconnaissance parties required- Nat- 
ural obstacles may limit the use of other 
formations- Large units in single file however, 
become excessively long and will be slow to 
reac: to enemy action to the front or rear. Tac- 
tical considerations will often require the use 
of other formations. The double track of vehi- 
cles may be used as pathways for foot troops, 
but will rarely afford ease of movement for 
ski or snowshoe mounted troops* 



AGO a64tA 



105 



Section III. TRAILBREAKING 



5-5. Genercl 

a. Pur-pose, 

(1) The purpose of traiibreaking ia to 
make the march of the main body aa 
easy and fast as posaibie in order that 
the troops will arrive at their destina- 
tion in good fighting? condition. Trail- 
breaking accomplished at any time of 
the day or night through deep snow 
and difficult terrain is hard and time- 
consuming work. The progress of 
trailbreaking 13 dependent on the ter- 
rain^ weather and snow conditions, 
vegetation, physical condition of the 
trailbreaking detachment and. iinally, 
on the tactical situation. Therefore, 
plans must be carefully made and 
trailbreaking parties well organized. 

(2) In addition to trailbreaking, the mis- 
sion of providing frontal security for 
the main body is a normal function 
of the trailbreaking party. Approxi- 
mately one-fourth of a unit is given 
the mission of trailbreaking and 
frontal security for the march. For 
example, the battalion normally as- 
signs one rifle company this mission. 
The quartering party may accompany 
the trailbreaking party or may follow 
later. The company in turn assigns 
one rifle platoon to lead, functioning 
simultaneously as a trailbreaking 
party for the lead company. Since the 
trailbreaking unit is the first to ar- 
rive in the new bivouac area, its com- 
mander is also responsible for estab- 
lishing temporary security of the 
area. When the quartering party ar- 
rives in the bivouac area they will 
perform the normal functions of a 
quartering party as outlined in FM 
7-20. 

b. Planning. Based upon an estimate of the 
tacticai situation, terrain, weather and snow 
conditions, the most suitable route is selected 
for the movement. As a general rule terrain 
features which offer least resistance will be 
followed. In selecting a route, consideration 
must be given to all of the following: 



(1) Oj)en terraij}. In order to keep the 
main body sufficiently dispersed, ski 
trails are more widely separated in 
open terrain. For concealment, nor- 
mally only one ski trail is broken 
ucroKs open terrain. When possible 
the trail is broken clo.se to the edge 
of the forest so shadows will help 
conceal the trail and troops moving 
over it. In open terrain light tracked 
vehicles should be used for breaking 
trail and for towing the trailbreaking 
party by skijoring to the maximum 
extent to save time and energy of the 
individuals. At times it may be de- 
sirable to break additional trails to 
expedite troop movement across open 
areas. 

(2) Covered terrain. Whenever possible, 
time and situation permitting, the 
trail should follow along forest ter- 
rain with little or no underbrush. It 
provides good concealment and pro- 
tection against wind. The trail should 
be broken close to bushy trees in order 
to provide better concealment. Thick- 
eta and windfall forest areas should 
be avoided, as it requires a great 
amount of effort to break a trail in 
areas of this type. If a triple trail 
is broken for sleds, wide curves must 
be made when changing direction 
and the bushes and branches must be 
cut from the inside of the curve. The 
thoroughness with which the small 
trees, bushes, and branches on both 
sides of the broken traii are cleared 
will depend on the time allowed the 
trailbreaking party. 

(3) HUly and mmmtainous terrain. When 
the situation permits, valleys will 
most often provide the easiest route. 
Frozen rivers frequently afford the 
easiest route in this type of terrain. 
If the valleys cannot be used, the 
trail may be broken on the lee side 
of the ridge line or hill mass that 
dominates the valley. Care must be 
exercised to detect avalanche snow 
conditions and bypass these areas as 



106 



AGO 864 lA 



necessary. Use gentle inclines wht^n 
climbinj? uphill or descending?- When 
trails are broken downhill the apeed 
of the trailbreaking party is often 
slow, because of soft and deep snow. 
However, when packed, the aame 
traib may make the speed of the ski- 
ers in the main body too fast This 
\vill result in many falls, especially 
during darkness. 

(4) Water routes. Frozen lakes^ rivers, 
and creeks offer the most suitable 
routes for the trails* They also help 
in land navigation. For best protec- 
tion and concealment, the trailbreak- 
ing party skis very close to the shore 
or on the bank, as this facilitates 
better concealment of the individuals 
and units, their trail, and any quick 
movements into the wooded areas of 
the shore. Sometimes in winter, and 
especially in the spring, there may be 
water under the snow surface on 
surfaces on the lakes and rivers^ thus 
causing the running surfaces of the 
skis to freeze. Check for concealed 
water under the snow before starting 
to break trail across the ice- Areas in 
which water is found under snow 
should be bypassed- If this is not 
possible, the crossing site must be 
reinforced with snow or with a com- 
bination of brush and snow. Also, the 
thickness of the ice must be carefully 
checked before using any ice route* 
The minimum thickness of ice for one 
rifleman on skis is 5 cm (2") ; for an 
infantry column in single file on foot, 
10 cm (4'') ; and for the single light 
artillery piece or ^^-ton truck, 4x4, 
20 cm (8"). See load bearing capacity 
tables in FM 31-71. Warm water 
springs are prevalent in northern 
areas of operations and create a haz- 
ard to both foot and vehicle move- 
ment. Many of these springs do not 
freeze, even in extremely low temper- 
atures, and may cause streams to have 
little or no ice and some lakes to have 
only thin ice. Their presence in 
muskeg or tundra areas can cause 
weak spots in otherwise trafRcable 



terrain. These ureas .should be either 
bridged, reint'orced, or bypassed- 

(5) Obstacles. Since even minor obstacles 
retard the march, they are bypassed 
whenever possible. If a wide obstacle 
is met, such us a ridtre or a steep 
riverbank, several trails are broken 
over the obstacle so that the main 
bodv can cross it on a broad front, 
TreeH and brush are cut ^vell below 
the bottom of ski tracks in order to 
avoid twigs and branches entangling 
in ski bindings and tow ropes. Ob- 
structions 3uch as fences may be cut 
in order to allow the akier to pass 
through. 

( G ) Weather and snow conditions. In 
early winter there is more snow in 
open terrain than in dense forest; 
therefore, the trail should be broken 
close to the forest edge. In late winter 
the reverse is true. In early spring 
more snow can be found in ditchea, 
ravines, and on the shadowy side of 
hills. Maximum advantage should be 
taken for movement during periods 
of reduced visibility, such as snow- 
storms. These storms will conceal 
nnovement and at times completely 
camouflage the trail after the unit has 
moved over it. Care should be exer- 
cised to preclude moving directly into 
a strong wind. Movement in the same 
direction of the wind usually requires 
much less effort. Under the most ad- 
verse conditions, navigation will also 
become extremely difficult. Trails may 
become covered very quickly after 
being broken, requiring the distance 
between the trailbreaking unit and 
the main body to be shortened. Ad- 
verse conditions such as driving snow- 
storms will slow the movement but 
will facilitate security. 

(7) Darkness, Skiing and snowshoeing at 
night is slow and exhausting. There- 
fore, the trail for a night march must 
be broken along the easiest terrain 
available. Avoid all rough terrain if 
possible. Navigation of the trailbreak- 
ing party demands special skill in 



Ago 3641A 



107 



darkness and during periods of re- 
duced viaibility- Rivera, creeks, ridge 
lines, and forest boundaries should be 
used ag aids to navigation in spite of 
the fact that the broken trail migrht 
become longer. Because of the dark- 
ness it may be necessary to leav-e 
guides posted at locations where the 
main body may take the wrong- course. 



\\ 



(8) Enemy activity. 

{a) When breaking- 
frontline area, 
for concealment 
tant Therefore, 



traiJ within the 
the requirements 
are most impor- 
the trailbreaking 
party is forced to ski along covered 
terrain whenever possible. How- 
ever^ if the mission requires fast 
movement, a trail is broken along 
the shortest course, paying less at- 
tention to conceaiment- The se- 
curity mission normally given the 
trailbreaking unit will take on 
added importance and may require 
more support for this unit. 

(&) These responsibilities affect the 
course of traiL In frontline areas 
the trail should be broken along 
terrain features which facilitate 
observation and deployment of the 
main body. Also, the route should 
follow terrain which offers a sound 
approach and suitable places for 
temporary defense. Sometimes it is 
necessary to check critical terrain 
features located near the trail be- 
fore the trailbreaking party moves 
forward. Elements of the trail- 
breaking party may occupy certain 
security positions and remain sta- 
tionary until the main body has 
passed these critical points, at 
which time they may rejoin the 
rear of the column. For the purpose 
of deceiving the enemy, it may be 
desirable to create numerous false 
trails crisscrossing and angling off 
in ail directions. In burned-over 
areas or thin deciduous forests, 
concealment from aerial observa- 
tion is practically impossible. A 
single trail clearly indicates the 



vhereabouti^ and approximate aize 
of the unit making it. "Miscellane- 
ous trails, therefore, create confu- 
sion. Of course, the breaking of 



(9) Niunber of trails used. The number 
of trails to be broken depends upon 
the size of the column asing them, 
the tactical situation, and time avail- 
able for trailbreaking- An organiza* 
tion of battalion size normally re- 
quires two or more march trails and 
one or more communication trails for 
messenger service and control of the 
march column. In cases where time 
is very limited for preparations, only 
one trail may be established for a bat- 
taliom When contact with the enemy 
becomes imminent, greater emphasis 
is placed on security and less empha- 
sis placed on trailbreaking. The pos- 
sibility for a rapid deployment of the 
troops requires that the number of 
trails or tracks be increased from 
that of a routine cross-country march, 

c. Organization. The trailbreaking party 
preceding units mounted on skis should also 
be mounted on skis- The trailbreakers of ele- 
ments on snowshoea should also be mounted 
on snowshoes. Mixing of skiers and snow- 
shoers on the same track is not recommended- 
Snowshoes tend to compact the snow on ski 
trails making it difficult for the main body to 
follow on skis. 

(1) The lead company normally will be 
assigned the mission of breaking 
trail for one complete day- It is re- 
placed by another company on the 
following morning. One rifie platoon 
at a time is assigned as lead platoon 
and is called a Trailbreaking Party* 
It may also include engineers whose 
duties would include reconnoitering 
ice routes, seeking suitable terrain for 
permanent type winter roads, prepar- 
ing ice reinforcements, and perform- 
ing other engineer tasks. Fon-vard 



10S 



AGO 364 lA 



observers may also accompany the 
trailbreaking party, 

(2) Depending on terrain conditions, 1 to 
2 oversnow vehicles, when available, 
should be assigned to the party to be 
used for breaking trail in open ter- 
rain, skijoring, and carrying individ- 
ual loads and platoon equipment. In 
unfavorable terrain conditions the ve- 
hicles remain under company control 
or with the higher echelon. The trail- 
breaking party consists of its organic 
rifle squads, called Trailbreaking 
Squads. A trailbreaking party is ex- 
pected to break trail approximately 
a half a day at a time, but may be 
rotated sooner depending on local 
conditions. Trailbreaking squads, in 
turn, are normally rotated as often 
as necessary in order to maintain the 
speed necessary to complete the mis- 
sion in time. 

± Trailbreaking Squad. The organization, 
duties, and special equipment of the trailbreak- 
ing squad are indicated in figure 5-2. Squad 
leaders must insure that their men have a suf- 
ficient number of tools of proper size before 
moving out. The tools are part of the tent 
group equipment and are used in preference 
to intrenching tools. To conserve energy and to 
assure an uninterrupted march, the leading 
man (breaker) of the squad is regularly re- 
lieved. In very deep and heavy snow a relief 
may become necessary every 150 meters (150 
yds). When the change ia ordered by the team 
leader, the man to be relieved steps sideways 
out of the path and falls in at the rear of the 
team. The man following him then becomes 
the breaker. Special equipment is exchanged 
by passing it to the next man in line during 
the rotation- The breaking team will be re- 
lieved by the reserve team as directed by the 
squad leader whenever the point team tends to 
ksIow down due to fatigue. 

e. Trailbreaking Party. The trailbreaking 
party consists of two or more trailbreaking 
squads- Normally a rifle platoon will be as- 
signed this mission, especially if the snow is 
heavy and the weather severe- 
CD One of the squads is always design 









mm 



i 



ilEMt 




(z 







-A 



JL 

i 

3 




•0. 



■ 0" 



Figure 5-J. Orffanization of trailbreakmg squad. 

nated as the base squad and is re- 
sponsible for navigation and the gen- 
eral direction to be followed. The 
platoon leader and the navigation de- 
tail directly under his control will 
follow the base squad. When dead 
reckoning is required, the base squad 
breaks the center trail and works 
slightly ahead of the other squads for 
the purpose of maintaining the proper 
direction of the squads which are 
moving on both sides of the track 
made by the base squad (fig. 5-3). 
In cases where the party follows 
easily recognizable terrain features, 
such as small creeks or the edge of 
open terrain, the base squad follows 
next to this terrain feature, making 
navigation easier. The other squads 
are echeloned to the right or left, and 
their breaker (the first man) to the 
right or left of the last man of the 
squad ahead (fig. 5-4). 



ACO 3SI1A 



109 



4 



«i 






A 
i 

t 



t 



I 
f 



f 



t 



t 



t 



I 




bers of the weapons squad may be 
assigned to the navigation detail, to 
flank security miaaiona, to aaaiat the 
vehicles in breaking their trail off the 
ski traiis, and similar duties. The 
weapons squad may folbw and im- 
prove the traiis being established, as 
directed by the leader of the trail- 
breaking party. From the area where 
vehicles are temporarily halted due to 
the close proximity of the enemy, one 
track may be widened into a triple 
track to facilitate the movement of 
heavy weapons, ammunition, and 



PLAT LDR, 

M3GR 

NAVIGATION t 

DETAIL 4 

(FHOM WPNS' 
500) 



m 
O 



PLAT LDR 

MSGR 



NAVIGATrON DTL- 

LAKE 



PLAT SOT 



ll 






t 



PLAT SGT— i 



MARCIH 
TRACK 



COMMUNICATION 
TRACK 



MARCH 
TRACK 




Figure 5-3. Trailbreaking party (dead reckoning). 

(2) Interval between the trails varies 
from about 15 meters (15 yds) in 
covered terrain to approximately 100 
meters (100 yds) in open areas, de- 
pending on the local situation. The 
depth of the party varies from 100 
to 200 meters (100 to 200 yds). Mem- 



SECUR1TY ELEMENT 
(FROM WPNS SOD) 




Figure 5-i. Trailbrmking party foUowing recognizable 

terrain features. 



no 



AGO 5U1A 



warming tents. This equipment ia 
usually moved forward by man-drawn 
3led3. 

(3) The trailbreaking party moves far 
enough ahead of the column to per- 
mit a steady rate of march by the 
main body. This distance varies ac- 
cording to the tactical situation, 
snow, weather conditions, and ter- 
rain encountered. For covered move- 
ments through territory controlled by 
friendly troops, the trailbreaking 
party nonnally precedes the main 
body by 1 hour for each 5 km (3 
miles) of marching distance. For ex- 
ample, if a 25 km <15 miles) march 
is planned, the trailbreakers leave 5 
hours in advance of the parent unit. 
For uncovered moves, the trailbreak- 
ers precede the main body by a dis- 
tance dictated by the tactical situa- 
tion. 

/. Techniques. The trailbreaking squad may 
break a normal or triple track as required. On 
TtormaZ track the first man makes his tracks 
so that the grooves are a little wider apart 
than usual, approximately 30 cm (1'). The 
trailbreaker usually uses the one step tech- 
nique. In deep and soft snow, however, his 
steps will be shorter than normal and he will 
be forced to lift his skis at each step to prevent 
the tips from running under the surface of the 
snow. Progress will be slow and may be ex- 
hausting. Therefore, the man in the breaker 
position must be rotated often. 

(1) When track-laying vehicles and cargo 
sleds cannot be used any further 
due to the tactical situation, the 
crew-served weapons, ammunition 
and warming tents must be moved to 
the units in man-drawn sleds. There- 
fore a triple track ia broken because 
the normal trail is too narrow. When 
starting a triple trail (1, fig. 5-5), 
the leading three men of the breaking 
team will break a normal trail of two 
grooves. The third groove is started 
by the fourth man who keeps one ski 
in the already broken groove and 
makes a new groove with his left 
(right) ski, depending on which side 



of the original groove the new track 
wi31 be broken. Alternate men behind 
the fourth man, both in breaking and 
reserve teams, ski along the original 
tracks made by the first three leading 
men, the others following the tracks 



I 

BREAKING 

TEAM 
] 



RESERVE 
TEAM 



I 



5LE0 
TEAM 



CZ) 



{^ 



1 



SCUAD LEADER 



6 



8 



TEAM LEADER 



TEAM LEADER 




1 Organization of the trailbreaking^ squad. 
Figure 5-5, Breaking of triple track. 



AGO B641A 



111 






■ *t 







2 Triple track completed, 
Figure 5-5 — Continued. 



made by the fourth man. This creates 
a trail with three tracks, a triple 
trail (2, fig. 5-5). This provides the 
proper type of trail for pulling man- 
drawn sleds. Due to the fact that 
sleds tend to destroy the ski trails, 
only one of the ski trails will be pre- 
pared a3 a triple trail and this traii 
will be used for man-drawn sleds only. 

(2) Ski trails must be kept separate from 
the trails and roads established for 
vehicles and cargo sleds, due to the 

fact that the vehicles tend to destroy 
the ski trails and, conversely, the ski- 
ers on the winter road tend to harass 
the vehicular traffic. Signal wire 
layed alongside the ski trail must be 
located far enough to the side so as 
not to become entangied with skis and 
ski poles. When crossing the ski trail 
the wire must be buried well below 
the trail or secured overhead, which- 
ever is most desirable. 

5-6. Marking the Trails 

a. The trailbreaking squad marks its trails 
as uniformly as possible. The types of mark- 
ings used must be known to the unit that fol- 



lows. When several squads are operating, 
marking by the base squad is usually sufficient. 
The marking is simple, and recognizable by 
night as well as by day. Temporary trails 
through new snow need simple markings only 
where the trails or roads are crossed by other 
trails. Trails that are frequently used for long 
periods are more permanently marked. The 
following can be used as trailmarkera : 

(1) Twigs on trees and shrubs broken in 
a predetermined manner, or blazes 
(nicks) in tree trunks made by using 
a hatchet or machete. 

(2) Poles or guiding arrows planted in 
the snow. 

(3) Markers made of rags or colored 
paper. 

(4) Trailmarkers (willow wands). 

b. Snowfalls, fog, poor observation, and uni- 
formity of the terrain necessitate thorough 
and frequent markers spaced at uniform inter- 
vals and numbered successively in the direction 
of march. To avoid the destruction of trail- 
markers by traffic, the markers are placed 
about 1 meter (3') oif the trail. When strange 
tracks cross the trail of the unit they are ob- 
literated at the point of crossing. Guides are 
posted at crossings, if necessary, to direct units 
that follow. 



112 



AGO 864tA 



Section IV, LAND NAVIGATION 



5-7. Effects of Environment 

a. General. Basically, mapreadin^, as well as 
navigation under cold weather conditions, fol- 
lowa the same principles as in the temperate 
zones. In addition to the normal procedures, 
every individual must be most familiar with 
certain conditions peculiar to the cold weather 
rejjiona and the techniquea applicable to navi- 
gation. Due to the fact that a technical failure 
or human error may easily, and especially in 
the winter, be fatal to the individual or to a 
unit, grreat care must be exercised when navi- 
gating in low temperatures. 

b. Navigation Problems. The following con- 
ditions, characteristic of the cold weather re- 
gions, will make accurate navigation very 
difficult : 

(1) Lack of adequate large scale maps in 
the sparsely populated areas which 
will increase the requirements for and 
the use of aerial photographs. 

(2) Photos of many areas will be difficult 
to read and interpret because of the 
absence of relief and contrast, and 
absence of manmade works for use 
as reference points. 

(3) Dense forests and wildernesses offer 
few landmarks and limit visibility. 
Also, barren, monotonous tundra 
areas north of the tree line are char- 
acterized by lack of landmarks as aids 
for navigation. 

(4) In winter, short daylight, fogs, snow- 
fall, blizzards, drifting snow, espe- 
cially in the barren areas, drastically 
limit visibility. At times an overcast 
sky and snow-covered terrain create 
a phenomenon called whiteout which 
makes recognition of irregularities in 
terrain extremely difficult. 

(o) Heavy snow may completely obliter- 
ate existing tracks, trails, outlines of 
small lakes, and similar landmarks. 
Because the appearance of the ter- 
rain is quite different in winter from 
that in summer, particular attention 
must be paid to identifying land- 



marks, both on the ground and in 
aerial photos. 

(6) Magnetic disturbances are encoun- 
tered, making mai^netic compass 
readings difficult and sometimes un- 
reliable. 

[7) Magnetic declination in different lo- 
calities varies considerably, and must 
be taken into consideration when 
transposing from a map to a compass. 

(S) Handling maps, compass, and other 
navigation instruments in low tem- 
peratures with bare hands is difficult. 
Removing handgear may often be 
possible for a very short period of 
time only. 

5-8. Methods of Land Navigation 

a. The normal methods of land navigation 
under cold weather conditions remain the same 
as anywhere else. Maps and aerial photos may 
be used alone during daylight in terrain which 
offers enough distinctive terrain features to 
serve as useful landmarks. They may also be 
used in conjunction with a compass, especially 
in terrain which contains insufficient land- 
marks or under circumstances when visibility 
is limited. However, in most instances, utiliz- 
ing the map and compass together will provide 
for the surest land navigation in northern 
areas of operation. 

&. Depending on various conditions, certain 
supplementary methods, such as position of the 
sun in daytime. North Star and Big Dipper at 
night, as described in FM 21-26, may be used 
to aid in land navigation. Where possible, these 
methods should be employed in conjunction 
with the normal methods described above. 

c. It is obvious that on vast barren grounds 
as well as in wide forest, navigation by dead 
reckoning often becomes the only practical 
method. Dead reckoning is the process by 
which position at any instant is found by ap- 
plying to the last determined position the di- 
rection and distance of the course traveled. 
This method should also be used in areas where 
landmarks are very limited or totally nonex- 



AGO 3G41A 



113 



->:tent. It ^3 also deairabie when the landmarks 
are obliterated by the limited visibility. 



Navigation by Dead Reckoning 

.Navjg-ation by dead reckoning' is performed 
in accordance with FM 21-26. Due to the pe- 
culiarities of the cold weather regions, the 
following hints should be observed when ap- 
plicable: 

1. Responsibility for navigation is assigned 
to a detail of one officer or noncommissioned 
officer and 1 to 2 men, all thoroughly experi- 
enced in navigation techniques. The detail is 
placed directly under the control of the unit 
commander and must be released from the car- 
rying of individual heavy loads and from 
details such as trailbreaking in order to per- 
form their duties properly. Using a small detail 
rather than a single navigator is based upon 
the fact that the method of pacing distances 
in deep snow has to be modified as described 
in c below. 

b. In general, the navigation detail is re- 
sponsible for — 

(1) Accumulating necessary instruments 
and equipment. 

(2) Keeping instruments and equipment 
serviceable. 

(3) Performing the detailed duties of tak- 
ing and recording necessary data for 
precise location at all times. 

(4) Maintaining liaison with the com- 
mander of the unit, 

(5) Supplying data to keep the column 
on course. 

c. Due to the sliding capacity of the skis, 
normal pacing system is very inaccurate or, in 
certain cases, such as on steep slopes, entirely 
useless. Pacing on snowshoes can be done in 
emergency. It must be borne in mind, however, 
that an individual mounted on snowshoes takes 
much shorter paces than on foot. The only 
recommended method for accurate ground 
measurements is a piece of line or field wire 



preferably 50 meters long (50 yds) used by 
two navigators. 

d. Keeping a log is mandatory. The prepara- 
tion of the log, as well as plotting the route 
from the log data on the face of the map or on 
a separate piece of paper at the same scale as 
the map^ must be completed prior to the de- 
parture to minimize the use of instruments 
and equipment in low temperatures with bare 
hands. 

e. Certain mechanized aids are highly valu- 
able for navigation by dead reckoning. 

(1) A magnetic compass has been devel- 
oped for mounting in all vehicles. 

(2) Odograph Ml is an instrument which 
automatically plots the course of a 
moving vehicle. It consists of three 
principal units — the compass; the 
plotting unit ; and the powerpack. All 
components are interconnected by 
electric cable and flexible shafts. It 
was originally designed for use in the 
14-ton truck, but can be used in other 
vehicles to include track-laying vehi- 
cles and sleds for operation under 
winter conditions. 

(3) Odograph M2 is much more accurate 
and convenient to use than the Ml. 
It utilizes the miniature gyro-com- 
pass for the input of direction. In 
normal operations, if the map coordi- 
nates of the starting point are set on 
the instrument, it will provide the 
true coordinates of any point along 
the course of travel. 

(4) The use of rotary wing aircraft for 
"pathfinding" in bush country greatly 
assists in land navigation. From the 
tactical point of view, however, it is 
less feasible because it tends to dis- 
close the movement. Troops can re- 
veal their position to the aircraft by 
the use of colored smoke. The pilot 
can then give them their position lo- 
cation by radio or dropped message. 



Section V. ACTION WHEN LOST 



5-10, General 
Prior march reconnaissance includes memo- 



rizing details of the country to be traversed 
Routes should be plotted and as many land- 



114 



AGO S64IA 



marks located as pos.sible to insure that person- 
nel will not be without recognizable features 
for any appreciable len^h of time. If on barren 
terrain, all navigation instruments must be 
thoroughly checked and one of the most ex- 
perienced men should be given the job of 
navigating' and maintaining the "dead reckon- 
ing log/' It is possible to become temoorarily 
lost while operating in friendly areas of enemy 
terrain, as on a long range patrol. Each situa- 
tion should be considered separately, and the 
main point to remember in any case is to 
remain calm. 

5-n. When Lost Within Known locality 

If the sector is quiet and there is an absence 
of war noises or aircraft to guide the patrol 
toward friendly lines, atop in place. In a 
wooded area steps should be retraced to the 
last known point. If this is not practical, esti- 
mate the present location and send a small 
detail in search of the next known point. Opin- 
ions should be taken from the group as a whole 
if it ia felt they will contribute. Search parties 
must mark their trail carefully in order that 
they may return and guide the main group 
forward or rejoin the group should their 
search be fruitless. In the meantime, the re- 
mainder of the group should seek shelter. If 



it is still not p(]sssble to locate the route, carry 
out the group action discussed in paragraph 
5-12. 

5-12, Conduct When Lost 

At the first suspicion thut a patrol or unit is 
not on the right course, it should not keep 
moving in the hope that it will come across a 
known landmark. The leader should halt the 
patrol, not cause unnecessary panic by appear- 
ing concerned, and immediately make a de- 
tailed check of the route starting at the last 
known point passed. If extensive checking of 
the position does not clarify the situation, in- 
form al! concerned personnel of the circum- 
stances- When it has been determined the 
group is definitely lost, the patrol leader must 
accomplish the following: 

a. Seek a shelter, evaluate the situation, and 
formulate a plan, 

5. Gather all food and drink and institute 
a rationing system- 

c. Send a few selected personnel to search 
for a route, while the balance of the party re- 
mains in a sheltered position- 
al Arrange necessary ground-to-air signals 
appendix B. 



Section VL MECHANIZED AID TO MOVEMENT 



5-13. Track-Laying Vehicles 

a- GeneraL So far as small units and indi- 
viduals are concerned, vehicles of the track- 
laying type are the best aid to movement in 
northern regions. Deep snow and extreme cold 
impose special problems of operations and 
maintenance {app. F), Mandatory character- 
istics of any vehicle to be used in support of 
small units and individuals in the Far North 
during all seasons are mobility over muskeg 
and tundra, through brush and light timber, 
and the ability to break trail in deep snow, A 
complete discussion of these problems is beyond 
the scope of this manual. This manual ia lim- 
ited to a brief discussion of the general 
capabilities and employment of vehicles which 
are capable of tactical cross-country move- 
ment during all seasons. In order to conserve 



the energy of troops^ mechanized transporta- 
tion of heavy weapons^ ammunition, tentage, 
sleeping equipment, rations, and individual 
packs must be utilized to the maximum. Troops 
burdened with carrying or pulling these items 
soon become exhausted and lose their mobility 
and fighting capacity. Wheeled vehicles are 
generally restricted to road movements and 
have little use in cross-country operations of 
small units. The series of pictures contained 
in figures 5—6 through 5-12 illustrate construc- 
tion problems entailed in negotiating winter 
trails with track-laying vehicles. 

&, Tractor Trains. The purpose of tractor 
trains is to furnish oversnow movement of 
supplies and equipment. Tractor trains will be 
utilized normally from a railhead, truckhead, 
or airhead to the division or brigade support 



AGO S641A 



115 



Trail marked 
by recon 
party 





i 







PERSOW^EL a VEHtCLES 

1- Lead venic]e: 
NCO-in-ciarge 
"echanic 
Driver 



2. Dozer fD7/D.^^ : 

w/angle blade i ^inch 



3. No 2 Vehicle i cargo 

"l^TTr' team (5 EH) 
riding on the sled 
{lightly loaded) 
Driver 



4. 



M o 3 VgAicle % cargo 
■5H: 



^'^BrFvo- teM (5 EM) 
ridinq on the sJed 
[heavily loaded) 
Driver 



SPECIAL 
EOUIPMENT 



Haps A compass 

1 pr 31nocLrlars 

1 Axe 

^ [ce chfse] 

1 Tow cacle, steel 

T Set, tool t repair 

1 Set, spare parts 

3 pr Skis i poles 

J Rucksacks 



I Set, tool , reoair 

1 pr Snowshoes 



2 Axes 

2 Ice chisels 

1 Saw, buck 

2 Shovels, D-handle, 
GP 

1 Crowbar 

5 Machetes 

1 Tow cable, steel 

1 Tent, 10-man, com* 

plete 

2 Water buckets 

* Empty drums, 55 gal 
(for watering rein- 
forcements) 



2 Axes 

1 Saw, buck 

1 Saw, ?-nian 

1 Saw, {>ower, gas 
operated 

2 shovels, 0-^andle, GP 
1 Crowbar 

1 Tow caljle, steel 

3 Drums, 55 gal of fuel 
Rations for detail [16 
13 Rucksacks 



DUTIES OF PERSOn^EL 



Navigation, 
Checking of route. 
Straightening of route 
marked by recon o^rty. 
Checking of ice^ 

Repair of mechanical 

failures. 
Assistance to trailed 

vehicles 



Removal of trees. 

stumos K boulde-s. 
Clearance of bms/i, 
fniinq depressions^ 
Cutting banks, 
Straiartteninq A 

smoothing 



Assistance of dozer 

coerator, 
Reffcval of brush k 

trees from trail. 

Smoothing of trail 
Cutting i draoginq 
away logs i trees. 
Construction of rein- 
forcements on road 
A ice- 
Transportation of 
water to the con* 
stniction site. 
Assistance of stalled 
vehicles 



Same as for "Alfa* 
team except for 
water transportation 



EH) 



NOTES: U 



2- 



Lead vehicle falls behind dozer when forced to by deep snow, 
timber, etc. 

If dozer is not available, removal of trees and brush must be 
accomplished by man-power (detail to be reinforced). 



Figure 5— tf, Conatruction detaU for winter roads. 



area* The tractor train is a means of moving 
large quantities of supplies cross-country. The 
trains are composed of cargo sieds drawn by 
construction type tractors and normally, due 
to their size and s3ow rate of march, are not 
used forward of the brigade support area. The 
tractor train in no way takes the place of 
wheeled cargo carriers that may he able to 
operate on roads or trails. 



5-14, The FuJI Track Personnel Carriers 

The full track cross-country carriers are con- 
sidered to be the best vehicles for use by com- 
bat troopa in the North. The armored and 
unarmored carriers are capable of transporting 
a complete rifle squad together with its equip- 
ment and impedimenta. In an emergency these 
vehicles can furnish limited heat, shelter, and 
sleeping accommodations. The design of these 



116 



AGO B641A 





Lt' TO ;' Twcua "^ 



,■■- -V ^ 



:l:.->ib..f,.C^r'.^^-- 



?SfeM^fw^M^ 




I'JL-'r' 



L 



»a' 



Figure o-T. Road reinforced with snow. 




TO 8' DlAli*TTPt 
FUKZD nUUU£L TO THC KWO 



Figure 5^0. Road reiiiforced with brush, logs, and snow. 




-i- ■- '-- --H^.l-^ --.- ,'.l" 



«V MUftl* PLACED 

TO ThC nOAO 



Figure 5-8, Road reinforced with brush and snow, 



carriers permits their functioning as cargo 
and weapons carriers, aa command posts, or 
for evacuation of Utter patients. While the 
armored carrier is capable of reconnaissance, 
mounts armament, and has armor protection 
from small arms fire, the unarmored carrier 
provides better mobility and neater range on 
less fuel. The inclosed watertight hulls provide 
an amphibious capability and some protection 
against radioactive fallout. 



FLDORHG 
4- J 10' 



STOKES y-5 UOW 
X 3' OlAhClTR 




SLEEPEPS 
4'xlO" 



ST,1KES3-5"L0« Ji a'DlAWETEB 



SLEEPERS 5*-6'CHAMETEfl 




l^lii iiUii^; GROUND 



PLANK TTtEAD 



NOTE: 




QROinO 



@ LOG TREAD 

Figure 5-10. Road reinforced with tread. 



TREADS MAT BE USED 
WITHOUT SLEEPERS 3F 

TME GROUND IS FROZEN 

OR VHEN UUO Oti KS 



5-15- Tanks 

Tanks are designed for cross-country mobility 
to include traveling in deep snow. In addition 
to their normal tactical missions they may be 



employed to transport personnel in an ap- 
proach march and, in an emergency^ to tow 
skiers. Windchill factors must be taken into 
consideration prior to moving troops on tanks 



AGO 3&I1A 



T17 



\z — 

OiARDRAlL 




STAKE 3'- 5' LONG X 3* OJAMETEH 
Q ORDIHAITr CORDUHCrr 



B" LDGSTRtNGERS 



IZ" 



,6—8 LOGS 




21 OCflDUROf WrTH 
^OG STRINGERS 




LENGTH DEPENDS ON 
GROUND CCHDtTlONS 




HEAVY COflOUROY WITH 
SLEEPERS 



.^ 



#^ 



SEcnoN OF ^cm/Y comuRcrr road 

WITH SLEEPERS [COMPLETE 1 



CROSS SECTION OETftIL OF 
VARIOUS CORDUROY ROADS 



Figure 5-11. Types of corduroy roads. 



QUAffO RAILS 



STAKES- 3' TO 5' L0N9 
X 3' DIAMETER 




WIRE TIES AT. 
Z' INTERVAIS 



FASaNES 

fl'TO 10^ DIAMETER 

t\2' LONa 



ITRIHGWS 6" TO 8" DIAMETER 



P«TE: IN THE EVENT THAT TWBEfl FOR GUARD RAILS 
AND STFINQERS IS NOT READILY AVAILABLE, 
THEY MAY BE OMITTED OR MADE OF BRUSH 
BUNDLES 




CROSS-POLES 

3' LONO X 3' DIAMETER 



b 



G 



a. Section of road completed^ 

b. Use of '^Sawhorse" for making brush bundles 

Figure 5-Jf- Corduroy fascine road. 



1T8 



AGO S641A 



frostbite. Tanks may also be useci u^ pull ■~':iv . 
.sicds: hnwr'.-iir, damage i:nn be causLMi tn >.- 
rontnii-s by --hi^ fasc. jerky starv[n.u^ which 



- F 



L harae'er-s'ii- nf -anks. Tank tracks mav prn^ 
■■.-!< u- ri^ sites of lulvaiu.'i' i^>i" ' rimps, 'ispefially 
:ti ""h^^ assault phase -jf ihe atiaek. 



Section VIL SLEDS 



5-16- Man Hauled Sleds 

[A}fkif)\. Mun-hauled sleds are neee>sar::y 
Hiiht. They can carry a load of 200 pounds .^ver 
difficait terrain and are tused for carry! ni^ 
tents. L^covee^. fuel, rations, and ovher necessary 
items of each tent ^roup. They are also used 
for carrying? weapons Lind ammunition. They 
may be used as a tirintj platform for machine- 



Liians in deep snow and are p:LrlLC",darly usefu 
in -h^.' evac-iation of rasuallL-.s. Sleds are si^!- 
dnni Lised by smail recnnnaissance patrnLs be- 
r:iuse o[ the decreased speeil nf the ipalividuals. 
Strrmir combat patroLs, hou-ever, freqtn^ntty 
use them for carryin^r their equipment or for 
evact:ation in cases when faster means are not 
available. SSecis are provided ^vith white canvas 
covers for camoufla^je. to hold the contents in 




Figure 5-13. Sled, scow-f.ijpe. JOO-pound capacit-^j, with tEut fjro7tp eqitipvje7it. 



AGO S6J1A 



119 



place and protect them from the elements 
(figs. 4-36, 4-37, 5-13). 

(1) The sled has an approximate weight 
of 38 pounds, ia 223.5 cm (88") long, 
61.0 cm (24") wide, and has a depth 
of 20.3 cm (3"). It is towed by a 
team of four men. For the purpose 
of towing, a harness, sled, single 
trace, is provided. It consists of a 
loose-fitting- web belt which is fas- 
tened at the side by a quick release 
buckle, an adjustable shoulder strap 
which supports the belt at the desired 
position on the hips, and a 2.75 
meter (9') towing rope with snap 
buckles at each end. Metai D-rings 
are positioned at the front and rear 
of the belt 

(2) Normally, sleds are towed by man- 
power only for short distances over 
prepared trails during an approach 
march or a similar type movement. 
Usually, the sled and equipment is 
transported on cargo sleds or by* 
tracked vehicles. A number of loaded 
sleds, can be placed in cargo sieds 
(1 ton or heavier) or, in an emer- 
gency, can be hooked on improvised 
tow bars and towed behind the 
tracked vehicles. A triangle made of 
green poles and attached to the rear 
of the vehicle or cargo sled provides 
an excellent "tow-bar." Four small 
sleds can be towed by each vehicle 
when sleds are tied in tandem to 
allow two sleds to follow each vehicle 
track. 

(3) The sled, because of its boatlike 
shape, is easily maneuverable under 
a variety of snow and terrain condi- 
tions. It is superior to flat surfaced 
toboggans in maneuvering over diffi- 
cult terrain, especially in deep snow 
and in heavily wooded areas. 

(4) It is important to distribute the load 
of the sled properly (fig. 5-13). In 
loading, place heavy equipment on 
the bottom and slightly to the rear 
and lighter equipment toward the top, 
in order to prevent the loaded sled 
from being top heavy. After the sled 



ha.s been loaded, the canvas covers of 
the .sled .should be folded over the 
load. To keep snow from getting un- 
der the canvas and to keep the load 
from shifting, lash the load tightly 
by crisscrossing the lashing rope from 
the lashing ring on one ^^ide of the 
sled to the other. Place tools .such as 
shovels, axes, and .^aws on top of the 
load outside the canvas sn that they 
are readily available for trailbreaking 
and similar purposes during the 
movement. 

b. Improvised Sleds. Different types of sleds 
can be improvised from skis, plyu-ood. lumber, 
or metal sheeting. 

5—17. Cargo Sleds 

a. For military purposes sleds are classified 
light or heavy. Lightsleds are under 5-ton 
payload capacity, and sleds with payload ca- 
pacity of 5 tons or over are considered heavy. 

b. Light sleds presently in use are designed 
to carry 1- or 2-ton payloads. The 1-ton cargo 
sled (fig. 5-14) is normally used with a light 
tracked vehicle as a prime mover; and 2-ton 
sleds {available in limited quantities but not a 
standard item) with the squad carrier or trac- 
tor as a prime mover. Care must be exercised, 
when towing these sleds with tracked vehicles, 
to avoid snapping the sled tong:ue3 in quick 
starting. Light sleds are suitable for use when 
rapid travel is involved and in areas where 
the freezing season has mean temperatures 
which do not form more than moderate thick- 
nesses of ice on rivers and lakes. 




Figure 5-1^. Sled, cargo, i-ton. 



120 



AGO S641A 



c. Heavy sleda (of a commercial type) which 
may be a.sed are of 10- to 20-ton payload 
capacity. It ia anticipated that the biilTv of 
supply wil! be transported on heavy sleds as 
opposed to light sleds. The operating radiiis of 
sled^i is restricted only by the terrain and capa- 
bility of the prime mover. The heavy aled is 



best suited for use over fiat or jjfontly rollinjx 
terrain and in area^ where rivers and lakes 
are frozen to sntRcient depths to permit use as 
"hii^'-hway." In some cases specially constructed 
"iceti roads" are reqniret! to operate rr.otorized 
sled trains with heavy sleds. 



Section Vm. AiRCRAFT 



5-18. Aircraft 

The lack of ground communication routes 
in the northern latitudes causes an extensive 
use of air transportation. Both fixed-wing and 
rotary-wing type aircraft are used. Troops and 
supplies may be transported from one existing 
or improvised airfield to another. In some situ- 
ations both supply and evacuation by air may 
be the only feasible method. Bad weather may 
limit air operations for short periods of time, 

a. Fixed-Wing. The vast stretches of the 
northern regions can be reconnoitered with a 
minimum time and effort by liaison fixed-wing 
aircraft. The ability of the ski-equipped air- 
craft to land on frozen lakes, streams, and in 
open fields in winter affords advantages and 
opportunities to supplement the ground recon- 
naissance. In addition to reconnaissance, fixed- 
wing aircraft are used to supplement the 
overland movement of troops and supplies, 
evacuation, and many other purposes. 

b. Rotary-Wing. The dominant characteris- 
tics of this type craft, such as vertical ascent 

and descent and requirement for short landing 



areas, make it valuable for reconnaissance, 
evacuation, troop movements, command con- 
trol, re.supply, and many other types of mis- 
sions. Aviators must exercise caution when 
hovering over loose snow as it may swirl up 
and cause loss of visual reference. 

5-19. Airfields 

There are many potential landing sites in 
the area of northern operations. Runways can 
be constructed by grading and compacting 
snow. In genera], airplanes equipped with skis 
require about 15 percent more landing and 
takeoff space than those equipped with wheels. 
Aircraft can use airfields constructed on frozen 
lakes and rivers, after a suitable ice recon- 
naissance has been made (FM 31-71). Design 
criteria for Pioneer, Haaty, and Deliberate 
Army airfields and heliports are listed in TM 
5-330. As a rule of thumb for planning pur- 
poses, the airfield for liaison type aircraft 
(0-1 and tJ-6) should be a minimum of 30 
meters (30 yards) wide and 400 meters (400 
yards) long. Refer to the Flight Handbook for 
exact landing and takeoff distances of various 
aircraft. 



\G0 8»1A 



m 



CHAPTER 6 



COMBAT TECHNIQUES 



Section L THE INDIVIDUAL AND NORTHERN WARFARE 



6-1. Problems of Northern Warfare 

Two opponents face the soldier in northern 
warfare — the enemy^ who must be defeated, 
and nature, which must be made an ally. We 
fight the enemy, but we must accept nature as 
it is, making nature fight with and for ua. 
Proper clothing and equipment will help over- 
come the hazards of nature. Training teaches 
the individual how to use natural conditions 
for movement concealment, and protection, as 
well as how to operate efficiently when the 
weather is good or bad, and in all types of 
terrain. The trained soldier moves, fights, lives, 
and works easily and confidently because he 
knows his job. 



6-2. Nature of Northern Warfare 

cu During winter the vast, empty spaces of 
the northern regions permit unrestricted ma- 
neuver and movement for troops sufficiently 
equipped and trained to operate in these cir- 
cumstances. Dispersion is simplified ; hostile 
artillery and mortar fire can be evaded or 
avoided, A mobile force can gain surprise and 
strike deep in the flanks and rear areas of the 
enemy, disrupting his lines of communications 



and finally destroying him. However, the 
mountainous areas of the northern regions will 
have the same limitations to movement as 
those in more temperate climates, 

b. The principles of war remain unchanged. 
Tactics used in the northern latitudes are the 
same as anywhere else in the world. The wag- 
ing of successful warfare in the extreme cold 
depends on the use of a great number of tech- 
niques* For the purpose of carrying out their 
mission, all individuals and units concerned 
must be indoctrinated and thoroughly trained 
in these techniques, 

c- There is always opportunity for each 
soldier as an individual to display his initia- 
tive. Initiative is shown not only in combat, 
but also in the small things which can be done 
to make life more comfortable and more in- 
teresting in the North. 

d. In the isolated areas of the North it is 
most essential that a system of teams be de- 
veloped. Pair men together as "buddies" and 
insure a higher standard of efficiency, safety, 
and morale. If it can be avoided, never send 
one man alone on a mission — at all times try 
to keep "buddies'* together. 



Section 11. INDIVIDUAL WEAPONS AND INSTRUMENTS 



Effects of Northern Conditions on 
Weapons and Instruments 

The year-round necessity for supervised 
care, cleaning, and maintenance cannot be 
overstressed. Effects of cold weather on vari- 
ous types of weapons are covered in detail in 
appendix B. 



6-4, Care^ Cleaning^ and Maintenance 

a. Weapons will function under extreme 
conditions, provided they are properly main- 
tained. Normal lubricants thicken in cold 
weather and stoppages or sluggish actions of 
firearms will result, DURING THE WINTER. 
WEAPONS MUST BE STRIPPED COM- 



T22 



AGO 8S41A 



PLETELY AND CLEANED WITH A DRY^ 
CLEANING SOLVENT TO REMOVE ALL 
LUBRICANTS AND RUST PREVENTION 
COMPOUND. The prescribed application of 
special northern oils should then be made. 
These lubricants will provide proper lubrica- 
tion during the winter and help minimize the 
freezing of snow and ice on and in weapons. 

b. Soldiers must insure that snow and ice 
do not ffet into the working parts, sights, or 
barrels of weapons- Even a small amount of 
ice or snow may cause malfunction of the weap- 
ons. Muzzle and breech covers should be used- 
Before firing, the weapon must be examined 
carefully, especially the barrel, which may be 
blocked with ice or snow and will burst when 
fired- Snow on the outside, if not removed, 
may drop into the breech and later form ice, 
causing malfunctioning of the weapon. 

c. Condensation forms on weapons when 
they are taken from the extreme cold into any 
type of heated shelter. This condensation is 
often referred to as "sweating-" For this rea- 
son weapons should be placed near or at the 
floor level where the temperature will be lower 
and there will be less condensation. Every ef- 
fort must be made to remove condensation as 
soon as possible or the film will freeze when 
the weapons are subsequently taken into the 
cold. The ice so formed may seriously affect 
the operation of the weapon unless it is man- 
ually operated until the moisture freezes- This 
prevents the parts from freezing together and 
allows continued operation. If security condi- 
tions permit weapons should be left outdoors, 
in racks or unheated shelter, 

d. When weapons are taken into a heated 
shelter, "sweating" may continue for as long 
as 1 hour. When time is available, men should 
wait 1 hour and then remove all condensation 
and clean the weapon. 

e. During the freezeup and breakup seasons. 
the danger of rust and corrosion is at its 
greatest. In the winter the lack of moisture 
in the air decreases this danger, but the prob- 
lem of ice and snow will necessitate frequent 
checking and cleaning of weapons, 

/. Should parts of a weapon become frozen, 
warm them slightly and move them gradually 
until unfrozen. If the weapon cannot be 



warmed, all visible ice and anow should be re- 
moved and parts moved gradually until action 
is restored. Ice in the barrel can be removed 
with warm (standard issue) gun oil if slow 
warming is not possible. 

<j. When firing, do not let the hot parts of 
the weapon come in contact with the snow. The 
snow will melt and, on cooling, form ice. When 
changing barrels, do not lay them on the snow; 
rapid cooling may warp them. 

ft. Snow, even of the lightest variety, has 
a tremendous smothering effect on fragment- 
ing munitions. Even a few inches of light snow 
can drastically affect the lethality of this type 
munition. Understanding this, commanders 
must insure that antipersonnel mine direc- 
tional paths are cleared in snow to prevent loss 
of velocity to fragments and deflection of frag- 
ments by snow. Grenadiers should always at- 
tempt to obtain airbursts by placing fire on 
the brush in the target area rather than in the 
snow. Indirect fire weapons should make maxi- 
mum use of airbursts provided by time and 
proximity fuzes. 

6-5. Ammunition 

Extreme cold does not materially affect the 
accuracy of weapons nor the performance of 
small arms ammunition. Ammunition should 
be kept at the same temperature as the 
weapon. It should be carried in the bandoleers 
and the additional ammunition placed in the 
pockets of the outer garment and in the ruck- 
sack. Ammunition clips, and magazines must 
be cleaned of all oil and preservative and must 
be checked frequently; all ice, snow, and con- 
densation should be removed- Cartridge con- 
tainers, magazines, and ammunition drums 
must be kept closed in order to prevent the 
formation of rust or ice. 

a. Ammunition should be stored in its 
original container, raised off the ground, and 
covered with a tarpaulin. Ammunition so 
stored should be suitably marked in order to 
locate and identify it in the event it becomes 
covered with snow. 

b. Resupply of ammunition may be re- 
stricted. All personnel must be made aware of 
the necessity for ammunition economy and fire 
discipline. Loaded clips, magazines, or single 



AGO SMIA 



123 



rounds dropped into the 3now are quickiy ]oat ; 
therefore, careful handling of ammunition is 
eaaential. 

6—6. Care and Mamfenance of Special Items 

a.. The liquid in the lenaatic compaaa, aiming 
circles and in weapona sights congeals in ex- 
treme coid. This situation wil! cause sluggish 
movement of the arrows and bubbles and in- 
crease the probability of error. The compass 
should be carried near the body in inner cloth- 
ing in order to keep the liquid warm and thin. 
Other instruments and sights should be kept 
as warm as possible and should be exposed to 
the cold only during periods of actual use. 

b. Binoculars and other liquid-free optical 
instruments are not affected by cold weather. 



However, condensation does form when these 
instruments are taken from cold air into warm 
air. Therefore, these instruments should be left 
outside. 

c. Extreme coid will lower the efficiency of 
all batteries and eventually they may freeze. 
Batteries must be kept from freezing and. if 
possible, men should carry radio and flashlight 
batteries close to the body in order that full 
efhciency will be available when needed. 

d. Low temperature dry cell batteries may 
be issued for cold weather use. These batteries 
are distinguished by 2000 series-type numbers, 
such as BA-2030 for a flashlight battery. These 
batteries must be stored at temperatures near 
0° F. to conserve their shelf life. 



Section 111. FIRE AND MOVEMENT 



6-7. Blowing Snow and Fog 

a. These restrictions will affect both friendly 
and enemy forces. Full advantage must be 
taken of them in order to effect concealment, 
surprise, and eventual success. 

(1) Defense positions should be located 
on high ground, thus forcing the 
enemy to attack uphill in deep snow. 
Each weapon must be assigned a field 
of fire and emplaced on an impro- 
vised platform which will insure fire 
being brought to bear at man-height 
level on the likely enemy approaches. 
Thus during fog, storm, or darkness, 
effective unobserved fire can be 
brought to bear, 

(2) In areas of fog, if possible, outpost 
and observation post positions should 
be located where warmer air or wind 
eliminates fog or at least makes it 
less dense. 

b. By proper reconnaissance and the use of 
trailmarkers it may be possible for an attack- 
ing force under cover of fog or blowing snow 
to approach very close to the enemy before the 
final assault. During blizzards or blowing snow 
the attacker should, if possible, attack down- 
wind or at a slight angle to it in order that 
he will force the enemy to face into the full 
force of the storm. 



c. Ice or vapor fogs are very common in 
e.\treme low temperatures. Such fogs are pri- 
marily the result of natural phenomena, but 
also result from many other causes such as 
vehicle exhausts, cooking, breathing, and weap- 
ons firing. Fogs of this nature hang overhead 
and could be clear markers of a position. They 
will also limit visibility. The observed fire of 
automatic and direct fire weapons is handi- 
capped considerably by the fog, smoke, and 
whirling snow caused by muzzle blast. Placing 
observers away from the weapons positions 
may be necessary to control the fire. Placing 
tarpaulins under the ^ns, or packing or icing 
the snow, will assist in reducing the effect of 
muzzle blast. Pauses in firing or change of 
position may be necessary in order to obtain 
better fire effect. 



6-8, Fire Positions 

a. Digging firing positions in soft or hard 
snow is relatively easy and quick. In a static 
position every effort must be made to improve 
the position and, if time permits, to dig it into 
the frozen ground. The use of explosives to dig 
emplacements and fires to thaw the ground 
will help. A position in the anow is oniy tem- 
porary and cannot withstand artillery and 
continuous small arms fire. Icing of the posi- 
tion or use of tree trunks and branches will 



124 



AGO SHiA 



iifFnrii added prctoction (fig:. 6-1 ) . Sandba.Lrs 
filled with snow may be used '[uite erfectivoiy 
for this purpose. 

b. The difTj^ing of positions in .snoiv and the 
typc\s constructed are, in g-eneral, .similar to 
those discnsned in FM 5-15, Foxholes, trenches, 
and other typea are used. 






r'tfZ ^CWlTlDN 




ceo IHOW 







on 'C£0 ViOllV 



ChCHT 




^NOW '#*l_L 



<. J TUNNEL -FTN 



IMG 



CLfVATlO^ri 



PLAfl 



Figure S-1 . Ej:n rnp!e of position constructed in snoic 

atid €xU^med into frozen ground. 

c. Every effort must be made toward im- 
provement of positions; anowbiocks, iceblocks, 
sandbags, logs^ and branches can be used to 
strengthen them. Tn addition, water may be 
poured onto the snow to form ice. In static 
positions, when time allows water mixed with 
dirt, 3and» or gravel can be poured into wooden 
forms. This is called "icecrete." The icecrete 
must be well tamped as it is poured to make 
it compact. Usually there is no necessity for 
removing the forms unless the wood is re- 
quired for other purposes. Icecrete is darker 
than ice and wi31 absorb more heat from the 
rays of the sun, causing melting- Tcecrete con- 
struction must therefore be covered with snow, 
both to overcome its melting and to camou- 
flage its contrasting color, Icecrete is much 
stronger than ice, provides considerable pro- 
tection from small arms fire and shell frag- 
ments, and is a useful material for preparation 
of defensive positions. Icecrete, however, is 
brittle, and sustained tire reduces its protec- 
tiveness, thus requiring frequent repairs. 

d. The action of winds and tides during 
w^inter rips the sea ice surface and then forces 
the ice into high piles extending in lines for 
miles- These ice barriers arford excellent firing 
positions and protection because of their thick- 
ness and the fact they command the usually 
flat expanses between ridges. Iceblocks can be 
cut from numerous sources and used to 



strengthen a p4)sition. The it:e -should be cov- 
ered with packed snow whiL'h will help enmoii- 
llage and assist in eliminating the possibility 
of ricochets, shell fragments, and lethal ice 
splinters. 

^\ In a woods the thickest and strnntrest 
trees provide the best protection for the ini!i- 
viduaL In order to use the added protection 
afforded by the trees, perimeter positions 
should not be on the edge, but should be 
slightly deeper in the woods, depending on its 
density and consistent with the required fields 
of fire (fig- 6-2)_ A tree 50 cm (20'') in diame- 
ter will provide protection from smail arms 
fire. If the tree selected is smaller, packed snow, 
dirt, branches, or deadfaJls may be used to 
increase protection- 

/. The improvement of fields of fire in w^oods 
is most important The lower branches of trees, 
up to 2 meters (6') high, which restrict fields 
of fire must be removed. Underbrush and per- 
haps even a few trees will have to be cut ; 
however, do not strip the area. In the first 
phase of improvement, crisscrossing snow tun- 
nels under the trees is carried out- Then, if 
time allows, those fields are extended wider 
and deeper. In the final phase, obstacles and 
traps are constructed and mines laid in these 
areas (fig, &-'2)- 




eOC£ OF 






I 



PERIMETER L 
P0SlTlO^S 



Figure G-2. Perimeter positions at the edgefi of woods 

affd clearing of /relit:^ of fire. 

6-9, Use of Ski Poles and Sleds in Firing 

a. When firing in snow, it is necessary that 
a firm support be used, as snow will compact- 
On hard packed snow the weapon may slide. 
Therefore, any item available in the area or 



AGO B€4[A 



125 



f 
1- 












-t' .^: 


^^>^: ■■- : 


_ ' r 


-^ . .-, 


^Vr- 


.-,- -. . ,. ^-'V 




-^"" '*r '-"■ 


- H ■ 


'>'-■- tJ -.-1 


- ^ 


:1?*^ - 


:.^ - j.^-" 


^ -H-!- - _■ - -■ 


"^-^ — ^ t' 


*rr 


**• 


r 


^^;_;-^-;, 




t- -. _ _ _ 




^ p - — "^ 


r 


- r f fc - 


r 


. --^jv ■ ■■'- - 


■ 



Figure 6-$. Prone position. Ski poles used as elbow rest. 







-r^vr:^^'^'^^-'^^- 



^^:- j^v- ■ 




^ 



Figure 6-7. Protte pcsitiofi. Ski poles used as weapons support. 



128 



AGO SE41A 





Figure 6-S. Use of 57ioivskoe or ski pole biJsket as iveapoti support. 



tection offered by snow, ice. or frozen i]:roLind 
against enemy fire is variable, 

b. Pe^ietration, A rifle bullet rapidly loses its 
penetrating power depending on the density of 
the snow. Snow packed in layers tends to 



deflect the bullet at each new layer. Loose 
^now spread over a defense position will help 
smother ricochets. The minimum thickness 
for protection from rifle buUets and shell 
fragments is shown in the following table: 



AGO 364 1 A 



129 



Penelratioji Tnhie 

Snow waii jnaterial' A?tji"if/ium t^hirkut-HA 

Newly fallen snow _ . 13 400 

F]rm[y frozen 3 to 10 245 to oOO 

Packed snow ^p^ 200 

Frozen snow-water mixture __ 4 to n 120 to L50 

Ice nci 100 

Icecrete 1 -"50 

■ These .TiAterials wiif daaint-u^rftte under auatained iim. 



6—11, Effect of Snow, Ice, Frozen Ground 

and Muskeg on Shells and Grenades 

a. Loose snow greatly reduces the explosive 
and fra^]rmentation effecta of shells. The depth, 
type of snow, and amniunition are naturally 
the main consideration. The uae of a delayed 
action fuze will g-eneraily cause the shell to 
penetrate the snow blanket and explode under- 
neath, smothering and reducing the effect of 



"- -k 



■V 



< 



-Jk" . 



^ ■-. -■: 



-^- 




:t 












Figure 5-3. Machinegun firing from a sled. 



the fragmentation. One meter (3') of anow 
will provide some protection against most 
light artillery fire. A superqaick fuze setting 
will increase the effect of artillery fire, while 
airbursts will inflict still more casualties on 
surface targets. 

b. In the summer the many areas of muskeg 
and water will also limit the effects of artillery 
fire. On ice or frozen ground, and during 

periods of freezup, the effect will be greatly 
increased as the result of flying ice splinters 
and frozen clods of ground. In these seasons 
and areas, covered positions must be increased 
in strength. Overhead protection must be 
sought whenever possible. 

6-12. Crew-Served Weapon Positions 

a. Detailed information and guidance for 
construction of emplacements and shelters is 
contained in FM 5-15. The dimensions are 
applicable for both winter and summer. The 
gun emplacements for MG's, rocket launchers. 



S^ ^_ 




_^=*"^" ■'''.-..-' ... .-■■,■ - -•■ -Jf 



- • ■ . . 

^ - — -^^^ — 

■ ^ ^ -■ I 







.4 ^^^ ■'■■'^ : ^y*^ 



Figure 6—10. Mortar position in stiow. 



130 



ACQ BfiilA 



ana recoiileaa riftea are -square-type position.s- 
Xhe gun platform can be made from paL:ked 
3now aad is about waist high- Open space must 
be left behind the gun to allow for the back 
blast of the rocket launcher and recoille.ss rifle, 

b. Mortar positions in snow are normally 
round shaped (fig. G-10). Because of the frozen 
ground a mat made from tree branches or 
aandbags filled with snow must be placed under 
the baseplate when firing- See FM 5-15 and 
FM 23-90_ 

c. Bunker-type positions will give better 
protection for the gun crew against enemy fire 
and weather than will open positions (figs. 
&-11, 6^-12, and 6-13). A hasty bunker-type 
position is normally built as follows: 

(1) A square shaped hole is dug in the 
snow, the dimension depending on the 
purpose of the bunker position. 

(2) A heavy log or a tree trunk is placed 
lengthwise on each side of the snow 
hole. They are supported by four 
heavy, forked poles. 

(3) A layer of logs is placed crosswise in 
the top of the two support logs. 

(4) A layer of boughs is placed on the 
first layer of logs in order to prevent 
melting snow from dripping into the 
bunker. 

(5) Two or three more layers of logs are 
placed on the top of the boughs. 





"^•:^ 



.-■■» 






Figure ^-!2. Bntfker-tijpe position (from the front; 

partiailij cam on dag ed), 

( 6 ) Finally, the roof is covered by 
smoothing and packing the snow in 
order to eliminate any sharp features 
that may produce shadows, 

(7) A small embrasure reinforced with 
^^andbags and snow is left open, in the 
direction of the field of fire- 

(8) The rear entrance is covered with a 
white tarpaulin or a white camou- 
flage suit- 




_■ _- - ' - K_ 

7 ' s - 



:^. 



^ .^ 



4 _ 



" -XT 







* ' T** 



J' 







J ^ 



% 



-> . -- ..- ^■' 



Figure 6-11, Bunker-type position (from inside) 



Figure 6'-lJ. Buyiker-t\jpe position. 
(fro?n the front; camojtdaged)^ 

d. Tents are often used in temporary defense 
positions to shelter the men. They must be close 
to the combat positions and should be in de- 
filade. The tents must be dug into the deep 



AGO B«41A 



131 



^now, or even into the jrroand in order to 
protect the men ai^ainst enemy fire. The tent 
ropes miust be well anchored by usinjjr deadmnn 
anchors or upright poles placed deep in packed 
snow. Immediately outside the tent, defense 
po.sitiong must be duj? tor use in cn.^e of sudden 
alert (fig. 6-14). 




-1^^ 




- , V 



J^ 



Figure 8-!^, Tevt dug into snow with individual 

firing positions. 

e. When near the surface the covering sno^v 
is easy to dig with individual intrenching tools; 
the difficulties will start when ground is 
reached. Several small holes should be dug in 
the ground and attempts made to break the 
frozen ground between them. The men should 
temporarily exchange the different types of 
intrenching tools in order to make the digging 
faster. During darkness, or in areas not under 
the enemy's direct observation, heavy tools 
such as picks, crowbars, and shovels are used 
so that positions can be completed rapidly. 

/. Using explosives provides the easiest and 



fnsh'st wriy rn break the frozen .Lrroimd Ho 
ever, the n.se of demoiitinns will be restrict^ 
when under enemy observation. Compositio! 
C-4, tetrytol. and TNT are the hf?X eKnlosive 
for n.'^e in northern operations becaiL-e the^' 
retain their effeetiveness in col<i Lveather Di" 
a hole in the ground in whii-h to place th' 
explosive and tamp the .-har-c -.vith anv matj 
nal availabfe to increar^e its erfectivenesa 
Either electne or nonelectric circuits may h 
used to detonate the char-e. For n foxhole K 
pounds of explosive wii] usuailv be sufficient 
Another formula is to use 2 pounds of explosive 
for every ?A\ cm (1') of penetration in "frozer 
ground. Shaped charges can be used verv effi 
ciently to make holes in frozen ground as de 
scribed in TM 5-349. 

a- Some improvised means as listed beiow 
may be used to break the frozen ground when 
no others are available: 

(1) In rear areas frozen ground can be 
thawed by starting a campfire in the 
place where it is desired to dig. 

Two or three handgrenaries tied to- 
gether can be used to blast a hole in 
the frozen ground. 

(3) Existing craters caused by enemy or 
friendly artillery fire can be utilized. 

h. Often the tops of ridges or hilltops %vill be 

rocky and with very little snow on the ground 
because of wind action. If the time and situa- 
tion allow, the snow situation can be improved 
by erecting snow fences in the place planned 
for defense positions. Within a few davs the 
snow fences will collect drifting snow in'bank- 
like forms in which it is easy to dig positions. 



(2) 



Section IV. FIGHTING TECHNIQUES 



6—13* Formations 



Squad and platoon formations for tactical 
movements remain basically the same as for 
temperate regions; however, terrain and deep 
snow cover will necessitate some modifications. 
In deep snow, when speed is of the essence, 
a column formation may be preferable to a line 
formation because it will require fewer trails. 
Old, well-settled snow will normally provide 



good floatation and will facilitate skiing for the 
individuals. Since the trailbreaking require- 
ment is reduced and may under favorable 
circumstances be nonexistent, line formations 
may be used without loss of speed. Downhill 
movement, even in deep snow, may also indi- 
cate the use of line formations when it would 
not be considered feasible on level terrain un- 
der the same snow conditions. 



132 



AGO S641A 



^14, Handling of Ski and Snowshoe 

Equipment and Individual Weapons 

f^ The purpnso of usinpr ^"^^5^ or snoivshi>es in 
ofinibat is to t.'xpetjjte the movement of indi- 
viduals over deep .^now in the mo.st rapid man- 
ner, thu.s evpnsini; them to ho.stile fire for the 
^harte^st possible period of time. In order to 
obtain the maximum advantaj^e of s.kis they 
should be used as far forward a,s pn,^siblo. 
^eavin-? them behind only when the objective 
can be reached more quickly and easily on foot. 
It is finally up to the small unit leader to deeide 
at which phase in the attack this may be done. 
As a rule of thumb the skis are left at the 
final coordination line, because close combat on 
foot is more effective and easier to execute than 
if mounted on skis. Conversely, deep snow may 
force units to close into the objective on skis. 



[ iidtviijuals n^^inir sno^^■sho^^s ma>' Ivoc;) tlu^m. hjti 
throii.u^h all phases of the attack. Under favara- 
ble snow conditions they may be left pih»d io- 
;Tether at :he final coorrtination line or fastened 
to the individuaTs eiiuinment where thev will 
least hinder him. 

fj. As friendly forces approach the eirertive 
ranj^a' of enemy weapons, they mnve by fin* and 
maneuver. The individuals proceetf by short 
rushes on foot, on skis, or on snowshoes which- 
ever is mo^;t feasible. Rushing on foot, the skis 
are dra^rired by holding them toi^ether by the 
taps (poles through the two straps) in one 
hand, with the weapon readily available for 
action in the other (fig, 6—15)- Skis may also 
be tied to the belt with the emergency thong 
slipped through the holes at the ski tips. 




^# 







fT^ 



. =, t-^" 



_1 

■ 'n 

-I 

_ ■ *^ ' 

'■-.' I 








Figure ^-15^ Dragging of skis in rusk 



c. The quick- release feature of the All- 
Terrain ski binding provides the means to 
quickly dismount from skis when hostile tare 
becomes effective. Under favorable snow con- 
ditions, as weil as in emergencies, the ski 
bindings are kept on when lying down and 
firing between rushes (fig, &-16J- 

d. When contact with the enemy is not ex- 
pected, the individual weapon is carried across 
the back with the sling over either shoulder, 
the butt at the side or attached to the rucksack 
(if carried by the individuals) (fig. 6-17), 
When contact with the enemy is imminent, the 
weapon is siung around the neck and in front 
of the body thus releasing both arms for rapid 








- V 



>» 




Figure 6-16, Li/ing doivn between rushes. 



AOO S6i3A 



133 




Figure 6-17. Weapfyn carried across back. 






r -_ .- -If' rl ■ ■ 






^^"^ 




- ---^ 





Figure 6-13. Weapon slung around neck. 



134 



AGO 3BJ1A 



.kiinj,' (f^^^ 6-18). When contact with the 
enemy has been established, the weapon is 
i^arried in one hand and the ski poiea in :he 




:<-» 



^h 



other ^o the weapon is readily available for 

action ffip- 6-19). 

e. Under conditions where the depth of the 
snow ia less than 50 cm (20"), skis rr.ay be 
left in the attack position if it becomes evident 
that launching an attack on foot can be exe- 
cuted in a more rapid and etRcient manner than 

tisint^ skis. 



Figure 6-13. Weapon carried in right hand aiid 

ski poles in left hand. 




Figure 6-^0, Ski bundle. 



"^^^^ 







Figu,re tr-Ji. Advancing in a high cratvL 



AGO B641A 



135 



/. As 3oon ag the objective has been ^^eized, 
the akia, gki poles or snowshoea may be re- 
covered and brought forward. A two-man team 
can quickly make a ski bundle (fig- 6-20) and 
drag the skis of an entire squad at one time. 



6-75. Additional Techniques 

ft- In deep, loose snow under hostile fire it 
may be more advantaj^feous to advance in a 
high crawl position by holding the skis with 
hands through the toe straps and taking full 







i 



i 



1 



I 

i 






-J 



J " 



^ ^-^ ^- 



Figure 6~22. Sliding forward in a low crawl. 



advantage of snowdrifts and bushes. A position 

such as illustrated in figure 6-21 should be 

adopted. Snowshoes may be used in the same 
manner. 

b. Sliding forward in a low craw] on skis is 
another method of advancing, especially over 
firm snow {%. 6-22), The rifle can be slung 
over the shoulder or laid on the skis directly 
in front of the individual. The latter is possible 
only when the snow is hard so that it cannot 
get into the rifle. 

c. In deep snow, trenches may be dug in the 
snow leading in the direction of the objective 
when it is too difficult to be reached by over- 
snow movement. Snow trenches are dug on a 
zigzag course (fig. 6-23) by throwing the snow 
out under cover of darkness or, in an emer- 
gency, the digging may be masked by smoke- 
screens. The snow shoveled from the trench 
should be placed on the enemy side of the 
trench to allow the individuals to crawl along 
the trench without being observed by the 
enemy. 




Figure 6-23. Snow trenches. 



136 



AGO 3HXA 



d. Snowdrifts and vehicle tracks may b^ 
utilized when found in the battlefield. Snow 
tilU in ditches and rolling ground and tends to 
flatten the terrain in general The wind builds 
up snowdrifts and cornices and can chant^e 
the contour of the ground a great deal. Snow- 
covered terrain must be continually studied and 
every feature utilized. On the downwind ^ide 
of every obstacle, tree, house, and bush there 
is always a hollow which may provide an 
excellent observation point or firing position 
(fig. 6-24). 



WIND"* 
DIRECTION 




VHNO 
DIRECTION 




Figure S-Ji. Action of wind. 

e. The wind, particu5arly in open areas, may 
form long, wavy snowdrifts which are almost 
natural snow trenches. They may at times be 
used as an approach to the objective. 

/, Frozen streams or sunken riverbeds may 
be used as another means of advance (fig- 6- 




SNDW.V: ;.:'r 



THE ORIGINAL ICE. 



WATBl 



Figure 6-25. Simken river bed. 



all 35) ; often they may represent a longer 
but safer route. 

(1. An early fall frost will form a layer of ice 
on creeks or streams when the water level is 
high. Later, when the fiowinj^ water becomes 
lower and reaches its winter level, the top 
.surface will again freeze .so that there are two 
layers of ice. This is called sheJl ice or overflow- 
ice and is not always safe. 

k. Ce rtai n s w amp y areas do not freeze 
solidly during the coldest periods of winter. 
They ore often covered with snow, hiding the 
water underneath and making the swamps an 
obstacle. Only experience and the knowledge 
that they exist in the local area, will prevent 
accidents. Suspected areas should be avoided 
and bypassed with no attempt made to cross. 

t. Snowbanks beside plowed roads and tracks 
often provide excellent cover in wintertime. 
These banks or drifts will remain far into the 
spring thaw period, especially in areas of heavy 
snowfall. 

;. The tracks left by tanks and oversnow 
vehicles in snow may provide routes of advance. 
Continuous traffic packs the snow and may 
allow movement on foot without skis^ or snow- 
shoes. In the advance, infantry may utilize 
tracks left by their advancing armor. 

k. In static situations the ski equipment be- 
comes vulnerable to small arms fire and shell 
fragments. When troops are expected to remain 
in the same position for an extended period of 
time, skis, poles, and snowshoes should be 
piaced in a covered position. 



Section V. CAMOUFLAGE AND CONCEALMENT 



6-16. General Considerations 

a. In winter the whiteness of the countryside 
emphasizes any item which may not blend in 
naturally with the surroundings. Furthermore, 
every movement by vehicles or dismounted 
troops leaves tracks in the snow. Before every 
movement, consideration must be given to how 
these tracks can be kept to a minimum. Nature 
may assist by covering tracks with newly 
fallen snow or by providing a storm in which 



movement will be concealed. Camouflage and 
concealment from air observation is of the 
greatest concern. 

b. In the northern landscape, backgrounds 
are not necessarily all white. Rocks, scrub 
bushes, and shadows make sharp contrast with 

the snow. 

c. Snow-covered terrain in the wooded re- 
gions, when viewed from the air, reveals a 
surprising proportion of dark areas. 



AGO S&IIA 



137 



6—17. Vapor Clouds 

Firing of weapons, v^^hirie +*xh;uists, and 
breathinL' will, in i^xtrom^* rolri. cnLise loraJ fne 
or vapor tlouds which can be nteen by the 
enemy even thoiijjfh the \v*.'apnn. vehicio, ov 
soldier i.« widl concealer]. Pmoke fr^m i\ro.^. 
hant^s immefliately ahovt? and will (li.^clnse tht' 
position if there is nn wind tn blow it away. 
Under certain conditions, if the position is on 
a hish point, .smoke may flow downward into 
depress ion.s and may be used as a deeepti\'e 
measure. It may be necessary to move weapons 
frequently, shut off vehicle motors, or leave 
vehicles in rear areas. Conversely, deception or 
concealment mifrht be gained by deliberately 
creating vapor fogs or clouds. 

6-18. Sounds 

The still, cold air of the North carries sound 
much farther than in temperate climates. All 
sounds must be kept to a minimum. N'oise 
caused by motors, men coughing, and skiers 
breaking through snow crust may warn the 
enemy of activity at extreme distances. 

6-19. Visibility 

The Ions hours of daylight in the North dur- 
ing the summer allow for longer periods of 
aerial reconnaissance and increase the possibil- 
ity of detection. The short hours of daylight 
during the %vinter months materially decrea.'^e 
the time available for reconnaissance. As an 
example, during the period 15 December to 15 
January at 68° N. Lat. the sun will never 
appear over the horizon. Daylight will consist 
of only twilight and will last for only 4 or 5 
hours. 

6-20. Tracks 

a. Tracks made in a soft surface may be- 
come quite ftrm if the temperature drops during 
the night, and will remain indefinitely as indi- 
cations of movement. Special consideration 
must be given to the tracks in bivouacs and 
base camps. Xumber imd size of trails must be 
kept to a minimum. All unnecessary "streets," 
turnaround loops, and parking areas must be 
avoided. Individuals may be forced to use oniy 
a certain trail. From the air. tracks, even 
through wooded areas, appear like a white scar. 



runifermis branches can br^ laid in a staggered 
[Kittern on raeh side of thp track as well as 
on it. Sti-ict track ili.-^{-!p]ine both during move- 
ment as well as in bivnuacs anrl base camps 
must b(' maintain^nl at all times. 



'). Aerial photographs are closely examined 
anfl frnni them i.an be Lrathered a great deal 
of infnrmation. The deprh of a track will show 
the amnunt and the direi-tion of mtivement 
Vehicle or sled tracks may inriicate the type of 
vehi"le unci conclusions can be made as to the 
type of weapons. Every elFort must be made 
to mislead the enemy. It may be advantageous 
to make more tracks or trails and show 
greater signs of r^trength. All marks made in 
the open are generally visible to the camera. 

6-21. Camouftage Materials 

a. White is the predominant color in winter 
and snow is the most important camouflage 
material. By intelligent use of camouflage 
clothing and equipment together with what 
nature makes available, effective individual and 
group camouflage can be achieved. 

b. Improvised camouflage clothes can be 
made from sheeting, tape, whitewashed sack- 
ing, or painted canvas. White paper, when wet, 
can be applied and allowed to freeze on all 
kinds of surfaces. Snow thrown over the 
object helps to increase the camouflage effect. 

c. White paint has many uses in winter 
camouflage. Weapons, vehicles, skis, and sleds 
can be effectively painted with white non- 
glossy paint, 

d. On occasion, white smoke may be used to 
help the camouflage plan. The major problem 
is to make the installation blend in with the 
countryside, 

e. Camouflage face paint, white and loam 
color combination, may be applied to exposed 
areas of the face and hands to blend eflfectively 
in with the snow cover. 

Individual Camouflage and 
Concealment 

a. During the summer the normal principles 
of using camouflage clothing will apply. How- 
ever, as winter approaches, men must use par- 
tial white winter camouflage to match the 



138 



AGO 3641 A 



^ihnnj^in;? i:on(liti()n^ ; men should be u-nined to 
avoid ureas of local ^j^rowth and dark outlines 
(fij?. 6-26). 

?j. In fiiirly open fore.st areas durin;^ the 
winter, men we^iring "whites" should avoid the 
dark backi^round of trees. In the same manner, 
if wearing; dark dothinj^, men should stay 
under trees and avoid the open. 

c. In mixed surroundings frequent chanties 
of camouflage clothing become necessary. The 
use of mixed clothing is often the most p-*- 
ferabie (fig. 6-27). 

d. All equipment worn on the outside should 





\ 





S 



>> 




Fiijtire H-J"- Cinn<mHi></e ni "pen .=i:oi<j cni'ditiOJi,',; 







^ - 









•-^ • 



3r^ 



.1 ' ^~fe 



Right 




I V 



Fiuure 0-J7. Une oj mixed ciothv\g. 



AGO 364l.\ 



139 



be camoufiaj^ed. Contrasting' equipment worn 
on the camouflag'e suit will increase the posai- 
bility of enemy detection. Loose items auch as 
^enades or fieldglasse.s should be kept con- 
cealed inside the suit. 

6—23. Camouflaging Hquipment 

Skis, rifles, and sleds may be painted white 
prior to issue. If they are unpainted. white 
camouflage paint or improvised local materials 
can be used. Sleds will be issued with white 
covers for conceaJing the load. Finally, indi- 
vidual weapons can be camouflaged with strips 
of white garnish or white adhesive tape. The 
tape also provides protection for the hands 
when handling the weapon in extreme cold. 

6-24. Camouflage and Concealment of 
Small Groups 

a. In selecting a position, enemy ground 
and air observation must always be considered. 
A location which requires the least amount of 
modification is the most suitable, since there 
is less requirement for disturbing its "natural" 
appearance. The camouflaging of a position 
commences before occupation of the position. 
The most suitable covered approaches must be 
used and tracks, if not hidden, must be kept 
to a minimum. Where possible, approaches 
should be made under the concealment offered 
by trees or bushes, behind snowdrifts or slopes, 
and in shaded areas. Poor camouflage at this 
point may make position camouflaging in- 
effective. If tracks cannot be concealed, then 
tracks should lead through the position to one 
or more dummy positions. On occupation of a 
position, disturb its appearance as little as 
possible. Snow or earth removed from the po- 
sition should be thrown to the enemy side. If 
the position is of snow or ice construction, it 
must be rounded off in order to avoid reflec- 
tion and marked shadows. Overhead tarpaulins 
or camouflage nets should be used to cover any 
extensive digging in snow or earth. 

b. In placing the individual and the weapon 
it is most important that he is not silhouetted 
or contrasted with his background. Low posi- 
tions that blend into the background is the 
secret. 

c. If time allows, positions can be greatly 



improved by constructing an overhead cover of 
suitably camouflaged materials such as 
branches, nets, blankets, etc. (fig. 6-2S). 




Figure 6—2S. Covered foxhole in snow. 

d. The tent is one of the largest items to be 
camouflaged (fig. 6-29). Although large, by 
careful site selection using both artificial and 
natural camouflage material, it can be readily 
hidden. A decreased number of tents and 
stoves, due to tactical reasons, will automati- 
cally assist in keeping the bivouac area cam- 
ouflaged. Occasionally, the camouflage of the 
tents in sparse vegetation, barren tundra, and 
especially under winter conditions becomes 
very difficult. Use white materials such as in- 
dividual overwhites or snowblocks to protect 
the dark material from observation. In emer- 
gencies the white inside liner may be removed 
and placed on the top of the tent. Frequently 
all fires in the stoves as well as the open fires 
must be extinguished and the warming factor 
sacrificed for camouflage and safety reasons. 




Fignre S~:i:K Camoufiage tent in snow. 

6—25. Camouflage of Vehicles 

a. In winter all vehicles should be painted 



140 



AGO SMIA 



white to fit the predominantly white terrain. 
In forested areas it is relatively easy to darken 
a white vehicle \vith issued or improvised cam- 
ouflage material In areas with definite con- 
trasts, for example in the wooded areaa. or 
during breakup and freezeup periods, a mottled 
effect should be used. See FM 31-71. 

b. In addition to the vehicle paintins?, each 
vehicle should be equipped with an all seasonal 
camouflage net to be used when required. Con- 
cealment will be more effective if vehicles are 
parked close to dark features or in shaded 
areas. Always try to break the silhouette and 
avoid vehicle shadows. Try to make it appear 
flat when observed from the ground or air. 

c. In wooded areas lean-tos can be built to 
conceal vehicles. In a static situation a snow 
shelter can be constructed to provide cover and 
concealment. 

d. In extreme cold consideration must be 
given to the exhaust from vehicles since it will 
form ice fog and provide the enemy with ad- 
ditional means of detection. 

6-26. Deception 

a. More opportunities for unit or individual 

deception exist in the North during winter 
than possibly in any other areas. However, 
deception measures are not sufficiently effec- 
tive to lessen the requirement for good con- 
cealment. Unless unit and individual camou- 
flage is effective, the value of any deception 
plan will be greatly reduced. Deception must 
be based on well-coordinated plans which must 
be logical and not too obvious. Dummy posi- 
tions must be positioned to follow the tactical 
plan, but far enough removed from actual po- 
sition so that fire directed at the dummy po- 
sition will not endanger the real position 
(fig. 6-30). 

b. A few skiers or oversnow vehicles can 
create a network of trails or tracks to mislead 
the enemy as to direction^ strength, location, 
and intentions. 

c. Regular pneumatic deception devices are 
inoperable and should not be used in tempera- 
tures below zero degrees. Improvised devices. 




Figure 6—70. Deception area, showing trails and tracks 
in forest and dunnnies in open areas, 

however, can be made from snow, branches, 
canvas, and any other available material. 
Dummy weapons, positions, tents, and vehicles 
of all kinds can be constructed (fig. 6-31). 
They must not appear obvious but should ap- 
pear camouflaged and only "discovered" as a 
result of a camouflage violation. A dummy 
bivouac area must appear to be occupied. Small 
gasoline or oil flames may be used to simulate 
stoves or idling engines. In a bivouac area the 
place must appear to look ocupied; a fire or 
smoke could easily be used to produce this 
eflTect. 




Figure G—31. Snow dummy of a tracked vehicle. 



AGO S641A 



141 



section VL MINES AND OBSTACLES 



6-27, Use of Antitank Mines 

a- Antitank mines must be placed on a 
solid baae, otherwise when pressure is appiit^d. 
they wi[] sink into the soft ground or snow 
and lose much of their effectiveness- In shallow 
snow a hole may be dug and the mine placed 
on the frozen ground. In deep snow they must 
be supported- Additional charges will help 
overcome the smothering effect of deep snow, 
The snow may be tamped down or frozen, or 
the mine may be placed on a plank or something 
similar to provide the required firm support 
(fig. 6-32), In all cases they must be covered 



with snow or dirt, but not buried too deeply; 
otherwise the top layer may accept the weight 
and not detonate the mine, A piece of card- 
board over the mine will protect it from 
moisture which may freeze and hinder the 
working parts, 

h. In snow-covered terrain, the mines 
should be painted white to aid in concealment. 
All minefields must be marked and recorded. 

6-28. Antipersonnel Mires 

a. Antipersonnel mines are adaptable to 
northern operations. If usin^ pressure-type 




REHO^'E SOFT 
SNOW 



BAUSH MAT 



ROOFING ORTARPAPtR^ 
PONCHO, RAJ NCOATp 
WflTERPROOF BM, ET 




AT MINE 



HEAVY PU^NK 



STICKS on SMALL LOOS 



PLANTING CF MtNES Ofa SLPPORT 
OF VARIOUS TYPES 




SNOW COVER 



CAMOUFLAGE 



Figure ff-J:,', Laying mines in deep sjKno* 



143 



AGO a64lA 



ij:^niter3, solid support for the mine is neces- 
sary. If mincR are buried too def?ply in nnnw it 
is posaible that the .snow wil! provicit? :i 
"bridj^e'' and prevent the mine from detona- 
ting. Therefore, %vhen usin^ the pressure-type 
igniters, place the mine about 3 cm (1") be- 
neath the snow. 

b. Tripwires should be pla<!ed at various 
levels above the snow when using pull-action 
igniters. Tripwires placed beneath the surface 
of the snow often freeze in and fail to function- 
Time permitting, tripwires should be painted 
white. 

c. Mines can be placed on ski or snowshoe 
trails (fig. 6--33). Tripwire firing systems are 




^i^ 






;^^^> t^p^^^^^ :^<^^ 



Figure 5-J.7. Plucing jnine on ski track. 



- ^: *> 



the best when usinjr antipersonnel mines in 
this manner. If pressure-type i;.^niters are used. 
insure that the mine is placed in such a man- 
ner that the maximum wi^i^jht of the individual 
will be brtjught to bear on the mine- Care 
should be taken to insure that the mine will 
not be '"bridged" by a ski or snow^ihoe. and 
fati to detonate, 

6-29. Use of Demolitions in Ice 

a. In summer, the thousands of lakes, rivers 
and swamps of the northern regions provide 
formidable obstacles to armor and personneJ- 
In winter, however, when frozen to sudicient 
depth, they provide excellent avenues of ap- 
proach- They also lengthen the frontline of a 
given sector, requiring more troops and wea- 
pons to defend it than in summer. Necessary 
action must be taken to deny these natural 
routes to the enemy under winter conditions. 

b. Preparing Ice DeynolUioti.'^. 

(1) In order to create water obstacles 
during winter conditions, explosives 
are used to blov^ gaps in lake and 
river ice to make it impassable to 
enemy personnel and armor. To in- 
stall the demolition in ice (fig, 6- 
34), holes are sunk 3 meters (10') 
apart in staggered rows by use of 
axes, chisels, ice augers (fig, 6-35), 
steam point drilling equipment, or 
shaped charges. The shaped charges 




WL£C6 -IN DLAMORhlORCI 



WflT£R 









10 LJ T*|T. TC TWTTOL 31 C-* 
CHAME SCT DFF BY [ICTOIU- 




Figure tf-^V^J- Method of placing charges in ice. 



KCO 3641 A 



143 



will not make a hole large enough to 
pass the char*?e throug-h but must 
have the hole widened by other 
means- Charges are suspended in the 
water below the ice by means of 
cords tied to sticks bridj^fing the tops 
of the holes. The charges should be 



of an explosive not affected by water. 
Plastic explosives should be protected 
from erosion by water currents, Dem> 
olitions laid early in the winter must 
be placed deep enough so that they 
will not be encar^ed in the ice as it 
grows thicker- 






rtj^ 



:-^-F 



&UGEH 






\i 



y: 



-li 



4 




aUGER 



CHISEL 





Figure S-35- Tjfpes of ice augers ami ice ckisel. 



(2) The normal thickness of fresh water 
ice is approximately 120 cm (4') or 
leas. In extremely cold areas 150 cm 
(5') of ice is not uncommon. At the 
time the minefield Is established, it is 
difficult to determine how thick the ice 
will be at the time the ice demolition 
is detonated. As a rule of thumb, if 
the ice is expected to be 120 cm (4') 
thick the charges should be approxi- 
mately 10 pounds. In the event the 
depth of the ice is expected to exceed 
120 cm (4'), an addition of 2.5 
pounds per additional 30 cm {!') of 
thickness should be emplaced. Elec- 
trical firing devices are attached to 
three charges in each underwater 
demoJition, one in each end charge 
and one in the middle charge. The 
rest of the charges may be primed 
with concussion detonators or elec- 
trically primed. The large number of 



(3) 



charges does limit the use of elec- 
trical means of firing. An ice demoli- 
tion may consist of several blocks of 
charges echeloned in width and 
depth and has at least two rows of 
mines, each row alternating with the 
one before it. Blowing a demolition 
such as this creates an obstacle for 
enemy armor and vehicles for ap- 
proximately 24 hours at -24° F (FM 
5-25). 

Great care must be exercised when 
handling electrical firing devices un- 
der winter conditions. Because of im- 
proper grounding of an individual 
caused by the snow and ice covering 
on the ground, the static electricity 
that builds up might possible det- 
onate the device, individuals must in- 
sure that they are properly grounded 
prior to handling any type of elec- 
trical firing devices. Care should be 



144 



AGO B64IA 



taken to insure that no radio trans- 
mitters are operating in the immedi- 
ate area. The type of radio ai^nala 
emitted by thia type of equipment 
can detonate eiectrical firing devices. 

(1) Long sectors of the frontline may be 
cut off at a critical moment from 
enemy infantry and armor. 

(2) Number of personnel and AT weap- 
ons needed to defend a given sector 
ia reduced. 

(3) Friendly troops may advance or 
withdraw at any place over the 
charges -without being restricted to 
the cleared lanes. 

(4) Charges laid under thick ice are 

difficult, and often impossible, to de- 
tect by use of mine detectors. 

(5) When the holes over the charges 
have refrozen, the field is very diffi- 
cult for the enemy to breach. 

(6) The charges are not affected by 
weather or snow conditions. 



(7) After a snowfall, detection 
demolitions by the enemy 
trcmeiv difficult. 



of the 
is e X- 



rf. Di-iadvantagf.-i. 

fl) Emplacinj,' the expiosivea requires 
considerable time even when ice cut- 
ting equipment is available. 

(2) The charges can be set off when hit 
by artillery fire. 

(3) The gaps blown in the ice tend to 
freeze over rapidly in low tempera- 
tures. 

(4) Continued exposure of the demoli- 
tion firing system to weather reduces 
the reliability of the system. 

e. Tactical Use, Tee demolitions are used for 
protection from frontal or flanking attacks. 
Normally, one or more sets of charges are laid 
close to the friendly shore and others farther 
out in the direction of the enemy (fig. 6-36). 
If desired, the enemy may be aHowed to ad- 
vance past the first set of charges and then 
both detonated at the same time. The enemy 
thus will be marooned on an ice floe, unable 



ENEMY 




ICE DEMOLITIONS 



Figure 6-.16. Ice demolitions. 



145 



AGO 864tA 



to continue to advance or retreat, and can be 
deatroyed. The same trapping- method may be 
used aj^ainat enemy armor, or the char^^es may 
be detonated directly under the advanciriK" 
tanks. Ice demoiition.s must be kept under ob- 
servation and secured by friendly fire. 

6-30. Natural Obstacles 

a. Snow-Coverrd and Icij Shpps. A steep 
slope is an obstacle to troops and vehicles even 
under normal conditions. When covered by 
deep snow or ice, it becomes much harder to 
surmount The bog^ing-down action and the 
loss of traction caused by deep snow frequently 
create obstacles out of slopes which might be 
easily overcome otherwise. Pads of track-lay- 
ing vehicles should be removed when en- 
counterinir this type terrain. 

b. Windfalls. Occasionally, strong winds 
knock down many trees in a wooded area. 
These fallen trees are known as windfalls. 
They are very effective obstacles when covered 
with snow, especially to personnel wearing 
skis or anowshoes. 

c. Lakes and StreaTns. Not all natural ob- 
stacles are equally effective in the winter as in 
the summer. NormaJly, bodies of water are 
considered natural obstacles, but under winter 
conditions the ice which forma may turn these 
former obstacles into excellent avenues of ap- 
proach. This illustrates an important reaaon 
for reevaluating defensive positions before 
cold weather arrives. 

d. Avalanches. An avalanche makes an ex- 
cellent obstacle for blocking passes and roads. 
Since it occurs in mountainous country where 
there are few natural avenues of approach, 
an avalanche can have a far-reaching influence 
over combat operations. The problem with 
those avalanches which occur naturally is 
that, unless their timing and location are just 
right, they may be of help to the enemy. It is 
possible to predict in advance where an ava- 
lanche can and probably will occur. Then by 
the use of recoilless rifle or artillery fire, 
bombs, or explosives it is possible to induce 
the avalanche to slide at the desired time. This 
type avalanche is an artificial obstacle in the 
technical sense. Generally it will be of more 
value than the natural type. Precautions 



ujrainst avalanche hazard arr? covered in FM 
31-72. 

6-3 7. Artifkial Obstacles 

n. Barhvd Wire. There are many types of 
artificial obstacles used under summer condi- 
tions which are appropriate for winter use. 
Barbed wire normally employed makes an ef- 
fective obstacle in soft, shallow snow. Triple 
concertina is especially effective since it is easy 
to install in addition to being difficult to cross. 
As the snow becomes deeper and more com- 
pacted, a point is reached where it is possible 
to cross the barbed wire on top of the snow. 
One type of barbed wire obstacle built to over- 
come this problem is known as the Lapland 
fence (fig. 6-37). Types of wire entanglements 
and winter obstacles are covered in FM 5-15. 

b. Lapland Fence. The Lapland fence uses a 
floating type of anchor point or one which is 
not sunk into the ground. Poles are used to 
form a tripod. The tripod is mounted on a 
triangular base of wood. Six strands of wire 
are strung along the enemy side of the fence, 
four strands along the friendly side, and four 
strands along the base. As the snow becomes 
deeper, the tripods are raised out of the snow 
with poles or by other means to rest the obsta- 
cle on top of newly fallen snow. The base of 
the tripod and the base wires give enough 
bearing surface to prevent the fence from 
sinking into the snow. 

c. Abatis. An abatis is similar to a windfall. 

Trees are felled at an angle of about 45° to 
the enemy's direction of approach. The trees 
should be left attached to the stump to retard 
removal. Along trails, roads, and slopes, abatis 
can cause much trouble for skiers and vehicles. 

rf. Iced Road Grades. A useful obstacle can 
be made by pouring water on road grades. The 
ice that forms will seriously hamper vehicular 
traffic, 

6-32. Means of Improving Obstacies After 

Heavy Snowfalls 

a. Knife Rests. Knife rests are portable 
barbed wire fences, usually constructed prior 
to the snowfall. The fences are constructed by 
tying two wood poles at their center, forming 
an X. A similar X is made out of two other 
poles and then the two Xs are lashed at either 



146 



AGO SSIIA 



ENEMT 




i 



(6'-»' 



ZHtUY 



16-20' 




4STRAH05 
BAl^eCO WIRE 



3 MM 01A. 
PLAIN WiflE 



PLAN 



65TAAND5 
BAf^SED WIRE 





ENEMY 

6 STRANDS /^ 

BARBED WSRE "^'^ 



3-4-DIA. 



J 



S-6 

PLAN OF SUPPORT 
PYRAMID 




4STRAN0S 
BARBED WIAE 



5 -a 
SIDE ELEVATION 



4STRAND5 
RBCO WfRE 



Figure 6— '17. Lapland, barbed 7uire. 



end of a 3 meter (100 to 3.50 meter (120 
pole. This forms a framework to which barbed 
wire is fastened on all four ^idea. The obstacle 
can be stored until needed and then easily 
transported to the desired location (fig. 6-38). 




Figure S-3S. Knife rest. 



b. Concertina Wire^ Concertina wire is an- 
other quick way to improve on 3now-covered 
obstacles. The concertina comes in 15 meter 
(50') sections which can be quickly anchored 
to the top of existing obstacles, 

c. Additional Barbed Wire. The possibility 
of using additional barbed wire strands should 
not be overlooked. Frequently, obstacles wiii 
have protruding poles to which extra barbed 
wire strands can be tied. Also, additional 
strands placed underneath such floating obsta- 
cles as Lapland fences and knife rests will 
help prevent the enemy from tunneling under 
these obstacles- 



AGO 3641A 



147 



CHAPTER 7 



SMALL UNIT LEADERS 



Section I. GENERAL 



7-1. Leadership Traits 

a. The traits^ qualities, and abilities requisite 
to good leadership in any theater of operations 
assume their greatest importance during op- 
erations in cold weather areas. Leaders must 
be impressed with and made clearly aware of 
this fact. With proper training, leadership, and 
discipline, few men will be unable to meet the 
rigid standards and the difficult service re- 
quired of northern operations. 

b. Military leadership is the art of influenc- 
ing and directing men to an assigned goal in 
such a way as to obtain their obedience, con- 
fidence, respect, and loyal cooperation. The 
individual who demonstrates the traits of a 
leader and applies the fundamental principles 
of leadership will be a successful leader of men 
in cold weather areas. 

c. All leadership traits as outlined in FM 
22-100 are of importance to the leader assigned 
to units operating in cold weather areas. Pe- 
culiar conditions of cold increase the necessity 
for certain traits to a marked degree. Traits 
of utmost importance to the leaders are 

(1) Initiative. The energy or aptitude dis- 
played in the initiation of action, self- 
reliance, enterprise and self -initiated 
activity must be an outstanding char- 
acteristic of leaders who are involved 
in such operations, especially when 
units may become isolated. This re- 
quirement is more pronounced in the 
North than in other theaters of opera- 
tion. In all training of leaders, initia- 
tive and improvisation must be care- 
fully encouraged. 

(2) Endurance and mental and physical 



stamina. Extremes of climate and the 
vastness of the area increase the 
necessity for strong mental and phys- 
ical endurance. These conditions may 
cause early physical and mental fa- 
tigue, but can be overcome by deter- 
mination, forcefulness, and aggres- 
siveness. 

(3) Unselfishness. This is exemplified by 
the leader who does not take advan- 
tage of a situation for personal gain 
or safety at the expense of the unit. 
The physically competent, vigorous 
leader who can resist the natural de- 
sire of first providing for his own 
comfort will be a successful and re- 
spected leader of his unit. 



7-2. 



Leadership Principles 

As in leadership traits, all leadership princi- 
ples as outlined in FM 22-100 apply to leaders 
directing operations in cold weather latitudes, 

with particular emphasis placed on the follow- 
ing: 

a. Knoiv the Job. Every leader must know 

thoroughly the job at hand. The leader's ac- 
tions must demonstrate to his subordinates his 
capabilities as a leader and his genuine desire 
to accomplish the mission with a minimum of 
effort expended by the men. The leader should 
frequently visit isolated units in adverse 
weather and show the men that he is a member 
of the team. He must earn the respect of the 
men and the right to command by a thorough 
understanding of the technical and tactical 
aspect of the task. 

b. Know the Men and Look Out for Their 
Welfare. 



143 



AGO 3641 A 



(1) The small unit leader must know the 
mental and physical capabilities of 
each of his men. Knowing? this, he 
will be able to utilize them efTectively. 
As an example, a strong stable soldier 
3hould be matched in the "buddy sys- 
tem" to guide and assist a weaker 
soldier, 

(2) In isolated areas recreation facilities 
normally are not available. It will be 
the leader's responsibility to insure 
that, during periods of rest or off- 
duty hours, men are not allowed to 
become psychological casualties. A 
good leader will gainfully employ his 
men, but not run the risk of "hound- 
ing" them. The good leader will, with 
ingenuity, devise projects which will 
occupy their minds and at the same 
time improve their professional quali- 
fications as soldiers during periods of 
inactivity in isolated places. 

(3) In cold weather areas the problem of 
obtaining supples assumes ma j or 
proportions. Supply economy must be 
enforced at all times. Clothing and 
equipment must be checked frequently 
and maintained in first class condi- 



tion. Continuous individual supervi- 
sion on the part of the leader is 
mandatory. 

(4) Under adverse conditions the stand- 
ards of personal hygiene and group 
sanitation will gradually become 
lower if not caretuliy supervised. 
These lo^vered sanitation standards 
are a sure indication that supervision 
is lacking and that morale is slipping. 
Men must not be allowed to become 
lazy about their personal habits. Rules 
of personal hygiene and sanitation 
must be enforced by the leader at all 
times. 

c. Inspire That the Task is Understood. Su- 
pervised, and Accomplished. Orders issued 
must be well thought out. When required the 
leader must be prepared to take the leading 
part in carrying them out. Issuing an order is 
onlv the first and relatively small part of the 
leader's responsibility. The principal responsi- 
bility lies in supervision to insure that the order 
is properly executed. Cold regions can be 
friendly, but at the same time do not allow for 
errors or carelessness. An effective commander 
leads, not drives, therefore he must be able to 
differentiate between the two. 



Section 11. PECULIAR PROBIEMS OF LEADERS 



7-3. Mental Processes 

a. Cocoon-Like Existence. Many men, when 
bundled up in successive layers of clothing and 
with the head covered by a hood, tend to with- 
draw within themselves and to assume \vhat 
has been termed a "cocoon-like existence." 
When so clothed, an individual's hearing and 
field of vision are greatly restricted and he 
tends to become oblivious to his surroundings. 
His mental processes become sluggish and al- 
though he looks, he does not see. These symp- 
toms must be recognized by leaders and over- 
come. The leader must realize that it can hap- 
pen to him and must be alert to prevent the 
growth of lethargy within himself. He must 
always appear alert to his men and prevent 
them from sinking into a state of cocoon exist- 
ence. The remedy is simple and basic: AC- 
TIVITY. Throw the hood back and engage in 



physical activity. Although the remedy is sim- 
ple, the recognition of the condition requires 

leadership. 

b. Individual and Group Hibernation. This 
process is again a manifestation of withdrawal 
from the surrounding environment. It is gen- 
erally recognized by a tendency of individuals 
to seek the comfort of sleeping bags, and by 
the group remaining in tents or other shelter 
at the neglect of their duties. In extreme cases, 
guard and security measures may be aban- 
doned and the safety of the unit jeopardized. 
The remedy is simple: ACTIVITY. The leader 
must insure that all personnel remain alert 
and active. Rigid insistence upon proper execu- 
tion of all military duties and the prompt and 
proper performance of the many group 
"chores" is essential. 

c Personal Contact and Comtminications. It 



AGO SS41A 



U9 



is essential that each individual and ^roup be 
kept informed of what is happeninj?. Due to 
the normal deadeninfj of the senses a man left 
alone may quickly become oblivious to hia aur- 
roundinffs, lose his sense of direction and hia 
concern for his unit, and in extreme cases, for 
himself. He may become like a sheep and mere- 
ly follovf alonj?, not knowine: nor caring 
whether his unit is advancing- or withdrawing. 
Each commander must take strong measures 
to insure that each small unit leader keeps his 
subordinates informed. This is particularly 
true of the company commanders keeping- their 
platoon leaders informed, of platoon leaders 
informing their squad leaders, and the squad 
leaders informing their men. General informa- 
tion is of value but greatest importance must 
be placed on matters of immediate concern 
and interest to the individual. The chain of 
command must be rigidly followed and leaders 
must see that no man is left uninformed as to 
his immediate surroundings and situation. 

d. Time and Space. Northern operations re- 
quire that tactical commanders be given every 
opportunity to exploit local situations and take 
the initiative when opportunity is presented. 
Because of the increased amount of time in- 
volved in actual movement and the additional 
time required to accomplish even simple tasks, 
deviation from tactical plans is difficult Tac- 
tical plans are developed after a thorough re- 
connaissance and detailed estimate of the situ- 
ation. Sufficient flexibility is allowed each 
subordinate leader to use his initiative and 
ingenuity in accomplishing his mission. Time 
lags are compensated for by timely issuance of 
warning orders, and by anticipating changes 
in the tactical situation and the early issuance 
of fragmentary orders. Recognition of time 
and space factors is the key to successful tac- 
tical operations in northern areas. 

e. Conservation of Energy. Two environ- 
ments must be overcome in cold regions; one 
created by the enemy, and the second created 
by the climate and terrain. The climatic en- 
vironment must not be permitted to sap the 
enx:xgy of the unit to a point where it can no 
k.n£3r cope with the enemy. The leader must 
be in superior physical condition or he cannot 
expend the additional energy required by his 
/ mcern for his unit and still have the neces- 



sary energy to lead and direct hia unit in com 
bat. He must remember that there are seldom 
any tired units, just TIRED COMMANDERS 

7—4, Summary 

a. The leader who is selected to lead troops in 
areas of the world where the extreme cold and 
rugged, trackless terrain make living and 
fighting more difficult, will face one of the 
greatest challenges of his lifetime. 

ft. He must possess the highest qualities of 
leadership and have the initiative, the confi- 
dence, and the endurance to utilize these qual! 
ities to the utmost. He must have the woods- 
man's knowledge of bushcraft and be able to 
navigate over rugged, trackless terrain. He 
must be physically strong, mentally alert,' and 
able to stand on his own two feet and make 
decisions when on independent missions. 

c. He must be more proficient than others, 
not only in command but in actual doing. He 
must be able to improvise and to teach his men 
to do likewise. He must be able to endure 
greater hardships than hia men and be quick 
to recognize indications of mental lethargy. He 
must know the weaknesses and strengths in 
his men so that he may pair them more effec- 
tively in the buddy system. He must be firm 
when issuing orders but must also realize that 
as the men become colder and more miserable 
the time required to accomplish a task will be 
greatly increased. He must have patience and 
understanding and be able to lead without driv- 
ing. In short, he must be the prototype of all 
leaders. 

d. Military operations can be carried out 
successfully under the extreme conditions and 
over the difficult terrain conditions peculiar to 

the cold areas of the world. The task of the 
troop leader under conditions such as these 
becomes more difficult, but not impossible. 

e. The leader must face up to his responsi- 
bilities and expend unselfishly and tirelessly 

of his time and his talents toward the better- 
ment of the safety, the welfare, and the morale 
of his men. 

/. The troop leader who knows his job and 
who makes proper application of the principles 

of leadership will earn the confidence and re- 
spect of his men and will be successful in the 
accomplishment of his mission. 

AGO SMIA 



APPENDIX A 
REFERENCES 



AK 40-501 
AR 320-5 
AR 320-50 
AR 380-5 
AR 380-40 
AR 380-41 
AR 385-10 
AR 600-20 
AR 700-3400-1 
FM 1-100 
FM 1-105 
FM 1-110 
FM 3-8 
FM 3-10 
FM 3-12 
FM 5-15 
FM 5-20 
FM 5-21 
FM 5-25 
FM 5-26 
FM 5-29 
FM 5-3X 
FM 5-36 
FM 7-11 
FM 7-15 
FM 7-20 
FM 7-30 
FM S-35 
FM 9-6 
FM 10-3 

FM 10-60 

FM 11-50 



FM 17-1 
FM 17-15 



Standards of Medical Fitness. 

Dictionary of U.S. Army Terms. 

Authorized Abbreviations and Brevity Codes. 

Safeguarding Defense Information. 

Safeguarding Crypto Information. 

Control of Cryptomaterial. 

Army Safety Program. 

Army Command Policy and Procedures. 

Issue and Sale of Personal Clothing. 

Army Aviation Utilization. 

Army Aviation Techniques and Procedures. 

Armed Helicopter Employment. 

Chemical Reference Handbook. 

Employment of Chemical and Biological Agents. 

Operational Aspects of Radiological Defense. 

Field Fortifications. 

Camouflage. Basic Principles and Field Camouflage. 

Camouflage of Fixed Installations. 

Explosives and Demolitions. 

Employment of Atomic Demolition Munitions (ADM). 

Passage of Mass Obatacies. 

Boobytrapa. 

Route Reconnaissance and Classification, 

Rifle Company, Infantry, Airborne and Mechanized. 

Rifle Platoon and Squads, Infantry, Airborne, and Mechanized. 

Infantry, Airborne Infantry, and Mechanized Infantry Battalions. 

Infantry, Airborne and Mechanized Division Brigades. 

Transportation of the Sick and Wounded. 

Ammunition Service in the Theater of Operations. 

Air Delivery of Supplies and Equipment in the Field Army. 

Supply of Subsistence in a Theater of Operations. 
Signal Battalion, Armored Infantry, and Infantry (Mechanized) 
Divisions. 

Armor Operations. 

Tank Units, Platoon, Company and Battalion. 



AGO 364 lA 



151 



FM 17-30 

FM 17-36 

FM 19-45-1 (Test) 

FM 20-15 

FM 20-32 

FM 21-5 

FM 21-6 

FM 21-10 

FM 21-11 

FM 21-26 

FM 21-30 

FM 21^0 

FM 21^1 

FM 21-50 
FM 21-75 
FM 21-76 
FM 22-5 
FM 22-100 
FM 23-90 
FM 24-1 
FM 24-17 
FM 24-18 
FM 24-20 
FM 29-3 
FM 30-5 
FM 31-71 
FM 31-72 
FM 32-5 
FM-41-10 
FM 44-1 

FM 54-2 
FM 55-35 
FM 57-10 
FM 57-35 

FM 61-100 

(S) FM 100-1 

FM 100-5 

FM 100-10 

FM 101-5 

FM lOl-IO-l 



(C) 



FM 101-31-1 



The Armored Diviaion Brijjrade. 

Divi.sional Armored and Air Cavalry Units. 

Rear Area Protection. 

Pole and Frame Supported Tents. 

Landmine Warfare. 

Military Training? Manaj^'ement. 

Techniques of Military Instruction. 

Military Sanitation. 

First Aid for Soldiers. 

Map Reading'. 

Military Symbols. 

Chemical, Biological and Nuclear Defense. 

Soldier's Handbook for Chemical and Biological Operations and 
Nuclear Warfare. 

Ranger Training and Ranger Operations. 

Combat Training of the Individual Soldier and Patrolling. 

Survival, Evasion and Escape. 

Drills and Ceremonies. 

Military Leadership. 

81mm Mortar M29. 

Tactical Communications Doctrine 
Tactical Communications Center Operations. 
Field Radio Techniques. 
Field Wire and FieJd Cable Techniques, 
Direct Support Supply and Service in the FieM Army. 
Combat Intelligence. 
Northern Operations- 
Mountain Operations. 
Signal Security (U). 
Civil Affairs Operations. 

U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Employment. 
The Division Support Command. 

Motor Transport Operations and Motor Transport Units. 
Army Forces in Joint Airborne Operations. 
Airmobile Operations. 

The Division. 

Doctrinal Guidance (U). 

Field Service Regulations; Operations. 

Field Service Regulations; Administration. 

Staff Officers' Field Manual; Staff Organization, and Procedure. 

Staff Officers' Field Manual; Organization, Technical, and Logis- 
tical Data — Unclassified Data. 

Staff Officers' Field Manual, Nuclear Weapons Employment, Doc- 
trine and Procedures. 



152 



AGO g641A 



iS) FM 101-31-2 
FM lOl-Sl-.'J 
Pam 108-1 

Pam 310-1 

Pam 310-2 
Pam 310-3 

Pam 310-4 



Pam 385-1 
SB 11-6 
SB 700-20 
TA 50-901 
TB Med 81 
TB Med 269 

TB Sis 189 
TB Sis 346 
TC 10-8 
TM 1-300 
TM a-210 
TM 3-215 
TM 3-220 
TM 3-366 

TM 3-4240-202 

TM 5-^15 
TM 5-330 

TM 5-349 
TM 8-501 
TM 9-207 

TM 9-273 

TM 9-1300-203 

TM 9-1900 

TM 9-1950 
TM 9-8662 
TM 10-228 
TM 10-275 
TM 10-725 
TM 10-735 

TM 21-305 

TM 21-306 

TM 38-750 

TM 55-404 

TM 743-200-1 



-15 



AGO aG41A 



^^^\^^l\T' ^^'^-'^ ^-I^^"^'^]; ^■uclear Weapon. Empinyment Effects 

StatT Officers- Field Manual; Xuclcar Weapon. Employment ElF.cts 
Data ( Lnclassiried), 

Index of Army Films, Transparencies. GTA Charts, and Re 
cordin^s. 

Military Pubii.ations-Index of Administrative Publieation.. 
Mjlitary Publications— Index of Blank Forms 

Military Publi.ations-Index of Doctrinal, Traininjr. and Organ- 
izational Publications. vyii,aji 

Military Publications— Index of Technical Manuals. Technical Bul- 
etms supply Bulletins. Lubrication Orders and Modification 
Work Orders. 

Unit Safety Management 
Dry Battery Supply Data. 
Army Adopted Items of Materiel 
Clothing and Equipment (Peace). 
Cold Injury, 

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. Etiology. Systems, Treatment and 
Preventjon. 

Co!d Weather Photography. 

Maintenance of Radiac Equipment. 

The Lightweight Rucksack: Nylon OG 106. 

Meteorology for Army Aviation. 

Fallout Prediction, 

Military Chemistry and Chemical Agents. 

Chemical, Bilogieal and RadloJogical (CBR) Decontamination 
Flame Fuels. 

Mask, Protective, Field, Mi7. 

Firefighting and Rescue Operations in Theaters of Operation 
Planning, Site Selection and Design of Roads, Airfields, and Heli- 
ports m the Theater of Operations. 
Arctic Construction. 
Nutrition. 

Operation and Maintenance of Ordnance Materiel in Extreme 
Cold Weather (0° to -65^ F.). 

Lubrication of Ordnance Materiel 

Ammunition for Antiaircraft. Tank. Anti-tank, and Field Artillery 
vv eapons. 

Ammunition, General 
Rockets. 

Fuel-Burning Heaters for Winterization Equipment. 
Fitting of Footwear. 

Cold Weather Clothing and Sleeping Equipment. 

Stove, Tent, M1941. Complete, and Burner, Oil Stove Tent M114 

Stove, Yukon, M1950. 

Manual for WTieeled Vehicle Driver. 
Manual for the Full Track Vehicle Driver. 
Army Equipment Record Procedures. 
Fundamentals of Army Airplane Maintenance. 
Storage and Materials Handling. 



153 



APPENDIX B 



GROUND/AIR EMERGENCY CODE FOR 
USE IN AIR/LAND RESCUE SEARCH 



B-1. General 

Experience has shown the requirement for 
simple visual signals for use in an emergency 
by personnel who have become lost, crashed, 
or parachuted (or who are members of search 



parties), and who have need for medical as- 
sistance, food, information regarding the route 
to be followed, etc. Three types of such visual 
signals are contained in figures B-1, B-2, and 
B-3. 



Figure B-1, Ground/air visttal signals for use in 

eTTierge-ncy by survivors. 



■0. 

1 


XBSaAlB 


ccn 

5IKB0L 


i^ ~ — ^ 


1 


COB 

ssaoL 


HnnSt SXTCK * SBBIOGS IBJ1SIZ3 




10 


MILL irratPT TixM^^:irr 

1 






BVxnBE MEDiciL somjxx 

w 


^^^^— ..^^_ 


u 


AJBDULfl SEftlOLE&LI nUfUlTJ? 


1 




miBH TD PBDCm 


X 


iL 
i4 


FBOdidu 3jm ro llkd uebx 


A 




HsaaisB rooo ahd water 


— 


13 


SS^UBX HEIL jJD OIL 


L 




UgDlBI nBELBKS AND jMiailTiai 

1 

1 


V 


U 


ILL ULL 

i 
1 










1 

r 


19 


HO 


N 




^■:j -* 


;UP AND CCKPJU55 














1 
1 


U 


ID 


Y 


Y 


^H 1 -■ i|iri > 


i snaiJkL LAKP wm ainisr jud 




BjUUO 






mncAS DDocTiai td ? sxbd 


K 


17 


KT mOBSKX]) 


JL 


' 


IK FBOdOlK Dl THIS DIBSmai 


A 1 


11 


BMctsniK Bnim 


W 




Visual Signals 

The use of one or more of these signals or 
types of signals will depend on individual cir- 
cumstances and availability of signal material. 
However, as far as possible, the following in- 

154 



structions will be adhered to with respect to 

the signals contained in figures B-1, and B-2: 

a- Form signals by any available means. 
(Some of the means usually available in an 

emergency situation are strips of fabric, para- 

ACO 364 U 



> 
a 
o 



NO 



MESSAGE 



OPERATIOW CCHPLETED 



UE HAVE FOIWD ALL PERSdfflEL 



WE HAVE FOUND OHLY SOffi PHISOMHEL 



^ ARE NOT ABLE 
HETUHNDJa TO BAJ 



CODE 



SlfHBOL 



NO 



LLL 



LL 




1 



XX 



KESSAGE 



CODE 



SUIBOL 



UTO TMD GftOUP5. EACH 
DIRBCTIOM IHDICATED 




7 



mreBMATIOH RECEIVED TrUT AlRCRAfT 
IS m THIS DIRBCTIOM 



NOTHIMQ FOWD 

SEARCH 



MILL CONTDIUE TO 



NN 



in 



Figure B-S, Ground/air visual eignala for use in 

emeraency by oearch parties. 



NtIO MtOKM 

AIMTANCI 



oua ifciivti 
ortiAnNO 






AfrtKMATIVf 



MOAtlVf 
(MO) 



*U OK. 

OO NOT 

WAH 




DO NOf 

AiriJin TO 



lANO HCIf 



C4H NOCtlO 
WAlt tf 

MUCICM 



HtIO 



Hfi^ ot fAan 



fICX M Uf. 

riANI ASAH. 



Figure B-3. Grmtnd/air visual body signals for use in 

emergency by survivors. 



chute material, pieces of wood, atones, boughs, 
or by marking the surface by tamping snow 
or staining with oil, etc.). 

b. Make signals not less than 3.5 meters 
(10.50 in length, 

c. Take care to lay out signals exactly as 

depicted to avoid confusion with other sym- 
bols. 

d. Provide as much color contrast as possible 
between material used and the background. 

e. Make every effort to attract attention by 
other means such as radio, flares, smoke, or re- 
flected light. Smoke is one of the best attrac- 
tion methods, because it can be seen for a great 
distance and will be investigated by all pilots. 
both military and civilian, as a routine mat- 
ter. Be sure to give your signal while the air- 
craft is approaching you. Do not wait until 
the aircraft is straight above or has passed by. 

/. The emergency signals included in this 
manual should be reproduced for use by in- 



156 



dividuals and/or small units which are re- 
quired to accomplish independent or aemi-in- 

dependent missions. 

Conveying and Acknowledging 
Information 

a. When it is necessary for an aircraft to 
convey information to individuals who have 
become lost or isolated, or to search parties, 
and two-way radio is not available, the crew 
will, if practicable, convey the information by 
dropping a message or by dropping commu- 
nication equipment that will enable direct con- 
tact to be established. 

b. When a signal has been displayed and is 
understood, the pilot will acknowledge by 
dipping the aircraft's wings from side to side 
or by other prearranged signals. 

c. When a signal has been displayed and is 
NOT understood, the pilot of the aircraft will 
so indicate by making a complete right turn 
or by other prearranged signals, 

AGO S641A 



APPENDIX C 



SKI DRILL 



Section 1. INDIVIDUAL DRILL 



C-1. General 

Ski drill and ski training should be given 
concurrently. Ski drill is kept to the minimum 
necessary for assembly, organization, instruc- 
tion, and speedy reaction to commands. Only 
those infantry drill movements in FM 22-5 
which are easily performed on skis are used. 
If weapon is included, it is either carried across 
the back with the sling over the left shoulder. 
butt at the right side, or attached to the ruck- 
sack, if used. Before falling in for drill skis 
are strapped with running surfaces together. 
tip to tip, using one strap to secure them tight- 
ly together between the toe and heel section 
of the bindings. Poles are interlaced by draw- 
ing the shaft of one through the basket of the 
other. 

C-2. Fall In 

The command is FALL IN. A normal in- 
terval, 100 cm (40"), is taken and skis are 
held in the position of Order Skis. 

C-3. Order Skis 
(fig. C-1) 

This is the position of attention with skis, 
except during Inspection of Skis. The skis are 
grasped with the right hand between the toe 
and heel section of the binding and held in a 
vertical position with the edges to the front. 
The tips of the skis rest on the ground, on line 
with and touching the toe of the right boot. 
The poles are held by placing the left hand 
through both wrist straps and grasping both 
handgrips. They are placed in a vertical posi- 
tion with the baskets on line with and touch- 
ing the left hoot. Both elbows are held close 
to the body. 




At Ease and Rest 

The same procedure is followed as in FM 



AGO SCsllA 



Fiaure C-1. Positioii of Order Skis. 



157 



22-5, except that the skis take Che place of the 
rifle. 

C-5. Facings 

Facinpg are executed as pre.scribed in FM 
22-5, except that the ^kis take the place of the 
rifle. The ski poles are heki in the left hand. 



Hand Salute, Dismounted 

At the position of Order or Rii^ht Shoulder 
Skis, the aalute is rendered in the same man- 
ner as the rifle salure. To accomplish this, re- 
lease the grip on the ski poles with the left 
hand allowing the poles to hang from the 
wrist while the aalute ia executed. Regrasp the 
pole handles after execution of the salute. 

C-7. Right Shoulder Skis 
(fig. C-2) 

This is a four count movement. Being at the 
position of Order Skis, the command is RIGHT 
SHOULDER SKIS. At the command SKIS, the 
skis are lifted vertically until the upper right 
arm is horizontal At the same time, the left 
hand grasps the skis over the front edges and 
approximately 30 cm (!') below the front of the 
toe section of the binding. The ski poles remain 
on the left wrist as the movement is executed. 
(TWO) The right hand moves down and grasps 
the skis over the front edges, midway between 
the ski tips and the front of the toe section of 
the binding. (THREE) Skis are lowered so that 
the balance point rests on the shoulder and the 
skis are at an angle of approximately 45° to 
the horizontal, with the right elbow close to the 
side. (FOUR) The left arm is cut smartly back 
to the side and the grip on the ski poles re- 
sumed, 

C-8. Order Skis from Right Shoulder Skis 

This is a four count movement. The com- 
mand is ORDER SKIS. At the command 
SKIS, the left hand grasps the skis midway 
between the toe section of the binding and the 
right hand. The poles hang from the wrist by 
the straps. (TWO) The skis are brought down 
until they are in a vertical position approxi- 
mately 45 cm <18") from the ground. 
(THREE) The right hand grasps the skis over 
the rear edges between the toe and heel sec- 
tion of the bindings. (FOUR) The skis are 
lowered gently to the ground. At the same 





■ ^^- 



Figure C-J. Position of right shnidder skis. 

time, the left hand grasps Che handgrips of the 
poles and is brought back to the left side. 



C-9. Open and Close Ranks 

Same as FM 22-5 except that each 
takes double the distance. 
For example: 

a. Front rank takes 4 steps forward, 

b. Second rank takes 2 steps forward. 



rank 



158 



AGO 3641A 



c. Third rnnk .stands faat. 

d. Fourth rank takes 4 step.s back^vard3. 

C-10. Inspection Skis 

Beinir :it Order Skia, the command is TN- 
SPECTtOX SKIS (fifr. C-3). At the cnmmatul 
SKIS, the skis are unstrapped with the left 
hand and the loose strap placed in the pocket. 
The skis are separated and the position of at- 
tention as.sumed. holdinpr one ski in each hand 
between the toe and heel section of the bind- 
ings, running .uirfaces to the front and the tip 
of each ski in line with and approximately 8 cm 
(3") outside the toe of the corresponding boot 
The 3ki poles are placed in the snow beside 
the left foot. After the inspecting officer has 
examined the running surfaces, the skis are 
rotated 180^ to display the top surface. When 
the inspecting officer has passed, the skis are 
refastened and the position of Order Skis re- 
sumed. 

C-ll. Ground Skis 

This movement is done in 3 counts. Being at 
Order Skis, the command is GROUND SKIS. 
At the command SKIS, take two steps to the 
rear, leaving the ski tips in place. Lower the 
skis partially to the ground by sliding the right 
hand toward the heels of the skis. (TWO) 
The skis are then placed on the ground, on 
edge. (THREE) A position is taken driectly 
to the left of the ski bindings, facing the tips 
of the skis. The poles are placed on the left. 
parallel to the skis, baskets to the rear, mid- 
point of the shafts even with and close to the 
left boot. The position of attention is then as- 
sumed. 

C-12. Take Skis From Ground Skis 

The command is TAKE SKTS. At the com- 
mand SKIS secure ski poles, reverse the three 
movements of Ground Skis, and assume the 
position of Order Skis. 

C-13. Stock Skis 

(fig. C-4) 

This movement is done in four counts. The 
command is STACK SKIS, At the command 
SKIS, the first two movements of Ground Skis 
are executed. (THREE) The ski poles are sep- 




Fwtire C~i. PoaHion o/ inspection skis. 



arated and the points placed in the ground on 
each side of the ski heels, approximately 1 
meter (3') apart. A V is made of the hand- 
grips by interlacing each wrist strap over the 
opposite handgrip and crossing the right pole 
in front of the left. The poles are then grasped 
with the right hand at the point where they 
intersect. (FOL'R) The heels of the skis are 
pcked up with the left hand and placed, edges 



ACO 8611A 



159 



up, running surfaces tou^ether, into the V- 
formed by the hanilHripa. At the .same time, 
the poles are tilted forward so that they are 
approximately io cm (13") from the ski heela, 
Thia increases ;^iipport, A po.sition of attention 
ia then assumed beside the ski binding's, with 
the stack to the right. 




Figure C-^. Position of skis in stack skis. 

C-14, Take Skis from Stack Skis 

The command is TAKE SKIS. At the com- 
mand SKIS, the movements of Stack Skis are 
reversed and the position of Order Skis as- 
sumed. 



C-16. Take Equipment 

The command is TAKE EQUIPMENT. At 
the command EQUIPMENT, the rifle, pack. 
and equipment are removed and a position of 
attention resumed beside the ^^kis. 

C-17. Mount Skis 

This movement is done in 5 counts. Being in 
line at open ranks, the command is MOUNT 
SKIS, At the command SKIS, the first three 
movements of Ground Skis are executed. 
(FOUR) The skis are straddled. (FIVE) The 
skis are separated (from each other) piaced on 
the ground and the boots are secured to the 
bindings. Poies are then separated and grasp- 
ed with the left hand. The right hand is in- 
serted up through the wrist strap from un- 
derneath so that the wrist strap is around the 
back of the wrist. Then the handgrip is 
grasped. This procedure is repeated with the 
left hand and the position of attention is as- 
sumed. On skis, this is as follows (fig. C-5) : 

a. Skis are parallel and appro.ximately 8 cm 
(3") apart, with the weight of the body evenly 
on both skis. 

b. Poles are placed vertically with each bas- 
ket in line with, and touching the toe of, the 
corresponding boot. 

c. Elbows are close to the body, with the po- 
sition of the hands dependent on the length 
of the pole. 

C— 18. Dismount Skis 

The command is DISMOUNT SKIS. At the 
command SKIS, the movements of Mount Skis 
are reversed and the position on Order Ski5 
assumed. 



C-TS. Stack Equipment 

With skis stacked, the command is STACK 
EQUIPMENT. At the command EQUIP- 
MENT, the pack is hung over the heels of the 
skis by both shoulder straps with the body of 
the pack to the right of the individual as he 
faces to the rear. The rifle remains attached 
to the pack when applicable or, when unat- 
tached, it is also hung to the right, vertically 
and with the receiver down. Any additional 
equipment is hung in a similar manner. 



C-19. At Ease and Rest, Skis Mounted 

When mounted on skis, the right ski must 
be left in place when At Ease is given. A' 
Rest, both skis may he moved. 

C-10, Hand Salute, Skis Mounted 

(fig. C-6) 

When mounted on skis, the hand salute i^ 
rendered the same as prescribed in FM 22-5 
The right hand is removed from the wris' 
strap if time permits. If time does not permit 



160 



AGO 8641 A 





Figure C-5, Position of attentiov, afcjs mounted. 

the pole hangB from the wrist by the strap 
until after the salute is executed. 



C-21, 



Ski Interval 

(figr. C--7) 



Fifjure C-^- The havd salute, skis moiD^ted, 

than a face to the left in marching. The in- 
terval 13 measured as described above. If it is 
desired to straighten the ranks after ski in- 
terval has been taken, the command AT SKI 
INTERVAL, DRESS RIGHT DRESS is dven. 



Maneuvers on skis are done at ski interval. 
If skis are already mounted, ski interval will 
be taken by each individual when failing in» 
unless otherwise specified- The ski interval is 
approximately 3 meters (9') and is measured 
by extending- both the right arm and right 
ski pole and the left arm with the left poie 
hanging from the wrist. When skis are mount- 
ed in ranks while at normal interval the com- 
mand is TAKE SKI INTERVAL TO THE 
RIGHT (LEFT). On this command, interval 
is taken as described in FM 22-5, except that 
the step turn to the left is executed rather 




Figure C-7. Takivg ^ki ij^iervaL 



AGO B+t41A 



161 



C-22. Right or Left Face 

When mounted on skis, this movement is 
executed in four counts. The command is 
RIGHT FACE. At the command FACE, the 
right ski is raised siightly and rotated 45'' to 
the right, using its heel as a pivot. (TWO) 
The left aki is moved alongside the right ski. 
(THREE) The first movement ia repented. 
(FOUR) The second movement is repeated. 
Each ski po3e is raised, moved, and placed 
with the corresponding 3kL Left Face Is exe- 
cuted in the same manner except the 45'' move- 
ment is made to the left with the left aki. 

C-23. About Face 

This movement is executed in four counts. 



The command is ABOUT FACE. At the com- 
mand FACE, the left pole [3 placed alongside 
the left ski approximately 45 to 60 cm (18" to 
24") in front of the toe. At the same time, the 
right pole is placed alongside the right ski 
approximately 45 to 60 cm {18" to 24") in the 
rear of the toe, (TWO) The right ski is rai.sed 
until it i.s perpendicular, with its heel alongside 
the tip of the left ski, (THREE) Usii^g the heel 
as a pivot, the right ski is rotated and placed 
alongside the right pole and pointing in the 
opposite direction. (FOUR) The left ski and 
ski pole are then brought around simultane- 
ously and the left ski placed in the new direc- 
tion alongside the right ski, with the left aki 
pole placed by the toe of the left foot. 



Section II. UNIT DRILL 



C~24. Moving at Right Shoulder Skis 

a. Drill. To move men out at right shoulder 
skis, the preparatory command FORWARD is 
given with sufficient pause before the com- 
mand of execution MARCH to allow the men 
to bring their poles up onto the left shoulder 
and placed with baskets to the rear under the 
skis (1, fig. C-8) . To move from Right 
Shoulder Skis to Order Skis after halting, the 
preparatory command ORDER is given with 
sufficient pause before the command of execu- 
tion SKIS to allow the men to bring their 
poles down to the left side. 

b. Marches. There are three methods of 
carrying skis which may be used in marching, 
their use depending on the length of march 
and the type of terrain. If the march is rela- 
tively short, at the command ROUTE STEP 
the poles may be removed from under the skis 
and brought down to the side at the discretion 
of the individual. This enables him to rest or 
warm his arm and hand or to use the poles 
for support when climbing a slope. Skis may 
aiso be alternately shifted from shoulder to 
shoulder to reduce fatigue. At the command 
SQUAD, PLATOON, or COMPANY ATTEN- 
TION, the position of Right Shoulder Skis is 
resumed with poles under the skis. Allow 
sufficient time between the preparatory com- 
mand and the command of execution for in- 
dividuals to place the skis and poles in proper 
position. For longer marches where the ter- 



rain is flat or rolling, the poles may be 
strapped to the skis with the baskets over the 
tips and the skis alternated between the right 
and left shoulder to avoid fatigue (2, fig. C-3). 
This method is valuable in cold weather, as it 
enables the individual to alternate warming 
of each hand by swinging it or placing it 
under his outer clothing. For longer marches, 
especially over steep terrain, the skis may be 
tied to the rucksack. One is tied on each side 
with the tips up and strapped together at the 
top to form an A-shape (3, fig. C-8). This 
method allows the individual to use the poles 
for additional support either together, in one 
hand, or separately, one in each hand. 

C-25. Flanking Movement From Normal 

Interval 

This movement is used when it is desired to 
move men to the flanks when mounted on skis 
at normal interval. The movement is done in 
4 counts. The commands are to the RIGHT 
(LEFT) FLANK AT INTERVAL, MARCH. 
At the command MARCH, the right flank man 
pivots on the heel of his right ski 45^ to the 
right and slides slightly forward on it. (TWO) 
The left ski is brought up parallel to the right 
ski, allowing this ski also to slide slightly for- 
ward. (THREE) The first movement is re- 
peated. (FOUR) The second movement is re- 
peated and a normal pace taken in the new 
direction. As the right flank man takes his 



162 



AGO SSIlA 





1 Using the ski poles for support 2 Skis and poles strapped together to leave hands fr^e 

Fiffure C-S, Various methods of camjing skis. 



third step, the ne?d: man starts his first step. 
This procedure is followed by each man in 
line. When the last man has finished this 
movement, the unit will be marching in the 
new direction at ski intervals. Flanking to the 
left is executed in the same manner, except 
that the left flank man starts the movement 
with his left foot. 

C-26. Flanking Movement From Ski Interval 

This movement is made by first commanding 
RIGHT or LEFT FACE. When this facing 



has been compJeted the command FORWARD 
MARCH is given. 

C-27. Column Movement 

When mounted on skis, the commands are 
COLUMN RIGHT (LEFT), MARCH. At the 
command MARCH, the leading man takes a 
full step forward, then turns as in facing on 
5kis, except that at each step a short slide 
forward is made. The fourth step is of full 
length in the new direction. Succeeding men 
follow in his trace. For COLUMN HALF 



AGO a641A 



163 




RIGHT (HALF LEFT) the same procedure ig 
followed except that the second step is of fuU 
length in the new direction. 

C-28. To March io the Rear 

For this movement, when mounted on skis, 
three separate commands are given, allowing 
each movement to be completed before the 
next command is given. These commands in 
order are HALT, ABOUT FACE, FORWARD 
MARCH. The about face is executed as de- 
scribed in paragraph C-23. 



3 A-frame method 
Figure C-S — Continued 



164 



AGO W*1A 



APPENDIX D 



EFFECTS OF COLD WEATHER ON WEAPONS 



[>-l. General 

a. In cold areas many climatic conditions 
will greatly affect the operation and employ- 
ment of infantry weapons. All individuals 
must be well aware of these conditions in 
order that they may properly handle and care 
for their weapons under adverse circum- 
stanees- 

h- As a safety measure, extreme care must 
be exercised in touching cold weapons with 
bare flesh because the flesh may freeze to the 
metal- Gloves or the trigger finger mitten 
should always be worn when handling weapons 
during periods of extreme cold. 

D— 2. Factors Affecting Weapons 

a. Sluggishness. A common problem is the 
sluggishness of the operation of the weapons 
in extreme cold. Normal lubricants thicken in 
low temperature and stoppage or sluggish ac- 
tion of firearms results. During the winter, 
weapons must be stripped completely and 
cleaned with a drycieaning solvent to remove 
all lubricants and rust prevention compounds. 
The prescribed application of lubrication oil, 
weapons (LOW) should then be made. These 
lubricants will provide proper lubrication dur- 
ing the winter and help minimize snow and 
ice from freezing on the weapons. 

b. Breakages and Malfu7ictions- Another 
problem that faces the soldier in the areas of 
severe cold is a higher rate of breakage and 
malfunctions- These can also be attributed pri- 
mariiy to the coldp although snow in a weapon 
may cause stoppage and malfunctions. The 
tempered metal of automatic weapons, for ex- 
ample, will cool to a point where it cannot be 
touched by human flesh. This extreme cold 
makes the metal brittle. When the weapon is 



fired at subzero temperatures, the temperature 
of the barrel and gun will rapidly rise to be- 
tween 200 "* and 750"^, depending upon the 
number of rounds fired. This again reduces 
the temper and, because the parts are working, 
breakages will occur early in the firing while 
the weapon is warming up- Many malfunctions 
also occur during this period due to the pres- 
ence of ice or snow in the weapon or freezing 
of working parts. The weapons should first be 
fired at a slow rate of fire. Once the parts 
have warmed up, the rate of fire may be in- 
creased to the cyclic rate. One of the main 
problems is to insure that snow and ice do not 
get into the working parts, sights, or barreL 
The weapon must be carefully handled during 
movement through the snow-covered woods, 
and especially under combat conditions in 
deep snow. 

c. Condensation. Condensation forms on 
weapons when they are taken from the ex- 
treme cold into any type of heated shelter. 
This condensation is often referred to as 
"sweating," When the weapon is taken out in- 
to the cold air, the film of condensation 
freezes, especially in the internal parts, and 
stoppages and malfunctions result. When 
weapons are taken into heated shelter for 
cleaning purposes, "sweating" may continue 
for as long as 1 hour. Therefore, when time 
is available^ wait 1 hour, remove all condensa- 
tion, and then clean the weapon. 

d. Vlsibilitij, A problem of visibility close 
to the ground occurs when a weapon with ex- 
cessive muzzle blast is fired in temperatures 
below —37"^ F. As the round leaves the weapon, 
the water vapor in the air is crystallized, 
creating minute ice particles which produce 
ice fog. This fog will hang over the weapon 
and follow the path of the projectile, obscur- 



ACO mUA 



165 



ing the gunner's vision along his line of fire. 
If the air is atiil, the ice fog will remain for 
many minutes and hover in one place. There- 
fore, the weapon wiil have to be displaced to 
the right or left to again secure use of its sights 
if firing is to be continued. 

e. Emplacement Most crew-served infantry 
weapons need a natural "base'^ or gun plat- 
form 30 it may be fired accurately- In summer 
the ground provides a solid base and yet has 
enough resilience to act as a shock absorber. 
In winter the soft snow gives under the recoi3 
of the gun. If the weapon is emplaced on the 
solid frozen ground, there is no "give" and all 
the shock of firing is absorbed by the weapon 
itself, resulting in breakage (para 6-7). Also 
the slippery surface of the frozen ground may- 
allow the weapon to slide. If the snow is not 
too deep, and if time is available, tripods and 
baseplates should be dug into the ground or 
solidly positioned by expedient means to keep 
them from moving. 

D-3. Cold Effects on Various Types of 
Weapons 

a. Small Arms. 

{!) Pistols. Pistols cannot be fired while 
wearing the arctic mitten set- The 
firer must remove his mittens or use 
the lighter weight trigger finger 
mitten. The only other difficulty that 
may be encountered is the breakage 
of moving parts in extreme cold. 

(2) Rifles. Firing rifles will also necessi- 
tate the use of trigger finger mittens. 
This means that the firer cannot op- 
erate the weapon over a sustained pe- 
riod of time in extreme cold. All 
rifles will create ice fog. However, 
since the firer can readily move his 
position, this poses no serious prob- 
lem. The main problem is that more 
malfunctions and breakages are 
caused in firing because of the cold 
or because of fouling of the weapon 
with ice or snow. Parts most subject 
to breakage are sears, firing pins, and 
operating rods — parts that are mov- 
ing or affected by recoil. Malfunc- 
tions in automatic rifles may be 



caused by snow or ice plugged maga- 
zines. Wingnuts on bipods tend to 
freeze in position. To avoid this 
problem, apply LOW on parts con- 
cerned. 

(3) Machinegitns. These weapons nor- 
mally should be well lubricated with 
LOW because of their many moving 
parts. If LOW is not available, these 
weapons, when fired cold and dry, 
will have fewer malfunctions if fired 
at a slow rate of fire. Once the parts 
have warmed up, temperate zone 
lubricants can be applied and the 
rate of fire gradually increased. How- 
ever, if temperate zone lubricants are 
used the gun must be kept warm. If 
it is allowed to become cold it will 
fail to operate upon resumption of 
firing. The gun should therefore be 
cleaned and fired dry and cold until 
it again warms up. MG's have a high 
rate of breakages and malfunctions 
because of the cold weather. Parts 
especially affected are the sear and 
bolt. Extra parts of this type must be 
carried by gun crews. One common 
malfunction, occurring early in firing 
is called short recoil (bolt does not 
recoil fully to the rear). Prescribed 
immediate action for the particular 
weapon should be applied. As the 
metal warms, the problem will dimin- 
ish. A second malfunction is caused 
by freezing and hardening of buffers. 
This in turn causes great shock and 
rapid recoil, thereby increasing the 
cyclic rate. When this happens and 
the gun continues to fire, something 
has to give, and generally parts will 
break. Condensation will cause the 
freezing of parts as on most other 
weapons. Ice fog greatly impairs ac- 
curate firing, therefore, 2 to 3 alter- 
nate gun positions must be prepared. 

h. Recoiiless Rifle. 

(1) Propellants will tend to burn slower 
in the cold. Therefore, the firing data 
for temperate climates cannot be 
used and the weapon must be zeroed 
for the temperature in which it is 



166 



AGO S6*1A 



being fired. Once zeroed the weapona 
are again highly accurate. The rate 
of fire will be slower because of alow 
burning propeilanta. This is because 
after the round leaves the muzzle, 
burning gases remain in the barrel 
and the weapon cannot be reloaded 
until they burn out. The phenomenon 
is known as "afterburm" Gunners 
must exercise care to avoid prema- 
ture explosion of the round in the 
weapon. A period of at least 60 sec- 
onds must elapse between firing and 
reloading, 

(2) One of the major problems in the 
firing of reeoilless rifles is the formu- 
lation of ice fog. This will require fre- 
quent displacement of the weapon so 
that the gunner can regain visibility 
and also to avoid detection by the 
enemy. 

(3) Applicable training manuals for the 
reeoilless rifle prescribe back blast 
danger areas for temperate zone fir- 
ing. The danger areas must be tripled 
for safe operations in cold areas. 

(4) The Spotter-Tracer Rifle on the 106- 
mm Rifle creates problems because its 
trajectory and that of the reeoilless 
round do not coincide. Metal parts of 
the spotter rifle are also subject to 
breakage. As in other weapons it is 
lubricated with LOW or fired dry. 

(5) Another phenomenon that occurs in 
extreme cold is deformity of the bar- 
rel because of solar radiation. This 
will happen if the weapon is bore- 
sighted, for example, prior to sunrise. 
If the sight reticle and the bore have 
been placed on the same target in the 
early morning hours, after the sun 
rises the bore may be pointing at one 
target and the sight reticle at the 
original one. The barrel has been ac- 
tually bent because of the increase in 
temperature and thus the zero has 
been lost. After the weapon has been 
fired for several rounds, it is again 
boresighted and retains its accuracy. 
This condition concerns itself with 
gaining first round hits ; the crew 



must be aware of this and muat know 
how to correct it. The gunner should 
not rehj entirely on the firing tables 
in low temperatures, but should cor- 
rect the data based upon experience 
and the best available data currently 
at hand. 

c. Rocket Launchers. The main problem wi^h 
rocket launchers is in the ammunition. The 
rocket has a burning propellant which moves 
it toward the target. This propellant because 
of the effect of the blast and its slow burning 
qualities in coid weather can be extremely 
dangerous in low temperatures. The gunner 
and loader can be burned and lacerated by 
particles of the burning propellant as the 
rocket leaves the muzzle of the launcher. The 
firing of these weapons (peacetime training) 
is normally restricted to temperatures above 
20° F, but extreme caution should be exercised 
when firing at any temperature below freezing. 
Operating personnel must be equipped with 
face masks and gloves. Like the reeoilless rifle, 
the back blast danger area must be tripled. The 
launchers have no emplacement problem, but 
will create ice fog and will have to be moved 
when the fog persists. The range is reduced 
because of slow burning propellants. The gun- 
ner will have to make his own firing tables 
and will probably have to sight high, espe- 
cially at longer ranges. 

d. Grenades. 

<1) HandgreTiades. No particular prob- 
lems exist in the use of handgrenades 
in extreme low temperatures with 
the exception that they lose much of 
their effectiveness when detonated 
under snow. The following are pre- 
cautions necessary for throwing 
handgrenades by personnei wearing 
arctic handgear during extreme cold 
conditions. 

(a) Handgear must be completely dry. 
Handling of snow and ice may re- 
sult in grenades freezing to the 
wet handgear. 

{b) Grenades must be held near the 
neck of the fuze to avoid slipping 
or turning of the grenades when 
safety pins are removed. 



VGO S641A 



167 



(c) Right hand throwers must place 
the grenade so that the safety lever 
reata on the first knuckle of the 
thumb to insure a sensitive feeiiuR- 
of the safety lever, 

{d) Left handed throwers must place 
the grenade so that the safety lever 
reats hetween the first and second 
knuckles of the fingers, to insure a 
sensitive feeJing of the safety lever 
and good access to the safety pin 
ring- 

(2) Greriade launcher. No particular 
problems exist in the operation of the 
40mm grenade launcher at extreme 
low temperatures; however, like the 
handgrenade, the grenade itself will 
lose much of its effectiveness when 
detonated under snow and a higher 
proportion of duds will result The 
launcher should be fired dry or lubri- 
cated lightly with LAW. 

e. Tank Main Armament These weapons 
have many of the problems of recoilless rifles. 
Breakage and malfunctions are few. The two 
primary problems are the formation of ice fog 
when the weapon is fired and distortion of the 
tube caused by solar radiation. The problems 
of lubrication and breakage are greatly dimin- 
ished because of the fact that most of the work- 
ing parts of the weapon are inclosed in a 
warmed turret. The major problem is the ef- 
fect of temperature changes on the ammuni- 
tion. Ammunition stored inside the turret will 
be warm and have the same general ballistic 
characteristics of ammunition fired in temper- 
ate climates. The weapon is generally zeroed 
with this warm ammunition. Other ammuni- 
tion is stored outside the tank where the 
temperature is extremely cold. When this am- 
munition is fired, the powder will burn slowly 
and it will have completely different ballistic 
characteristics, thus rendering the initial zero 
useless. If possible, the ammunition brought in 
from the outside should be heated in the turret 
before firing. In a combat situation this is not 
practical because the ammunition may have to 
be used immediately. The gunner must have 
his own data for cold ammunition or be ready 
to hastily rexero the weapon. In either case he 
will have to make sight adjustments. There is 



also the problem of snow particles being 
blown up in front of the sights by the muzzle 
blast and obscuring the visibility of the 



j^V3nner. 



f. Mnrtar:^. The matter of breakage in mor- 
tar?^ is a minor one since there are few parta. 
However, firinjjr pina often get brittle and 
break- The ba^^eplate must be solidly positioned 
to prevent siidinf?. It may be necessary to dig 
into the n^round to accomplish this. When the 
weapon ia emplaced on frozen ground, the 
combination of the cold making the metal 
brittle and the tremendous ^hock that the base- 
plate receives when a round is fired, occasion- 
ally may cause the baseplate to crack. Frozen 
ground has no resiliency, and the baseplate and 
other bracing parts of the weapons absorb the 
entire shock of firing. 

(!) One field expedient that will reduce 
the possibility of a cracked baseplate 
is to place a brush matting under the 
baseplate- The matting should be 
thick enough to act as a shock ab- 
sorber, but not so thick as to cause 
the baseplate to bounce out of its dug 
in position. Another method of posi- 
tioning the weapon is to place bags 
of dry sand or snow beneath the 
baseplate. The sandbags will provide 
the weapon with a solid, yet resilient, 
shock absorbing base. An additional 
problem with the mortars is that they 
cannot be handled without touching 
bare metal as can other infantry 
\veapon3 with wooden or plastic han- 
dles and stock. The crew must keep 
their gloves or mittens on and avoid 
touching the metal surface with bare 
flesh- There are practically no lubri- 
cation or ice fog problems with the 
mortars. Malfunctions are also quite 
infrequent- 

(2) The ammunition is affected by the 
cold in the same manner as the other 
types of ammunition- Firing tables 
may be utilized provided the proper 
range K's are established through 
experience. Applicable field manuals 
should be consulted for charge re- 
strictions at low temperatures- The 



168 



AGO S641A 



VT-fuze type ammunition is consid- 
ered the moat effective mortar am- 
munition in the northern latitudes in 
the winter. Contact-detonated ammu- 
nition will penetrate the snow before 
exploding and much of its effective- 



ness is lost and dissipated in the 
snow. A greater frequency of short 
rounds, as much as 1,000 to 1,400 
meters short. (1.000 to 1,400 ydaj 
may be experienced at low tempera- 
tures from the 4.2-inch mortar. 



\GO 3S41A 



169 



APPENDIX E 



WEIGHTS OF COLD WEATHER CLOTHING AND 

EQUIPMENT AND TYPE LOAD 



E— 1. General 

The weights shown in this appendix are for 
Standard A items of clothing and equipment, 
Aa new items are developed and standardized, 
their weights will be reflected by changes to 
the manual. 

E-2. Clothing and Equipment 

The list below includes all items of clothing 
and selected items of equipment. Insofar as 
possible abbreviated nomenclature has been 
used. A type load is shown in paragraph ^-3- 

a* Clothing. 

Ai^^rage wtight 

171 pounds fai^e 

•medium r^ffuiarj 

Undershirt, 50/50 0.32 

Drawers, 50/50 0.89 

Socks, Cushion Sole 0.19 

Suspenders 0.25 

Trousers^ Wool Serge 1.68 

Trousers, Cotton Nyion, Wind 2,10 

Resistant. 

Liner, Trousers, Nyion Quilted 0.64 

Shirt, Wool Nylon, OG 1,50 

Coat, Cotton Nylon, Wind Resastant _, 3.20 

Liner, Coat, Nylon Quilted 0.73 

Parka, Cotton Nylon L98 

Liner, Parka, Nylon Quilted 0-95 

Cap, Cold Weather 0,26 

Hood, Winter 0.96 

Muffler, Wool 0-38 

Glove, Shells, Leather 0.22 

Glove Inserts, Wool Nyion _ . 0,13 

Mitten, Shells, Trigger Finger 0.43 

Mitten Inserts, Wool Nylon , 0,22 

Mitten Set, Arctic 1_08 

Poncho, Nylon Twill 2.00 

Boot, Insulated, White or Black _ _ 5.50 
Overwhite, Set: 

Parka 1,94 

Trouser 1.00 

Mitten 0,31 

Rucksack 0.75 



b- Individual Eqiiipmeni. 

. height 
in pounda 

Bag', Sleeping (inner) _ . 5_4i 

Bag, Sleeping: (outer) _ 7_06 

Mattress, Pneumatic 3,00 

Case, Water Repellent 2-25 

Helmet, Steei, w/liner 3^0 

Rucksack, Nylon Duck, OG 3,^0 

Canteen, Coid Climatic, w cup & cover 3.85 

■■'h full- 
Belt, M14, w/first aid packet & pouch LOl 

Rifle, MI4, w/sling 9,08 

Bayonet, w/scabbard 1,07 

5 Magazines, w/ammunition 7^5 

Ammunition pouch (2 ea) 1.45 

2 Grenades {M26) 1,90 

Intrenching Tool, w/carrier 3-96 

Body Armor 8,87 

Mask, Protective 2-88 

l^ Ration 2.13 

Skis, A13 Terrain, W/Tjindings and poles. 9.50 

Snowshoes, Magnesium, w^^indings __ 4»60 

Ski Wax (per box) 0.25 

Chapstick 0.04 

Thong, Emergency 0.12 

Glasses, Sun, w/case 0,30 

Sunburn Preventive Cream 0,19 

Camouflage face paint, white/loam , _ 0-08 

Box, Match, Waterproof, w/matches 0-15 

Starter, Fire 0-15 

Knife, Pocket 0.40 

Towel, Turkish 0,64 

Comfort Items (appxoxi LOO 

Toilet Articles (approx) 2.00 

c- Organizational Eqidp7nent. The command- 
er must also consider the additional weight 
imposed on individLials within the unit by the 
necessary inclusion of many items of organi- 
zational equipment and crew-served weapons 
needed for a given mission. The following list 
13 not intended to be complete, but to be 
used as a guide for planning purposes- 

Machine^n, M60 23-00 

Grenades (M34)(WP) l-Sl 



170 



AGO 3M1A 



Weapon, Antipersonnel (Claymore) - - 3.00 

Pistol, Automatic, Cal. 45 _^;-^^ 

L!50 rounds, 7.62mm. Machinegun _.---- --■'^^ 

Bandoleer, w/7.(i2mm ammunition {<jO 3.bl 

rds). 2JJ 

Compass, Lensatic ------^ ■ 

Grenade Launcher. M79 t,-^" 

81mm Mortar, w/mount: ~o ,,f, 

^^'''} " 40.00 

Bipod 

Baseplate 

3-5" Rocket Launcher: 

Launcher ^ ^^ 

Rockets 

Rifle. 90nim, M67: 

R,fl. 

Ammo 

Stove. One Burner, Squad ^-""i 

Reel. DR8, w/WDl wire 13.00 

Radio. AN/PRC 6 ^^"^^ 

Radio, AN/PRC 25 -*-^^ 

Rifle, M14 ^-^^ 

Grenade, M26 <2 ea) \^^ 

Itagazine, w/7.62mm ammo (5 ea) -- '-35 

Pouch, Ammo, 7.62mm, M14 (2 ea> _- 1-46 

Canteen, Cold Climatic 3.35 

Belt, M14, w/first aid packet & pouch. 1-01 

Intrenching Tool, w/carrier 3-^6 

Bayonet, w/scabbard ^-^^ 

Snowshoes, Magnesium ^-^^ 

Body Armor ■ — - '^^" 

Protective Mask """^ 

Total equipment ^^-^^ 

Ca.rr\td in pocfceia.* 

Chapstick \^^ 

Sun Glasses, w/case 'J*'*^ 

Box, Match, Waterproof ^.lo 

Knife, Pocket °-^^ 

Thong, Emergency ^'^^ 

Total 1-^'^ 

Total Fighting Load '^-^'^ 

E-3. Type Load 

The loads shown below are type loads which 
ouid he worn during moderately cold weather 
[approximately 15' F to -15" F). The term 
moderately cold is used only as a descriptive 
:erm. What is termed as moderately cold to 
me person, may he extremely cold to another. 
The windchill factor must also be considered. 
\ moderate cold could change momentarily to 
extreme cold by the addition of high winds. 
Therefore, the commander should use the type 
loads for planning only and should adjust them 
accordingly to fit a given situation and tem- 
perature condition. 

AGO 8641 A 



a, Fighthig Load. 



Clothing: 



Helmet, w.liner -------- 

Undershirt. 50.;50 -. - ------ 

Drawers, 50- 50 _-__- 

Socks, Cushion Sole --- - - 

Suspenriers . -- 

TrouEera, Cotton Nylon WR 

Shirt. Wool Nylon 00 

Coat, Cotton Nylon WR _-- 
Liner, Coat. Nylon Quilted --- 

Cap, Cold Weather 

Hood, Winter -._ 

Muffler, Wool 

Mitten, Shells, Trigger Finger 
Mitten Inserts, Wool Nylon ..- 

Overwhite Set 

Boots, Insulated, White ----- 



u.oo 

0.82 

0.39 

0.19 

0.25 

2,10 

1.50 

3.20 

0.73 

0.2« 

0.9 G 

0.38 

0.43 

0.22 

4. GO 

5.50 



Total clothing 

h. Existence Load. 



Rucksack. Nylon Duck, OG 

Following items are carried in or attached 
to the rucksack: 

Bag, Sleeping (Outer) 

Bag, Sleeping (Inner) 

Mattress, Pneumatic 

Case, Water Repellent 

Liner, Trousers, Nylon Quilted 

Socks, Cushion Sole (2 pr) 

Poncho, Nylon Twill 

y^ Ration 

Toilet Articles 

Towel, Turkish 

Starter, Fire 

Mitten, Inserts, Wool Nylon 

Total Existence Load 

Total of Fighting and Existence 

Load. 



24.43 



Weight 

3.60 



7.06 

5.41 

3.00 

2.25 

0.64 

0.38 

2.00 

2.13 

2.00 

0.64 

0.15 

0.22 



29.43 



101.51 



c Siipvlemental Existence Load. The follow- 
ing are items of clothing not iinmediately 
needed hy the individual during moderately 
cold weather. These items are normally carried 
in the duffle hag on unit transportation and 
should be available to the individual when 

needed : 

Undershirt, 50/50 

Dra^vers, 50/50 

Socks, Cushion Sole (3 pr) 

Trousers, Cotton Nylon, Wind Resistant 

Shirt, Wool Nylon, OG 

Parka, Cotton Nylon 

Liner. Parka, Nylon Quilted 

Mitten Set, Arctic 

171 



APPENDIX F 



ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS 



Section L THE ENVIRONMENT 



F— 1. Terrain 

The terrain of northern latitudes consists of 
exposed bedrock, plains and plateaus covering 
this rock, and rugged mountains. Much of the 
area is within earthquake belts with active 
volcanoes and glaciers present. Sedimentary 
deposits on slopes greater than 3° are con- 
stantly moving- 

jx. The plains have numerous shallow glacial 
depressions, sloughs, swamps, ponds^ and lakes. 
These features range from 30 to 1,500 cm (1' 
to 50') deep with banks from a few centi- 
meters (inches) to hundreds of meters {yards) 
high, 

&. The plateaus have relatively smooth up- 
landSp many rolling hills, and broad sweeping 
vaJIeys. Scattered rock outcroppings are pres- 
ent. The elevations vary from hundreds to 
thousands of meters over distances of several 
hundred kilometers (miles), 

c. Mountain elevations range from 1,500 
meters (5,0000 to more than 5,500 meters 
(18,000') within a few kilometers (miles)- 
Weathering processes as well as mountain 
forming processes are found- 

d. Streams often have swift currents and 
extremely rocky bottoms. The many glacial 
rivers are silt-laden with numerous sandbars, 

shifting channels, and undercut banks. 

e. Perennially frozen ground, or permafrost, 
is found in most of the subarctic and arctic- It 
varies in thickness from a few centimeters 
(inches) to several hundred meters (yards) 
in loosely defined continuous, discontinuous, 
and sporadic zones. The presence of perma- 
frost affects drainage due to its impervious 



nature. When the permafrost thaws, the mate- 
rial changes to muck because of the large 
water content. Therefore, the presence or ab- 
sence of permafrost can affect military ac- 
tivities. 

f. Heavy forests with dense coniferous tree 
stands are found where little or no permafrost 
is present. Certain broad leaf trees will mix 
with narrow leaf types in zones of sporadic 
permafrost. As the area of permafrost be- 
comes more continuous, vegetation growth 
becomes more stunted and is replaced by 
sedges, grasses, and mosses. 

F-2. Atmosphere 

a. Cloud cover is extensive and wide, low 
cfouds cause bleak and monotonous conditions. 
In very high latitudes, overcast often persists 
for weeks and clear days are rare* 

5. Precipitation varies from about 10 to 500 
cm (4" to 200") per year, depending upon 
the area. Snow may fall during any month, 
but does not always account for the major 

quantity of precipitation as the ratio in 
volume of snow to water can vary from 2 to 1 
to 10 to 1. Although this area has very little 
atmospheric moisture, it has relatively high 
humidity due to the low temperatures. 

c. Ground level air temperatures may vary 
from extremes of -95"' R to -|-100° F- During 
the period of solar light, the extreme variation 
for one day might be as high as 100"" F- 

d. In most areas, visibility is either very 
good or very poor with average visibility con- 
sidered uncommon. Fog, blowing snow, and 
variation in air density can cause impaired 
visibility. In most areas, fog causes less prob- 



172 



AGO B641A 



-ma in late winter. Periods, when blowing: 
now haa reduced visibility below 1,000 meters 
1.000 yds) range from 79 hours for an entire 
vinter in one area to 265 consecutive hours 
n another. Light, reflected at various angles in 
dr of changing density, produces mirages 
vhich confuse detail of the landscape. Often. 
\at terrain features are upended: objects far 
lelow the true horizon appear near at hand in 
^harp relief; and objects above the true horizon 
■ompletely disappear. In unusual cases, terrain 
features are reflected in the sky. 

e. During winter, long periods of darkness 
with heavy overcast are a problem. However, 
at many times, the quality of available light 
must also be considered. Most activities can 
be carried on in bright moonlight while light 
from the stars and the aurora is sufficient for 
many purposes. Sunlight, when reflected from 
snow and ice, becomes brighter. This light may 
be so intense that shadows are eliminated. This 
absence of contrast can make it impossible to 
distinguish outlines of terrain features or large 
objects, even at close range. 

/. Wind velocity varies with the particular 
area and season. Maximum wind speed occurs 
during periods of changing temperatures and 
prolonged velocities above 90 knots have been 
recorded. Snow and silt begin drifting with 
winds above 8 knots. With moderate winds, it 
is often difficult to determine whether snow is 
falling or being swirled up from the surface. 

g. Sound transmission depends upon wind, 
temperature, and surface conditions. Nor- 
mally, with an increase in elevation, wind 
speeds increase and temperatures decrease, re- 
sulting in above normal sound intensity down- 
wind. However, as temperature inversion is 
common in northern areas, this effect is not 
always as pronounced. In addition, soft snow 
will absorb sound energy while hard-crusted 
snow or ice will aid sound reflection. Normal 
conversation has been carried on at a distance 



01 2A km (II'-' miles) and shouted words have 
been heard at 4 km i2^/-i miles). However, 
under other climatic conditions, the sound of 
an aircraft engine at full throttle has been 
inaudible at 0.8 km (U mile). 

F-3. Climate 

a. The northern year is divided into winter 
and summer. These periods are defined by 
thermometer readings rather than calendar 
dates. Winter occurs when the average daily 
temperature falls and remains below freezing, 
while summer occurs when this average tem- 
perature remains above freezing. Periods of 
transition with wide temperature variation 
precede each season. 

h. Winter progresses from north to south 
preceded by autumn freezeup and deep pene- 
tration of frost as the hours of sunlight de- 
crease. The days begin to shorten with the 
summer solstice; however, since the daily 
change is about 5 minutes, the effect is not 
often noticed until passage of the autumnal 
equinox. As a result, the gradual descent of 
the long winter night appears to be sudden. 
During early autumn, the weather is relatively 
dry. As winter approaches, there is an increase 
in precipitation and muddy conditions. Snow 
and thin ice appear as early as late September 
and deep cold as early as October. In November, 
water courses freeze solidly and temperatures 
fall as low as -50' F in many areas. Snowfall 
varies but snow depths of 60 to 150 cm (15" 
to 60") are common, and deep drifts in valleys 
and hollows change the appearance of the 
landscape. 

c. With passage of the winter solstice, the 
hours of daily sunlight increase. After the 
spring equinox, fluctuations in temperature 
cause daytime thaw and nighttime freeze. 
Continued melting conditions cause the spring 
bre- "imp which, in addition to the spring rains, 
fl. I lakes and streams and turn the surround- 
ing plains into quagmires. 



Section n. EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRON^AENT OF MAN 



F-4. General 

Accommodation 
quired of all men. 



to the environment is re- 
This requires psychological 



and physiological adjustments, and not all men 
are equally suited to the requirement. Men 
with medical histories of upper respiratory 



173 



AGO 364tA 



tract disease, emotional disturbances, rheuma- 
toid disease, digestive and coronary disorders, 
high susceptibility to infectious disease, and 
defective vi.sion are more likely to become 
ea-sualties to rigorous exposure. However, it is 
not essential that man be warm to be effecrive, 
as the absence of complete comfort can induce 
increased effort. Neither is it essential that 
man have a certain number of hot meals each 
day. The normal human body will remain effec- 
tive as long as the caloric and fluid intake and 
dissipation are reasonabJy matched, nitrogen 
balance is maintained, and the body is not 
subjected to destructive influence- 

F-5, Cold 

a. General. In intense cold a man may be- 
come intellectually numb neglecting essential 
tasks. In addition, the essential tasks require 
more time and effort to achieve. Under some 
conditions (particularly cold water immer- 
sion) a man in excellent physical condition 
may die in a matter of minutes. The destruc- 
tive influence of cold on the human body is 
defined as hypothermia. 

b. Hypothermia, Hypothermia is a term 
used to describe general lowering of body tem- 
perature due to loss of heat at a rate faster 
than it can be produced. Frostbite may occur 
\vithout hypothermia when extremities do not 
receive sufficient heat from central body stores 
due to inadequate circulation and/or inade- 
quate insulation. However both conditions, 
hypothermia and frostbite, may occur in the 
same case if exposure is to below freezing 
temperatures as in the case of an avalanche 
accident. Hypothermia may also occur from 
exposure to temperatures above freezing, 
especially from immersion in cold water 
or from the effect of wind. Physical 
exhaustion and insufficient food may raise 
the risk of hypothermia, as has occurred when 
inexperienced and ill-equipped hikers have 
been caught in mountain storms. Exposui' to 
wet-cold conditions has also led to hypotner* 
mia in cave explorers. Aviators downed in 
coid water, and boating accidents in northern 
waters are other examples of situations in 
which hypothermia is a risk. Intemperate use 
of alcohol leading to unconsciousness in a cold 
environment is still another condition which 
can result in hypothermia. 



(1) Daitgers of hypothermia. As central 
body temperature falls from the nor- 
mal level of 98.6^ F, various body 
processes are slowed. Circulation of 
blood is retarded, movements become 
sluggish, coordination is reduced^ 
judgment becomes impaired- With 
further cooling unconsciousness re- 
sults. At a d^en bodv temperature be- 
low 35"^ F- there is increased risk of 
disorganized heart action or heart 
standstill which results in sudden 
death, 

(2) Prevention. Prevention of hypother- 
mia consists of aH actions which will 
avoid rapid and uncontrolled loss of 
body heat. Divers, boaters and avia- 
tors operating in cold regions must 
be equipped with protective gear 
such as immersion suits and liferafts 
with spray covers- Ice thickness must 
be tested before river or lake cross- 
ings. Anyone departing a fixed base 
by aircraft^ ground vehicle, or on 
foot must carry sufficient protective 
clothing and food reserves to allow 
survival during unexpected weather 
changes or other unforeseen emer- 
gencies. Traveling alone is never safe. 
Expected itinerary and arrival time 
should be left with responsible parties 
before any departure of base in se- 
vere weather. All persons living in 
cold regions should become skilled in 
the construction of expedient shelters 
from available materials. The excel- 
lent heat insulating qualities of snow 
should be emphasized. 

(3) Treatment. 

[a) The objective of treatment is to re* 
warm the body evenly and without 
deiay, but not so rapidly as 
to further disorganize body func- 
tions such as circulation. A person 
suspected of hypothermia should 
be immediately protected by all 
available dry clothing or a sleep- 
ing bag, and then be moved to a 
warm enclosure. A useful proce- 
dure in case of accidental break- 
through into ice water, or other 
hypothermia accident, is to im- 



174 



AGO awiA 



mediately strip the victim of wet 
clothing and bundle him 'nto a 
sleeping bag with a warm com- 
panion whose body heat will aid in 
rewarming. Mouth-to-mouth reaus- 
citation should be started at once 
if the victim's breathing has 
stopped or is not regular and of 
normal depth. Warm liquids may 
be given gradually to a conscious 
patient, but must not be forced on 
an unconscious or stuporous person 
for fear of strangulation. 
{b) If movement is necessary the 
hypothermia patient should be 
handled on a litter since the exer- 
tion of -walking may aggravate 
circulation problems. 

{c) A medical officer is needed without 
delay to attend any serious 
hypothermia patient, since this 
condition is life-threatening until 
normal body temperature has been 
restored. Immersion of a hypother- 
mia patient in a warm water bath 
is a rapid means of restoring body 
temperature, but since this rapid 
rewarming may aggravate heart 
and circulation problems tempo- 
rarily, this procedure should only 
be done with a medical officer in 
attendance. 

c. WindchiU. Frostbite can occur even in 
relatively warm temperatures if the wind pene- 
trates the layer of insulating warm air to ex- 
pose body tissue. As an example, with the wind 
calm and a temperature of-20° F. there is 
little danger from windchill. However, if the 
temperature is -20° F. and there is a wind of 
20 kts, the equivalent chill temperature is 
-75° F. Under these conditions there is gieat 
danger and exposed flesh may freeze within 
30 seconds (fig. F-1). 

F-6. Physical 

a. It can generally be expected that exposure 
to climatic extremes will increase the effects 
of any physical disorder. Men with heart dis- 
eases often become quick casualties due to nec- 
essary increased physical exertion. Men 
susceptible to upper respiratory tract infec- 
tions become casualties due to the humidity. 



abrasive silts, and the wide tcmperahu-o varia- 
tions. The individual with arthritia suiu'rs 
from damp and cold plus ubnormal physical 
exertion. 

b. In winter, the threat of exposure is 
matched by the dangers of dehydration and ex- 
haustion as the body must accelerate the pro- 
duction of heat. This re.sults in greater fluid 
loss. Rigid self-discipline is required to main- 
tain proper habits of elimination. In .summer. 
there are the usual dangers of bacteria! con- 
tamination of food and water and insect- 
carried communicable diseases. 

F-7. Mental 

The isolation of the area, the long periods 
of darkness and light, and the immobilizing 
effect of the weather can all effect the mental 
stamina of man. The cabin fever stories of the 
trapper and the prospector and the tales of 
moon sickness of the Indian and Eskimo are 
not all just myths. The effect will vary with 
the individual and varies from nervous tension 
in some to loss of mental equilibrium in others. 

F-8. Adjustments 

It appears that some racial groups, particu- 
larly the Nordics, have been more successful 
in the physiological and psychological adjust- 
ment to the environment than have other 
groups. This is due, in part, to accepting the 
natural conditions and adjusting and adapting 
actions to fit these conditions. 

a. The human body must be protected. To 
remain functional, it must be kept clean, dry, 
and reasonably warm with normal body proc- 
esses maintained. Rest and nourishment are 
vital. A little food and water consumed at 
regular intervals and at body temperatures 
are preferable to large quantities of hot food 
and liquids consumed infrequently. 

b. All heat and energy, regardless of the 
source, must be conserved and profitably used. 

c. An operating base to supply basic needs 
is necessary for efficient operations. 



AGO 8641A 



175 



^ 

» 



> 
o 
o 

DO 



WIND SPEED 


COOLING POWER OF WIND EXPRESSED AS " EQUIVALENT CHILL TEMPERATURE " 


KNOTS 


MPH 


ItMPERATURE ^F) 

m^ ■ ^ m ■ m ■ 1 


CALM 


CALM 


40 


35 


30 


25 

1 


20 


15 


10 


5 







-5 


-10 


-15 


-20 


-25 


1 

-30 


-35 


-40 


-45 


-50 


-55 


-60 


3- 6 

7-10 
11-15 

16-19 

20-23 
24-26 
29-32 
33-36 


5 
10 

15 

20 

25 
30 

35 

40 


1 - * 1 , ■ ■ ■■ ■ ■ — 

EQUIVALENT CHILL TEMPERATURE 


35 


30 


1 

25 


20 




J5 


10 




5 





-5 


-10 


-15 


-20 


-25 


-30 


-35 


-40 


-45 


-50 


-55 


'-60 -70 


30 


20 


15 


1 ■" 

10 


5 


1 




-10 


-15 


-20 


-25 


1 

-35 


-40 


-45 


-50 


-60 


1 

-65 


-70 j -75 


-eo' 


-90 


-95 

1 


25 


15 

1 ' 


10 





-5 

1 


-10 


-20 


-25 


-30 


-40 


-45 

1 


-50 


-60 


-65 


-70 -80 


-85 


-90 


-100 


-105 


-110 


20 


10 


5 





-10 


-15 


-25 


-30 


-35 


-45 


-50 


-60 


-65 -75 


-BO 


-65 


-95 

1 


-100 


-NO 


-JI5 


-120 


15 


iO 





-5 


-15 


-20 
-25 


-30 


-35 


-45 


-50 


-60 


-65 -75 


-80 


-90 


-95 


-105 


1 

-no 


-120 


-125 


-135 




10 


5 





HO 


-20 


-30 


-40 


-50 


-55 


-65 


-70 


-80 


-85 


-95 


-100 


-no 


-H5 


-125 


-130 


-i40 


10 


5 


-5 


-10 


-20 


-30 


-35 


-40 


-50 


-60 


-65 


-75 


-BO 


-90 


-100 


-105 


-115 


-120 


-130 




-135 


-145 


10 





-5 


-15 


-20 


-30 


-35 


-45 


-55 


-60 


-70 


-75 


-85 


-95 


-100 


-110 


-115 


-125 


-130 


-140 


-150 


1 ■■■ ■■ 1 ■■ ■■ ■* ■ ^ 

WINDS ABOVE UTTI F DANGER 

40 HAVE 

LI 1 1 LE 
ADDITIONAL 

EFFECT 


INCREASING DANGER 

(Flesh mav freeze within 
1 minute J 


GREAT DANGER 
(Flesh may freeze within 30 sees) 









Figure F-1. Windckiti chart. 



Section ML EFFECTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT ON FACILITIES 



F-9. Industry 

To provide industrial needs, man muat solve 
certain engineering problems in an acceptable 
time frame and in an economical manner. A 
major problem which must be solved is the 
effect of permafrost. During construction, any 
disturbance of the established temperature 
balance of the ^ound. without provision of 
compensating factors, will change the founda- 
tion characteristics. Subsurface strengths and 
drainage patterns change and affect entire 
structures. The solution to the permafrost 
problem is costly and time consuming and can 
involve the use of insulation, drainage, floata- 
tion, excavation, refrigeration, or complicated 
combinations of these. 

F-10. Agriculture 

Permafrost, combined with low evaporation 
rates, low temperatures, sporadic precipitation, 
and irregular seasons, prevents extensive agri- 
cultural development. However, as permafrost 
prevents precipitation loss by normal drainage 
processes, many areas having a semiarid cli- 
mate support luxuriant natural vegetation- 
This vegetation, by insulating the underlying 
permafrost, prevents deep thawing, depresses 
soil temperatures, and prevents deep root sys- 
tems. This prevents agriculture in continuous 
permafrost zones. In discontinuous and spo- 
radic zones, only hardy plants which mature 
in one short growing season can be planted. 

F-11. Materials 

Low temperatures change the strength, elas- 
ticity, and hardness of metals and generally 
reduce their impact resistance. Leather fabrics 
and rubber lose their pliability and tensile 
strength. Plastics, ceramics, and other syn- 
thetics are less ductile. Items composed of 
moving parts and of differing types of mate- 
rials operate with reduced efficiency. 

a. Rubber, in warm weather, is flexible; 
during extreme cold it becomes stiff, and 
bending will cause it to break e.g., when a 
vehicle is parked for several hours during 
subzero weather, flattened-out areas develop in 
tires; these flattenednaut areas have little re- 
siliency until after the tires have warmed up, 

AGO 8M1A 



incident to operation. Rubber heater hoaes, 
some hydraulic lines and the fuel hose on the 
Yukon stove may break if they are suddenly 
bent during periods of extreme cold. Rubber, 
rubber compound seals and O-rings tend to 
warp and break. 

6, Water freezes and expands: while it is 
expanding in a restricted space (as in an 
engine) it has tremendous power, enough to 
crack the toughest of iron, 

c. Canvas becomes stiff much the same as 
does rubber and it becomes difficult to fold or 
unfold without damaging it. 

d. Glass, being a poor conductor of heat, 
will crack if it is exposed to any sudden in- 
crease in temperature- As an example, the 
windshield on a vehicle may break if intense 
defroster heat is suddenly applied. 

e. Gasoline will not freeze but becomes more 
difficult to vaporize. Since only vapor will 
burn, combustion of gasoline inside an engine 
is more difficult and unburned gasoline dilutes 
the oil in the crankcase contributing to the 
formation of sludge. 

/. Oils have a tendency to become thick, and 
consequently retard the flow through the oil 
pump to places where it is needed for lubrica- 
tion. Thickened oils also increase the drag on 
the entire engine, thus making it more diffi- 
cult to turn over. 

g. Grease, which is a semisolid to begin 
with, becomes hard and loses a great amount 
of its lubrication properties. 

h. Leather cracks unless properly treated 
with neat's foot oil. 

i. Paint tends to crack very easily when ex- 
posed to extreme cold for any great length of 

time, 

y. Dry cold weather produces great amounts 
of static electricity in the layers of clothing 
worn by personnel and in liquids being trans- 
ported. Extreme caution must be exercised 
when refueling vehicles, stoves, lanterns, etc., 
because the spontaneous discharge of static 
electricity may ignite these inflammable fuels. 

177 



static electricity ahouid be "drained off" by 
}?roundmg vehicles or fuel containers prior to 

starting refueling operations. Personnel 



should ground themselves by touching a ve- 
hicle or container (away from vapor openings) 
with the hand. 



Section HL EFFECTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT ON VEHICLES 



F-T2. General 



A great amount of effort and research has 
pone into giving the individual soldier the best 
clothes to keep him combat effective in cold 
weather. A vehicle is affected by cold in much 
the same manner as a man. Consider the ef- 
fects on a platoon if the platoon leader did not 
take the necessary steps to compensate for the 
cold to which his men are exposed. The driver 
of a vehicle must realize the same effects of 
cold are suffered by motor vehicles and certain 
precautions are necessary. The purpose of the 
following paragraphs is to explain briefly what 
must be done to reduce the adverse effects of 
cold weather on vehicles and the extra pre- 
cautions that must be taken during winter 
driving. Detailed instructions for the operation 
and maintenance of ordnance materiel in ex- 
treme cold are covered in TM 9-207. 

F-13, Maintenance 

a. Unless vehicles are kept in the best pos- 
sible mechanical condition during cold 
weather they will not operate properly. Suc- 
cessful cold weather operation depends on a 
high standard of maintenance discipline, 
proper starting procedures and command su- 
pervision. A large portion of deadlines can be 
attributed to too many cold starts and im- 
proper driving habits. 

h. All maintenance outlined in appropriate 
TM's for a particular vehicle must be accom- 
plished and extreme care taken to insure all 
adjustments are exact as possible. Only ade- 
quately powered vehicles can overcome the 
adverse effects of cold weather. Proper lubri- 
cants must be used, these can be readily deter- 
mined by consulting the appropriate lubrica- 
tion order. One loose battery terminal, points 
slightly out of adjustment, a sparkplug wire 
loose, a ground cable loose or a frozen gasline 
are only some of the deficiencies that can 
make starting a vehicle difficult, or prevent 
starting altogether. 



c. Drivers, during cold weather operations, 
musi. lie uiscipiined to conduct prestarting, 
starting, warmup, operation and shutdown 
and/or, cooldown and stopping procedure 
exactly as directed in TM 9-207. 

d. Additional time must be allowed for 
"thaw time" before equipment entering a shop 
can be worked on under "inside conditions," 
These "thaw times" must be added to other- 
wise normal average repair times. The length 
of this additional time is affected by the 
length and depth of exposure to subzero "cold 
soak" prior to entering shops. 

€. As a safety precaution, all garages, shops 
and enclosures used for vehicle maintenance 
or other areas which are subject to carbon 
monoxide concentrations should be inspected 
at least once every 3 months. If inspection re- 
veals a potentially dangerous level of carbon 
monoxide {50 parts per million or more) im- 
mediate corrective actions, such as improving 
ventilation or removal of personnel from the 
hazardous area, must be taken by responsible 
personnel- Test results should be recorded and 
monitored by the unit for 3 months. Rough 
terrain operations can result in engine exhaust 
system component failures. Therefore, all 
motor driven vehicles should be tested for 
carbon monoxide concentrations in the cabs 
and passenger carrying compartments at least 
once every 3 months. Any vehicle failing this 
test must be immediately deadlined until cause 
is isolated and corrective action completed. 
Tests should be recorded on DA Form 2408-1 
(Equipment Daily or Monthly Log). Tests in- 
dicated above should be made using the De- 
tector Kit, Carbon Monoxide, Colorimetric. 

/. Mechanic efficiency is reduced by the bulk 
and clumsiness of the clothing that must be 
worn in extreme-cold areas. As it is impossible 
to handle extremely cold metal with a bare 
hand, some form of mitten or glove must be 
worn at all times. The resulting loss of the 
sense of touch further reduces the efficiency of 
personnel- Even the most routine operations, 



178 



AGO SHIA 



such as handling latches or opening engine 
enciosures, become exasperating and time con- 
suming when they must be performed with 
mittened hands. Experiments have proven, for 
example, that the time required by men to 
screw a nut on the largest bolt available, was 
twice as long when mittens were worn over a 
similar operation conducted with bare hands. 



The space requii'ed to injure access to controls, 
adjustable devices, and to assemblies which 
are commonly replaced or which reciuire peri- 
odic adjustment, inspection, and cleaning is 
also increased when the bulky cold weather 
clothing is worn. The comparison measure- 
ments of personnel with wurm weather cloth- 
ing and cold weather clothing are shown below. 



CompaTtson Clothing Measurements 



Hand (width) 

Wrist (circumference) 

Head (circumference) 

Breadth across shoulders _. 
Foot (width St. len^h) 



F-14. Driving 

a. General. The basic rules for driving dur- 
ing cold weather include all of the rules that 
apply under normal conditions. However, the 
necessity to adhere to these rules with the 
increased hazards of ice and snow is magni- 
fied. All drivers vi^ist be trained in proper 
ivinter driving techniques before they engage 
in cold weather operations. 

b. Visibility. Good all-around visibility is 
the first requirement for safe driving. 

<1) Remove all ice, snow, fog, etc., from 
all windows and keep the windows 
clear at all times to give all-around 
vision. 

(2) Use defrosters to keep windshield 
free from ice. 

(3) Clean and adjust rear view mirror. 

(4) Use lights during snowstorms, while 
driving in light dry snow or just 
prior to dusk and dawn, and at all 
other times when visibility is re- 
duced, providing the tactical situa- 
tion permits. 

(5) Allow for additional distance between 
vehicles when exhaust is causing ice 
fog. 

(6) Use a guide when backing up or 
where a guide can assist in picking a 
trail in deep snow. 

c. Traction for Driving and Stopping. 
(1) Use chains in deep snow and on ice. 



Warm wealher 


Void ^veathcr 


10 cm (4") 


15 cm (6") 


19 cm (7'.^") 


33 cm (21") 


58 cm (23") 


9S cm (38") 


46 crt\ {13") 


31 cm (32") 


9 X 28 cm 


13 X 35 cm 


(ZW X 11") 


(5" X 14") 



They will increase traction for both 
movement and stops. 

(2) Place brush or burlap under wheels 
to aid in movement through deep 

snow and on ice: 

(3) The correct method for applying 
brakes is especiaUy important. Never 
jam on brakes as this will lock the 
wheels and cause the vehicle to skid 
and require more distance for stop- 
ping. The correct method for braking 
a vehicle on snow and ice is to release 
accelerator slowly and apply brakes 
with a feathering action. 

(4) Keep pioneer tools on all vehicles 
ready for use in removing excess 
snow and for cutting brush. 

(5) Full tracked vehicle drivers must be 
prohibited from using neutral steer 
when the tactical situation permits. 
Use of the neutral steer capability 
places avoidable stress and abuse on 
the suspension system and related 
power and drive components. 

d. Additional Hints for Safe Cold Weather 
Driving. 

(1) Never sleep in the cab or passenger 
carrying compartment of a vehicle 
with engine or heater running. Ex- 
haust gases may cause death by 
asphyxiation. 

(2) Always adjust speed to road condi- 
tions. 



AGO 8641A 



179 



(3) Keep proper interval and compensate 
for road conditions (three to eieven 
times greater stopping distance may 
be needed on snow and ice). 

(4) Slow down before going- around a 
curve- 

(5) Make slow, steady turns and stops. 

(5) Keep windows open slightly when 
heaters are being used- 

(7) Never stop in the center of a road. 

(8) Never pull off to the side of a road 
unless the shoulder has been checked- 
Large ditches covered with snow give 
the appearance of a firm shoulder. 

(9) When hauling troops in the rear of a 



truck, be certain to instruct them to 
wait for the driver to assist in their 
olf loading. 

(10) Never overcrowd the cab of a vehicle 
with extra personnel or extra equip- 
ment- This cramps the driver, cuts 
down on his vision, and prevents him 
from maneuvering freely. 

(11) During" halts, always check the ve- 
hicle for any troubles which may have 
occurred during operation. 

( 12) Remove frost from headlights and 
stoplights. 

(13) Above all, use good judgment, be 
alert for other drivers errors, and 

obey all traffic rules and regulations. 



180 



AGO SS41A 



APPENDIX G 



COLD WEATHER HINTS 



G-1. General 

Success in Northern Operations depends 
upon forceful leadership and application of 
proven techniques and maintenance pro- 
cedures. Ample documents exist to provide 
these techniques and procedures; however, ex- 
perience has shown that the same mistakes 
are continually repeated. To assist personnel 
in overcoming these recurring errors this list 
of hints is provided, 

G-2. Engineer 0|3eration5 

a. Winter Road and Tradl CoTistruction. 

(1) Make a map, aerial, and ground 
reconnaissance. 

(2) Roads in forward areas should be pro- 
vided with vehicle turnouts. 

(3) Remain on high ground following 
routes of solid foundations and mini- 
mum grades where feasible. 

(4) Determine approximate period of use 
and maximum classification of route. 

(5) Check ice thickness of ice crossings. 
Make test holes 3 meters (250 apart 
and at a distance of 8 meters (25') 
from, and parallel to, the centerline 
of crossing. The holes should be stag- 
gered so that they are at 45"" angles 
to each other. 

{6) Mark route clearly. 

(7) Use trailblazing tractors in pairs, one 
with winch and angle blade. 

(8) Plan route requiring only equipment 
organic to constructing unit. 

6. Mines and Minejields. 

(1) Provide sufficient support to detonate 
mines. 



(2) Cover mines with material to keep 
out snow. 

(3) Weatherproof fuses with a light coat 
of automotive water pump grease. 

(4) Allow extra time for placing mines. 

( 5 ) Use both electric and nonelectric 
firing systems on demolitions in ice 
to insure detonation, 

(6) Cover AP mines with loose snow. 

(7) Avoid lifting mines by hand after 
arming in snow. 

(8) Install tripwires above snow surface. 

c. Water Swpply. 

(1) Install immersion heaters in water 
trailers. Extra precautions must be 
taken when temperature is below 

-30° F. 

(2) Carry ice auger or axe head welded 
to steel bar to locate water and check 
ice depth. 

(3) Locate water point near swift moving 
water if possible. 

(4) Drain water supply equipment im- 
mediately after use when heated 
shelter is not utilized. 

d. Field Fortifications. 

(1 ) Mix sand and gravel with packed 
snow and frequently sprinkle with 
water to reinforce positions when 
time will not permit making of ice- 
crete. 

(2) Camouflage with fresh loose snow. 

(3) Provide sumps for melting snow. 

(4) Insulate interior of fortification. 

(5) Keep wire above snow. 



AGO 9E41A 



1 



(6) Locate fortifications on high ground 
during periods of possible breakup. 

e. Engineer Equipment Maintenance. 

(1) Provide adequate stock of .spare 
parts, with special eraphasi.s on high 
mortality parts such as front power 
control units (PCU) parts for cater- 
pillars. 

(2) Provide maintenance shelters, where 
practicable. Improvise shields for 
driver operator comfort and protec- 
tion. 

(3) Warm front PCU with external heat 
before using when snow or moisture 
is present. Improvise canvas covers 
to prevent snow from entering. PCU 
should be left in lockout position 
when not in use to prevent brake 
band from freezing on drum. 

(4) Use cutaway snow pads to prevent 
track breakage. Snow pads are avail- 
able in stocks or may be cut by 

maintenance organizations- 

(5) Make every effort to warm gearboxes 
and engines before starting. 

(6) Maintain extra safety vigilance at all 
times during subzero operations be- 
cause of the tendency of steel to be- 
come brittle and break at extreme 
low temperatures. Tools should be 
used cautiously. Stand clear of taut 
cables. 

(7) Use air duct heaters, oil burning 
flares, and electrical heating elements 
for preheating equipment when re- 
quired. 

(8) Attend fires constantly if open flame 
heat is used, especiaHy in windy 
weather. Fire extinguishers, CO: 
type, should be on hand. Winterize 
CO: bottles by the use of 15 percent 
nitrogen. 

(9) Keep engines and radiators covered; 
test thermostats. 

(10) Raise low idle speed to a point where 
full oil pressure is maintained. 

(11) Use truck mounted cranes oniy when 



footing is .solid. They cannot be oper- 
ated in snow or soft terrain. 

(12) Place one-haJf pound of .sodium bi- 
carbonate near each space heater. 

/. Tractor Extraction. 

(1) Remember tractors must often be 
lifted as well a.s pulled in order to 
clear an ice shelf or to climb from a 
soft mud bottom to a frozen earth 
bank. This lift must be provided with 
materials at hand. If the stuck tractor 
is operative a ramp can be built, logs 
can be fed under the revolving tracks, 
or logs can be chained to the tracks 
and revolved under. If gravel or sand- 
bags are available they can also be 
fed under the revolving tracks. Usu- 
ally above measures plus at least one 
winch tractor will be required. If 
above measures fail, demolitions In 
the hands of a qualified demolitions 
specialist may be used to provide a 
final boost. Demolition should be con- 
sidered only after exhausting all 
other resources. 

(2) After extraction, thaw all gearboxes, 
drain and relubricate the crankcase, 
drain and refill fuel tanks, and check 
all adjustments before attempting to 
operate. 

G-3. Health and First Aid 

a. Preventative Measures. 

(1) Accomplish regular body waste elim- 
ination. 

(2) Wash out insulated boots weekly, if 
possible. 

(3) Use "buddy system" to maintain con- 
stant check for indications of frost- 
bite or exhaustion. 

(4) Check more often for frostbite as the 
windchill becomes higher. 

(5) Drink sufficient water and take nec- 
essary salt even in extreme cold. De- 
hydration is more frequent than cold 
injury during fieldwork. 

(6) Refrain from drinking alcoholic bev- 
erages and excessive smoking when 
in extreme cold. 



AGO S&41A 



(7) Do not become overheated from over- 
dressing. 

(8) Practice personal hygiene. 

(9) Prior to sun and wind exposure, ap- 
ply sunburn preventive cream to ex- 
posed skin areas; appiy chap-stick to 
lips; and put on sunglasses to protect 
eyes from the sun. 

h. First Aid Treatment. 

(1) Thaw minor frostbite by placing 
frozen part against unfrozen area of 
body. 

(2) Keep medical installations well for- 
ward and dispJace them frequently, 

(3) Evacuate cases of frostbite, other m- 
juries. and illnesses to medical fa- 
cility immediately. Remember that 
frostbite of the feet requires a litter 
evacuation. 

(4) Frostbitten areas should not be 
rubbed with snow or ice. 

(5) Place frostbite casualty in a warm 
area but not too near heat sources. 

(6) Place casualties in protected areas 
prior to administering first aid, in- 
jury permitting. 

(7) Casualties must not be left unat- 
tended. 

c. MisceUaneoiis . 

(1) If unable to walk or exercise vigor- 
ously, keep hands and feet warm by 
moving fingers and toes. Fingers may 
be warmed quickly by swinging arms 
in a wide arch from an extended side 
position to a front position and hit- 
ting hands together untii warmth is 
restored. 

(2) Move lips from side to side and up 
and down to increase blood circula- 
tion throughout the face to help pre- 
vent cold injury to facial tissue. 

G-4. Vehicles 

a. Preparatory Measures and Procedures. 
(1) Make certain that operators and 
maintenance personnel are well 
trained and thoroughly familiar with 



the methods of vehicle operation and 
maintenance in extreme cold (TM 
9-207). 

{2) Wear gloves when handling metal be- 
cause exposed skin will freeze upon 
contact. 

(3) Exercise care in moving vehicles af- 
ter they have been cold soaked, 

(4) Reduce loads appropriately under ad- 
verse conditions. 

(5) Exercise constant vigilance in oper- 
ation of vehicles on cross-country 
trails. Consider radiators when cross- 
ing wooded terrain and undercarri- 
ages when traveling through downed 
timber or snags. Movement over 
frozen water courses and ice must be 
in accordance with FM 31-71. 

(6) To prevent freezing in, recover ve- 
hicles as quickly as possible after 
they have bogged down in muskeg or 
broken through ice. 

(7) Have recovery equipment well for- 
ward to assist in proper recovery of 
bogged vehicles. 

(8) Use heavy tracked vehicles to break 
trails in heavily wooded areas. 

h. Lubricants and Related Ite-ms, 

(1) Lubricate and change oil more often 
than normal to compensate for ab- 
normal operation, severe conditions 
or contaminated lubricants. 

(2) Keep oil and gasoline containers 
sealed tightly to prevent snov/ and 
ice moisture from entering. 

(3) Always make a complete change of 
engine or gear oil instead of mixing 
various grades. 

(4) Standard and arctic type antifreeze 
should not be mixed. 

(5) Allow for expansion when filling 
radiators. 

Winterization Eq^i'ip-ment. 

(1) Use powerplant and personnel heat- 
ers when required by ambient tem- 
peratures, 

(2) Service fuel filter more frequently 



c. 



ACO B6.ltA 



183 



than for normal operations in tem- 
perate climates. The frequency muy 
need to be increased to aa often as 
every 4 hours. When the liquid 
freezes in the filter, it will be neces- 
sary to disassemble the unit and re- 
move the ice and other residue. 

(3) Cold Aid Starting Kit on wheeled ve- 
hicles should not be used as a substi- 
tute for powerplant heaters. 

(4) Maximum use should be made of the 
Cold Aid Starting Kit when vehicles 
not equipped with powerplant heat- 
ers are to be started after being shut 
down for periods long enough to lose 
their residual heat. 

d. Tires. 

(1) Check prior to operation during ex- 
treme cold. 

(2) Increase tire pressure approximately 
10 percent in extremely cold weather. 

(3) Tighten valve cores securely in ex- 
treme cold. 

(4) Tires should not be bled during or 
immediately after operation. 

e. Engine Starting and Warmup. 

(1) Pre- warm vehicle engine with auxil- 
iary type heaters when temperatures 
are below -25" F. 

(2) Utilize winter fronts and shutters to 
obtain and maintain normal engine 
operating temperatures. 

(3) Insure that an alert licensed operator 
is present in vehicle when engine is 
operating. Operator must observe oil 
pressure gauges, warning lights, and 
temperature indicator to prevent 
damage to engine. 

(4) Warm engines to operating tempera- 
tures before accelerating. 

/. Power Train and Suspension Units. 

(1) Operate vehicles at reduced speeds 
long enough to thoroughly warm up 
chassis components after prolonged 
shutdown, 

(2) Clean snow, slush, and other material 
out of tracks and suspension immedi- 



ately after stopping vehicle to prevent 
freezing in place. 

(.1) Park on brush, logs, dry ground, or 
other surfaces not liable to thaw 
from heat of tirea and tracks and re- 
freeze. 

(4) Avoid using sharp instruments to 
free frozen tires. Use pioneer equip- 
ment to break tracks free before 
attempting to move tracked vehicles. 

(5) Gasoline or other inffammablea 
should not be used to build fires for 
freeing tracks. 

(6) Do not attempt to free vehicles frozen 
to a parking area by jerking or rock- 
ing under its own power. Use another 
vehicle to tow the frozen vehicle if 
one is available, 

(7) Overloading vehicles causes excessive 
parts breakage. 

G-5, Ammunition 

a. Protect variable time fuses from temper- 
atures below —20" F. Fuses are designed for 
use between limits of 0^ and 120" F, 
and for storage between limits of —20" and 
ISO'' F. If fuses are fired outside temperature 
ranges, performance may be severely reduced; 
firing safety will not be affected. 

b. Place ammunition on dunnage during 
storage. 

c. Clean snow and ice from ammunition 
prior to repacking. 

d. Leave containers or components closed 
during temperature conditioning to prevent 
condensation, 

e. Fire rockets only above safe firing tem- 
peratures indicated on containers. 

f. Unpack only that ammunition required 
for the mission. 

G-6. Weapons 

a. Use lubricating oil weapons (LOW) for 
all small arms at temperatures below 0° F. 

b. Keep all sighting equipment at outside 
temperatures to prevent fogging. 



184 



AGO S641A 



c. Wrap optics m he;ivy blankets prior to 
entering warm shelters to allow gradual warm- 
up. Keep wrapped at least 4 hours to prevent 
moisture damaj^e, 

G-7. Individual and Small Unit Equipment 

a. P^ieumatic Mattress. 

(1) Avoid placing mattress on :=?harp ob- 
jecta, 

(2) Inflate mattress, allow it to cool, and 
inflate again. 

(3) Wipe dry and deflate completely prior 
to packing. 

b. Sleeping Bag. 

(1) Wear only enough clothing to keep 
warm in sleeping bag, 

(2) Do not use the sleeping bag in direct 
contact with the ground or snow; in- 
sulate by using on top of air mattress, 
shelter half, poncho, or coniferous 
boughs- 

c. Rticksack. 

(1) Load heavy objects near frame in 
bottom of ruclcsack. 

(2) Place sharp and hard objects inside 
where they will not rub against side 
or wearer's back. 

(3) Use outside pockets for articles which 

are frequently used- 

d. Skis. 

(1) Defer waxing skis until snow condi- 
tions and type of wax are determined. 

(2) Clean and inspect skis and bindings 
daily after use. 

(3) Make sure bindings are properly ad- 
justed to boots, 

(4) Skis should not be left on ground or 
anow- 

(5) Store skis and ski poles away from 
excessive heat- 

(6) Garry extra skis, ski poles, bindings, 
ski wax, pine tar, and facilities for 
repairing skis and snowshoes in each 
unit supply section- 

e, Snowshoes, 



il) Place upright in snow or hang on 
troi^s or racks. 



(2) 



Repair all breaks as ^oor\ a? possible. 

Snowshoes should be dried by indi- 
rect heat \n a moderately warm room 
or tent. 



[4) Avoid small trees, stumps, branches, 
or other rouf::h or sharp object^-. 

f. Te.yits. 

(1) Brush snow and ice from tent before 
packing. 

(2) Keep can or cup of water on tent 
stove when fire is burning in order to 
increase humidity and reduce Are 
hazard- 

(3) Keep one-half pound box of sodium 
bicarbonate with each tent group to 
combat fuel fires. 

g. Protective Mask. 

i 1 ) Warm mask to room temperatures 
every 24 hours, 

(2) Carry mask under outer clothing. 

(3) Place mask inside sleeping bag at end 
of day. 

(4) Inspect outlet and intake valves for 
icing and cracks after use, 

(5) Adjust head harness to obtain gas 
tight seal with minimum tension on 

harness straps to avoid restriction of 
blood circulation in the face, 

A, Chernical Agent Detector Kit 

(1) Carry kit under outer clothing. 

(2) Mix reagents only as use is antici- 
pated or reqiiired- 

i\ Five-Gailon Water Cans. Fill cans only 
three-fourths full and use insulated covers. 

j. Small Equlp-ment Items. 

(1) Use chapstick to prevent wind and 
cold from chapping lips and as pro- 
tection against serious windburn and 
sunburn caused by reflection of sun 
on snow and ice. Use sunburn pre- 
ventive cream on exposed skin areas. 

(2) Carry sunglasses on the person at all 
times- If broken or lost, substitute 



ACO 3641A 



185 



may be improvised by cutting: thin 
2.50 cm (1") long alifca in pieces of 
wood or cardboard* 

( 3 ) Carry waterproof matches in a 
waterproof box at all times. 

(4) Use mountain cookaet to melt 3now 
for drinking and cooking water, as 
well as for the preparation of food- 
Stir snow constantly until at least 
2-50 cm (1") of water is fcrmed on 
the bottom of the pan to avoid burn- 
ing the pan. Select only uncontam- 
inated snow. Iodine water purifica- 
tion tablets should be used to disin- 
fect drinking water prepared by 
melting snow, 

(5) Allow space in canteens for expan- 
sion of ice. 

A:. Rations. 

(1) Issue a hot ration to troops prior to 
start of day's operations if possible, 

{2) Improvise methods for providing hot 
liquids and soups to troops engaged 
in winter operations, 

(3) Eat coid rations only as a matter of 
necessity. 

(4) Eat ail of the ration components as 
the complete balanced ration is de- 
signed to meet body requirements, 

L Cold Weather Clothing. 

(1) Keep it clean, 

(2) Avoid overheating. Loosen closures 
before starting to perspire. Remove 
layer of clothing if closure loosening 
is not aufRcient. 

(3) Wear it in loose layers. Weight does 
not mean warmth, but layers do. 

(4) Keep it dry, outside and inside. 
Brush, rather than rub snow from 

clothing. 

(5) Dry socks by hanging them on the 
lines inside the tents- 

(6) Dry socks by placing inside clothing 
during daytime and in sleeping bag 
at night when other methods are not 
available- 



m. Petrole2un. 

(1) Clean around opening before remov- 
ing piug or cap from petroleum con- 
tainer. 

(2) Use spark proof tools when working 
in storage areas. 

(3) Carry proper POL dispensing- equip- 
ment to avoid spilling. Avoid spiliing 
gasoline on clothing; frostbite may 
result. 



G-3, Communications 

a. Maintenance and Care of Equipment, 

(1) Keep equipment in best possible op- 
erating condition by organizing a 
thorough and comprehensive preven- 
tive maintenance program* 

(2) Take precautions to prevent damage 
to equipment due to moisture conden- 
sation- Cold equipment should be 
wrapped in a blanket or parka before 
being brought into a heated shelter 
and allowed to warm gradually. 

h. Dry Cell Battery. 

(1 ) Use low-temperature winter type bat- 
teries- These batteries are distin- 
guished by 2000-serie3 type numbers^ 
such as Battery BA-2279 for Radio 
Set AN/PRC-10 or BA-2386 for 
Radio Set, AN/PRC-25 (para 11-6). 
Store 2000-3erie3 batteries at 0^ F, 

(2) In low ambient temperatures, batter- 
ies should be carried inside clothing 
to keep them warm, 

(3) Reactivate cold soaked batteries 
{other than 2000-3eries) by warming 
thoroughly at temperatures not to 
exceed 100° F. Batteries (other than 
2000-3eries) give the best perform- 
ance when operated at TO"" F. 

(4) Carry spare set of batteries for field 
phones on person and change with 
batteries in phone at frequent inter- 
vals- 

c. Rubber and Rubber Type Compounds. 

(1) Flex cordage slowly and carefully in 
order to minimize breakage after 



186 



AGO 3641A 



cordage has been exposed to cold 
weather. 

(2) Warm cablea before they are laid in 
the open. 

d. Radio Receiver.'; and Transmitters. 

(1) Stress the vital importance of com- 
munications during northern opera- 
tions. 

(2) Place seta in sheltered locations 
whenever possible. Erect lean-toa, 
snowcaves, windbreaks, or any other 
appropriate type of shelter which will 
protect the equipment from direct ex- 
posure to extreme climatic conditions. 

(3) Require installation of complete an- 
tenna system, such as long wire an- 
tenna, elevated ground plane antenna, 
single wire inverted L-antenna. dou- 
blet antenna, which are more efficient 
than fractional wavelength whip an- 
tennas. 

(4) Cut doublet antennas to operating 
frequency. The length of this an- 
tenna is determined by the foUo^ving 
formula: L = 468/F; where L is length 
in feet and F is operating frequency 
in megacycles (468 is a constant fac- 
tor derived from the basic formula). 
This formula does not apply to an- 
tennas longer than half-wave. 

(5) Keep in mind that the radiation pat- 
tern of a doublet antenna is maxi- 
mum at right angles to the plane of 
the antenna. 

(6) Elevate radio frequency cables above 
the surface to insure that they will 
not freeze to the ground. 

(7) Construct a counterpoise system in 
locations where frozen ground pre- 
vents installation of a ground rod or 
where a good earth ground is not 
available. 

(8) Use radio retransmission stations to 
extend communications beyond dis- 
tance normally covered by one radio 
set. 

(9) Use arctic lubricants on Radar and 
Beam antennas. 



(10) Warm up radio sets for at least one- 
half hour before applying plate volt- 
age to transmitter tubes. The nets 
mav he turned on bvt do not frrin.9- 
mit for at least one-half hour. 

ill) Frequently check antenna system on 
mobile units and remove snow, ice, or 
siush formations. 

e. Microphones. 

(1) Place frost shield covers over micro- 
phone and earphone elements of 
handsets. If not available, such cov- 
ers may be fabricated out of the 
plastic bag material in which dry 
batteries are packed. 

(2) Carry a spare microphone, if avail- 
able, under outer garments. 

/. Gasoline Driven Generators and Reel 

Units. 

(1) Keep battery fully charged. 

(2) Set carburetor for richer mixture 
than required for higher ambient 
temperatures. 

(3) Maintain engine temperature within 
the range 140° F. to 190° F. Cover 
units when required to obtain quick 
warmup. 

g. Wire Communication Equi-pment. 

(1) Install teletypewriters and switch- 
boards in heated shelters. 

(2) Remove all snow, ice, water, and dirt 
from cable stubs before connecting. 

<3) Avoid tight loops. 

(4) Prevent excessive lubrication. 

(5) Insulate teletype and crypto equip- 
ment during tactical movement to re- 
duce warmup period required when 
reestablishing communications. (Sal- 
vaged sleeping bags or blankets are 
excellent for this purpose.) 

(5) Keep snow or moisture from the in- 
side of telephones and switchboards. 

(7) Place wire lines well off frequently 
traveled cross-country trails. 

h. Miscellaneotis Eqtdpment. 



AGO SUIA 



187 



(1) Carry flashlight in inner pocket, ex- 
posing to cold only during use. 

(2) Remove batteries from lanterns not 
in use. Store in warm place- 



Transportation 

a. Sled Operation, 

(1) Operate sleds consistent with supply 
requirements, the capability of driv- 
ers, and tactical situation, 

(2) Establish supply and maintenance 
points along route* 

(3) Insure sled cargo is thoroughly 
lashed. 

(4) Load trai^breaking sleds lightly, 

(5) Load sleds so that center of g^ravity 
is slightly to the rear of the sled cen- 
ter. 

(6) Inspect cargo sleds thoroughly at 
each halt- 

(7) Mark dangerous portions of trails, 

(8) Execute turns in wide circles, 

(9) Load sleds with packages which can 
be easily handled by two or three 
men. 

(10) Avoid hiils and boulder strewn ter- 
rain when selecting routes. 

(11) Sleds should not be backed. 

(12) Leave 10 to 15 cm (4^' to 6") of snow 
on sled trails. 

b. Truck and Convoy Operation. 

(1) Carry no more than sixteen person- 
nel and equipment in personnel car- 
rier, 2V2-ton- 

(2) Provide prepositioned bivouac area 
for mess, latrine, maintenance, and 
sleeping facilities. 

(3) Provide each vehicle with the follow- 
ing equipment: 

(a) Driver's personal gear and fieid 
equipment. 

(&) Vehicle maintenance tools. 

(c) One case of operational rations for 
emergency use. 

{d) Extra engine oiL 



(e) Extra antifreeze. 

{/) Extra gasoline- 

({j) Tow and tire chains, 

(h) Pioneer tools. 

(0 Strip map showing locations of 
telephones, bivouac areas, fueling 
points, etc. 

(/) Highway warninf? device, 

[k) Fire starter. 

G— 10. Intelligence 

a. Enemy. 

(1) The enemy's ability to inflict maxi- 
mum casualties on U-S, Forces will 
depend on the enemy's ability to 
move. Immediate relay of information 
pertaining to the enemy's capabilities 
and modes of cross-country travel, 
and airmobility is essential, 

(2) The ability of enemy soldiers to live 
and fight during extended periods of 
extreme cold will affect the command- 
er's decisions, and ultimately the out- 
come of the battle. Intelligence collec- 
tion agencies should in compiling in- 
formation regarding the enemy and 
his environment include the follow- 
ing: 

(a) Level of cold weather training or 
experience of units in contact. 

(6) Types of weapons and ammunition. 

(c) Types of vehicles and aircraft* 

id) Types of cold weather clothing and 
equipment. 

(e) Communications equipment. Types 
and methods of employment, 

(/) Types of navigational aids suitable 
for northern operation, 

iff) Types of rations and method of 
distribution- 

(h) Types of wildlife, fuel, and vegeta- 
tion in the area that could be used 
in emergency, 

{%) Types of arctic shelters for person- 
nel and equipment 

b. Weather. 

(1) Because weather is a paramount con- 
sideration in northern latitudes, im- 



188 



AGO 3641A 



(2) 



mediate dissemination of weather 
forecasts to lowest echelon is essen- 
tial. 

Arctic weather is characterized by 
drastic temperature chan^jes in short 
periods of cime. 



c. Winter Terrain Studies. 

(1) Prepare detailed studies. Revise as 
necessary to insure accuracy and re- 
flect changing trafficability condi- 
tions. 

(2) Locate and indicate condition of 
existing road net. 

(3) Locate and plot other local roads that 
are used as winter roads but not 
shown on maps. 

(4) Show forest density, tree size, water 
routes, ice condition and thickness, 
snow condition, including average 
depth, and general terrain features 
applicable to cross-country movement, 
routes of march, and avenues of ap- 
proach. Frozen rivers and lakes in- 
crease possibilities of movement and 
operations. Conduct exacting ice re- 
connaissance before considering them 
as axis of advance for vehicles. 

d. Reconnaissance. 

(1) Include time required to complete pa- 
trol under conditions encountered in 
the northern latitudes. This may be 

from IV2 to 2 times longer. 

(2) Route reconnaissance parties must in- 
clude personnel technically qualined 
to report trafficability conditions of 
ice and snow. 

(3) Make extensive use of Army aircraft 
for reconnaissance, radio relay (re- 
transmission), aerial observation 
posts, terrain study, and spot photo- 
graphy. 

e. Counterintelligence. 



(1) 



(2) 



Insure that personnel receive camou- 
flage and deception instruction pecu- 
liar to northern operations. 

Because of long periods of winter 
darkness and the ability of sound un- 



(3er certain arctic conditions to travel 
l.jnir distances, li^^ht.. sound and fire 
discipline must be strictly enforced. 

G-1 1 . Operations 

a.. Lavd S^aviijalion. 

(1) Know compass deviation and majT- 
netic declination. 

(2) Become familiar with landtnark.s, 
ridge lines, direction of rivertlow, and 
direction of prevailing wind before 
going unto unknown areas, 

(3) Estimate distance traveled by using 
methods stated in paragraph 5-9, 

(4) Keep parka fur hood with wire loop 
away from compass when taking 
reading. 

b. Bivouac. 

(1) Select bivouac areas on high ground 
when tactically possible. Cold lies in 
low areas. Erect tent in snow for ad- 
ditional protection. 

(2) Insulate tent floor with evergreen 
boughs for extra protection and 
warmth. 

(3) Use "dead man" to anchor tent ropes 
in area where strong winds prevail. 

(4) Burn wood whenever possible. 

(5) Build a lean-to for storage and pro- 
tection of gear if time permits. This 
will provide more space in tent. 

(6) Have fire guard on duty when stove 
is burning. 

(7) Bivouac in wooded area if available. 

(8) Fill stoves and lanterns and store gas- 
oline outside of tents. 

c. Cross-Country Movement arid Field Oper- 
atioT'is. 

(1) Load transportation units with the 
quantity and type of equipment and 
supplies that will enable crew and 
passengers to live independent of out- 
side help for 2 or 3 days. 

(2) Reduce man-towing of equipment^ in 
200 pound sleds to an absolute mini- 
mum. 



189 



AGO a641A 



(3) Do not travel alone in the northern 
latitudes. 

d. Tactics, Methods, avd Techniques Peculiar 
to Wititer Operations. 

(1) Place increaaed importance on value 
of reconnaissance, particularly route 
reconnaissance, because of widely 
separated units, heavily wooded 
areas, sparsely populated areas, and 

few maps. 

(2) Use ground reconnaissance to make 
final selection of routes. 

(3) Take advantage of ski and snowshoe 
mobility when snow conditions are 
favorable. 

(4) Use good skiers for long-range pa- 
trola. 

(5) Consider endurance and physical con- 
dition of troops at all times during 
winter operations. 

(6) Attack front, flanks, and rear of en- 
emy defensive position simultaneous- 
ly, when possible, in order to isolate 
and inclose him. Minimize execution 
of assault in deep snow against com- 
manding terrain. 

(7) Use skijoring when feasible. 

(8) Insure tactical requirements are ful- 
filled in conditions of extreme cold. 

(9) Leave skis and snowshoes at assem- 
bly area or attack position only if 
enemy may be reached more quickly 

and easily without them. 

<10) Consider frozen lakes, rivers, and 
streams as avenues of approach for 
enemy and as route of advance for 
friendly forces. 

(11) Assault on foot instead of skis when 
it can be done effectively and rapidly. 
Skis are recovered and brought for- 
ward by detail from each squad. 

(12) Do not use same tracks or route for 
vehicles when moving over terrain 
with low load bearing capability. 

(13) Do not use wheeled trailers behind 
tracked vehicles in cross-country 
movements if other means are avail- 
able. 



e. Airborne Operation?; (FM 31-71), 

(1) Inspect personnel to insure correct 
fit of parachutes over arctic clothing 
and proper attachment of equipment. 

(2) Parachutists should jump with skis 
or snowshoes if snow is present on 
the DZ (TM 57-220). 

(3) Keep cargo compartment of aircraft 
from becoming overheated during 
flight to prevent cold weather injuries 
to personnel due to chilling after the 
jump. 

(4) Employ standard methods of aerial 
delivery as methods and techniques 
do not vary with cold weather con- 
ditions. 

(5) Start recovery immediately after air- 
drop completion. 

(6) Provide goggles for jumpmaster to 
preclude watering eyes when observ- 
ing from open door, for IP's and DZ's. 

G-12. Logistics 

a. General. 

(1) Provide troops with hot meals and 
drinks at least twice daily, or provide 
them with the time and means to do 
so themselves. 

<2) Use rotary and fixed wing aircraft 
capable of making airdrops or land- 
ing in higher elevations, whenever 
possible, 

&. Supply Areas, 

(1) Locate supply areas near terrain 
suitable for airstrip or drop zone. 

(2) Provide continuous ail around secu- 
rity of supply areas. 

(3) Employ fixed and rotary wing air- 
craft to deliver critical supplies from 
supply areas to combat troops. 

(4) Provide heated storage for certain 
perishable foods and freezable med- 
ical supplies, 

(5) Provide heated shelter for medical 
evacuees, POWs and IPW team. 

(6) Establish rigid control of POL to 
avoid waste. 



190 



AGO 86*1 A 



APPENDIX H 
MEASUREMENT CONVERSION FACTORS 



Mtiltiplv Hn '^° obtain 

Centimeters -03281 Foet 

Centimeters .3937 Inches 

Meters 3-281 Feet 

Meters 39.37 Inches 

Meters 1.0936 Yards 

Kilometers -62137 Miles 

Inches 2.54 Centimeters 

Inches ___] 0254 Meters 

Peet 30.48 Centimeters 

Feet -3048 Meters 

Yardg .9144 Meters 

MPH ^V.l 1.6093 KmPH 

MPH -8684 Knots 

Knots '_! 1-1516 MPH 



AGO SG4IA 



191 



GLOSSARY 



Ablation — Net !ops of anow or ice by melting", 
sublimation, evaporation, or wind action 
during a specific period of time- The opposite 
of accumulation, 

Accfimnlation — Net g-ain of snow or ice during 
a specific period of time. The opposite of 
ablation. 

Active layer — (annually thawed tayer) Layer 
of ground that thaws in the summer and 
freezes ag:ain in the winter (equivalent to 
seasonally frozen ground)- 

Ahkio — Boat-like sled used for pulling- squad 
equipment over snow. 

Breakup — Period of spring thaw during which 
the ground surface is excessively wet and 
soft, and ice is disappearing from streams 
and lakes. Duration of the breakup period 
varies usually from 1 to 6 weeks depending 
on regional and local climatic conditions, 
The breakup season causes difficult move- 
ment problems. 

Chilblains — A cold injury which causes lesions 
— usually on the hands — caused by pro- 
longed or repeated exposure to mild humid 
cold- 

Chinook — Warm dry wind which raises the 
temperature and melts snow from the 
ground. 

Cold injury — An inclusive term applied to in- 
juries resulting from cold. The most common 
are frostbite, trenchfoot, immersion foot, 
and chilblains* 

Cornice — An overhanging formation of snow, 
usually formed on a mountain ridge, at the 
crest of a gully and/or a steep slope. 

Crack — A fissure or crevice in a rock or ice 
formation. 

Crevasse — A deep crack or fissure in the ice of 
a glacier. 

Cyclonic storms — A storm system of winds, 
often violent, with abundant precipitation 
and a usual diameter of 80 to 14,000 km 



(50 to 900 miie.s) . It ia characterized by 
winds rotating about a calm center of low 
atmospheric pressures, often at speeds as 
high as 80 to 120 kts. These storms are 
called hurricanes in the West Indies. The 
winds rotate clockwise m the Southern 
Hemisphere and counter-clockwise in the 
Northern Hemisphere. 

Disposal bags — Heavy waterproof bags into 
which personnel defecate — used because it 
is sometimes impractical to prepare pit la- 
trines in swampy or frozen ground- 
Dry snow zoyie — Zone on icecap where maxi- 
mum temperatures are not high enough to 
cause melting- 

Edging — To place or hold a ski at a different 
angle than that of the supporting snow. 

Fall line — The imaginary line running directly 
down a slope in relation to the skier. The 
line of gravity pull or of straight descent 
down which a ball of snow would roll 

Fast ice — All types of ice^ broken or unbroken, 
attached to the shore, beached, stranded, or 
attached to the bottom in shoal water. 

Freezeup — Periods during which the ground 
surface freezes and ice cover forms or 
streams and lakes. This period varies from 
1 to 3 months depending on regional anc 
local climatic conditions. Maintaining mo- 
bility during this period becomes easier a^ 
the period progresses- 

Frostbite — A cold injury caused by free2inj 
of the body tissues. 

Frost boil — Accumulation of excess water anc 
mud in subsurface materials during spring 
thawing. It usually weakens the surface ant 
may break through, causing a quagmire, 

Frostline — (See frost table). 

Frost mound — A localized uplift of land sur 
face caused by frost heaving or by groum 
water pressure. Also called earth mound 
earth hummock, pals, pingo, or pingok. 



192 



AGO SHI 



Frnst /a/j^e— More or lef^s irre^^iilar sLirface 
that repreaent.s the depth of penetration of 
the winter frost in the .seasonal frozen 
ground. It may or may not coincide with the 
permafrost table. 

Fuel tablets — Concentrated chemical fuel dis- 
pensed in tablet form for heating? radons, or 
starting wood fires. 

H tjpothermia — General lowering of body tem- 
perature due to loss of heat at a rate faster 
than the body can produce it. 
Icecrete — A mixture of sand, gravel, and '-va- 
ter poured into forms and frozen. The proc- 
ess is much the same as making concrete 
except that ice (instead of cement) forms 
the bonding material. 
[ce fog — A fog of suspended ice crystals usu- 
ally formed with the introduction of water 
vapor into clear, calm air of low tempera- 
ture (-37° F. or lower). Ice fog is rare at 
temperatures above -37° F. and almost al- 
ways present at temperatures below —SO'" 
F. Ice fog may form over a body of troops, 
herd of animals, bivouac areas, motor parka, 
convoys, and gun positions during firing. 

I'm7nersion foot — An injury resembling trench- 
foot caused by prolonged immersion of the 
extremities in water (generally from 74° to 

88" F.). 
Layer principle — Attaining additional insula- 
tion by trapping dead air in the space (s) 
between successive layers of clothing. Two 
or more thicknesses of clothing, with inter- 
vening airspace, provide greater insuiai:ion 
than the same thickness of clothing of the 
same material in a single layer. 
Muskeg — Poorly-drained organic terrain 
which is characteristic of the subarctic, cov- 
ered with a thick, resilient carpet of water- 
sodden mosses and tussocks, and underlain 
by a high water table, peat of variable thick- 
ness, and often permafrost. 



Pack- ;f''— Any lar'j:e accumula:ii)n of tlijatintJr 

ice driven cinsely together. 
Poliii/) — A pushing movement of arms and 
body with thv. .ski poles ;ii.rainst the snmv to 
increase momentum in the '.nide. Sinune poU 
ing is referred to when eai:h po!e is used 
alternately to obtain this propulsion. Dou- 
ble poling is the use of both poles at the 
same time. 
Siish-uga — ZastruL'u (Ru-^sian) — One of a se- 
ries of loni,^ parallel snow ridtjes occurring 
on the open plains and formed by the accion 
of winds. 
Syioiv anvil — See Sastruga. 
Snoiv bridge — The snowmass that sometimes 

covers the surface opening of a crevasse. 
Tractor sled tram {for orersnow movement) 

A train usually composed of cargo sleds 

and towed by track laying vehicles. 
Treeline— The upper limit of tree growth in 
mountainous regions of the northern limit 
of tree growth in the Arctic. 
Trenchfoot — A thermal injury resuiting from 
exposure to cold, short of freezing, in a damp 
or wet environment. 
Tundra — A flat or gently rolling area with a 
muck to rock surface over permafrost and 
consisting of a low mat of grasses, shrubs, 
and other plants. This area is found above 
or north of the treeline. 
Whiteout — A condition of visibility which 
exists when an overcast sky prevents shad- 
ows and snow-covered terrain reflects light 
at about the same intensity as the sky caus- 
ing the horizon to be indistinguishable and 
the recognition of irregularities in terrain 
very difficult. Only very dark objects can be 
seen. Fog will sometimes create a similar 

condition. 

IVilliwatv — A sudden violent and cold down- 
slope wind, which is common along moun- 
tainous coastai areas in the northern lati- 
tudes. A williwaw may last several days. 



AGO 9641A 



193 



INDEX 



Paragraph Fa^e 

Action when lost: 

Conduct of individual 5-12 115 

Ground-to-air signals {code) _ App B 154 

Planning of movement 5-10 114 

Within known locality 5-11 115 

Aerial; 

Photo^aphs 6-20 138 

Reconnaissance 6-19 138 

Aircraft : 

Fixed-wing 5-18 121 

Rotary-wing 5^18 121 

Airfields and airstrips 5-19 121 

Ammunition: 

General 6_5 123 

Storage: 

Bivouacs 3-57 56 

Positions 6-5 123 

Atmosphere App, F 172 

Avalanche 3-50,6-30 52, 146 

Bath, (See Hygiene and first aid.) 

Bivouac: 

Breaking 3-52,3-56 54,58 

Establishment 3-51 53 

Routine 3_50 52 

Security 3_5o 52 

Sites 3^5 50 

''Blacking out," {See Dehydra- 
tion.) 

Body: 

Armor 2-17 21 

Cleanliness 3-35 45 

Heat 2-4,2-5 6 

Parasites 3,44 50 

Protection .._ 2*4 6 

Breakup season, [See Mobility,) 

*'Buddy system" 3-36,5-4, 45,104, 

6-2 122 

Camouflage : 

Bivouacs 3-45^5-24 50,140 

Clothing __, 2^10,6-22 15,138 

Equipment 6-23 140 

Generai considerations ,.. ,__ 6-16 137 

Smoke 3-56 56 

Tracks 3-46,3-50. 51,52, 

5-5,6-20 106. 138 

Vehicles 6-25 140 

Carbon monoxide poisoning 3-41, app. F 49,172 

Chilling (See Hygiene and first 

aid-) 
Christmas Tree. (5ee Drying.) 



Clothing (individual r 

Adjustment 2-4, 2-5 

Basis of issue 2-1 

Camourtnge 2-^10 

Components 2-7, 2-8 

Layer principle 2-5,2-6 

Load App E 

Maintenance 2-11 

Principles of design 2-5 

Proper use 2-5,2-6, 

5-4 

Purpose 2*4 

Weights App E 

Coid injury 2^,3^36 

Cold weather: 

Conditions 2-3 

Effects App F 

Hints App G 

Operations 6-2 

Combat: 

Characteristics 6^-1, 6-^2 

Defensive techniques 6-8, app D 

Load, (See Individual load-) 

Offensive techniques 6—8 — 6-15 

Concealment: 

Bivouacs 3^45 — 3-40 

General considerations 6*16 

Individuals and groups 6-22 — G-24 

Ski trails and tracks 3—16,3-50, 

5-5, 6-20 

Vapor clouds (ice fog) 6-17 

Condensation 3-51 

Constipation 3-40 

Construction : 

Bough bed 3-54 

Field latrine 3-58 

Improvised shelters 3-13—3-20 

Positions --. .__ 6-8 

Storage 3-57 

Trash and garbage disposal _^ 3-58 

Water point 3-55 

Weapon and ski stand (rack) 3-50, 3''57 

Cover 6-7,6-10, 

6-15 

Deception ._.. _ ,. 6-26 

Dehydration 3-34 

Use of liquids ____.- __ 3^22 

Digging: 

Ditches for drainage 3-47 

Frozen ground 6-12 



S 
5 

15 

8,10 

6,7 

170 

IS 

6 

6,7, 

105 

6 

170 

6,45 

S 
172 
131 

122 

122 
124, 165 

124 

50 
137 
133 

51, 52, 

106, 133 

138 

53 
49 

55 
58 
29 

124 
56 
53 

56 

52,56 

124, 126, 

13 S 

141 
43 

35 

51 

130 



194 



AGO 364 lA 



3~:i4 

2-a 
3-35 



Positions r,-3,*;-12 

Tents into the snow . 3-48, fi-'Z'l 

Weapons emplacements 6-8 

Discipline: 

Dehydration ___. — .-. -.- 

Garbage disposal ._ __. _. 

Heat -- 

Hood 

Personal hygiene - -- 

Shelter 3-51 

Track .... .- 3-46,3-50, 

5-4,6-20 

Water purification 3-30 

Drying: 

Clotbinir 2-6,3-r)3 

Use of "Christmas Tree" ,-_^ 3-53 

Environmentai effects: 

Clothing 2-2,2-4 

Instruments 6-3 

Mobility 5-'2 

Operations 6-2 

Shells and grenades 6-11 

Weapons 6-3, 

App D 

Equipment: 

Availability - 5-4 

Effects on movement __ 4-42 



pane 

124.130 

51. 138 

124 



43 
58 
54 
10 
45 
53 
51,52. 
105.138 
42 






Group 



Individual 



3-3, 3-9, 
3-14, 4^2, 
6-12 

2,7— 2-lS, 
3_54 — 3-58. 
App E 

Load App E 

Oversnow 4-2,4-8 — 

4-11,4- 
36—1-43, 

5-15 

Evacuation : 

Battle casualties _ 3-43 

Frostbite casualties . 3-36 

Existence load App E 

Explosives 6-12 

Field sanitation _, 3-58 

Fighting load App E 

Fire: 

Base _.__ 3-21,3-52 

Environmental effects 6-11 

Guard 3-20,3-21 

Hazard 3-51,3-52 

Observation and control 6-7 

Prevention ^ _ . . ........ --^ 3-52 

Small arms 6-8 

Starting and maintaining 3-21,3-53 

Types - 3-21 

Wood 3-52,3-56 

Food: 

Balanced meals .^ 3-22 

Natural resources 3-26—3-29 

Ration types 3^23 



I, DO 

55 

5,5 
122 
104 
122 
130 
122, 
165 

105 

96 

22, 30, 

60, 130 

8,55, 
170 

170 
60, 63, 

91,119 



50 

45 
170 
130 

58 
170 

34.54 
130 

33,34 

hZ^ 54 

124 

54 

124 

34,35 
34 

54. 56 

35 
39 
36 



Footj^ear : 

Principles of wear - -^ 

Types for coid wenther - - - - ^ 

Forest ---- - — - ^"- 

Ij -\ r* 

Freezinif . _ - - - - - ----- '^ --■■> 

Freezeup season, iSi-<' 

MobiiityO 

Waterways and swiimps - Ji-ln 

Frostbite - --- -. 2-4. :5-3t5 

Fuel: 

Economy - . - - 3-10, 3-52 

Firewoods 3-52,3-56 

Storage in bivouac .-._.- 3^57 

r.round-to-air emeri^enty code --- App B 

Handgear and Headgear -. _---_ 2-7,2-3 

Heat: 

Balance 2^ 

Loss 2-4 

Heating: 

lican-to 3-15 

Shelter 3-51 

Snow cave -_ . 3-20 

Tents 3-3,3-9 

Hoarfrost 3-51 

Hygiene and first aid: 

Application of tourniquet 3—12 

Bathing facilities 3-35,3-44 

Body parasites 3-44 

Carbon monoxide poisoning — 3-41 

General considerations 3-35 — 3-44 

Waste disposal. (See Fieid 
sanitation.) 

Lee: 

Conditions 5-5 

Effects : 

Mines .- 6-2'i' 

Shells and grenades 6-11 

Weapons - . --. '6-4, 

App D 

"Icecrete" 6-3 

[ce fog 6-7,6-17, 

App D 

Load bearing capacity -- 5-3 

MeJting 3-31,3-32, 

5-2 

Reinforcements . .-. 5-13 

Strength for cover . S-10 

Individual load: 

Types -- ■f^PP E 

Weii^hts . -- . App E 

Initiative -- 6-- 

Instruments : 

Care and maintenance -_ ^j-u 

Environmental effects . -6-3.0-6 

Insulation : 

Clothing - 2-5 

Ground -- 3-54 

Snow ca%'e - - ._---.-- 3-20 

Land navigation 5-7 — 5-0 



10 

:o 

104 
45 



136 
6, 45 

20,54 

54, 5*1 

5fi 

154 
3,10 

6 
6 

31 
53 
33 

27,29 
53 

40 

45,50 
50 
49 
45 



106 

142 

130 

122, 165 

124 

124, 138 

165 

105 

43. 104 

115 
126 

170 
170 
122 

124 
122, 124 

6 
55 

33 

113 



AGO 3tJ41A 



195 



Pnrni^r;LTiK 



P:i^r 



Components: 

Ci^Iii'dry xvf^rLthtir uniform 
Cv]ld-wr:t wnathnr uniform 

Intermodiato 

Outer 

PriTH'ipli? 
Leadership 

r.ean-to. (S*'e Shelters.) 
Livantr otT country 
Load.s : 

Distribution ._ . ,_ . 

Individual _. . 

Weii^hts .._ . 

Mainteannce: 

Clothini^ and equipment 

Skis and anowshoes 

jMeasurem^nt Conversion Factors _ 

Mess gear 

Messing 

Mines 

Mobility: 

Individua] 

Influence: 

Breakup and freezeup _, 
Terrain 



Weather ,_ .___ 
Oversnow equipment 
Rates of movement . 

Techniques _^ 

Moisture 

Movement : 

Air 

Barriers 



— -- ^ 



-8 

-1.2-0 

-1—7-1 



_-^D^ 



-T-2^) 



s 

8 
3 
10 

40 



5-4 


105 


App K 


170 


App E 


170 


2-11 


16 


4-11, 4-r;7 


6[>,92 


App H 


IGl 


3-t2 


;J5 


3-24, ^25 


37, :J9 


6 21 6-29 


142 



4^2.5^1 



60, 104 



Cross-country 



Effects of individual equip- 
ment 

Environmental effects 

Foot 

Mechanized aids 

Rates of movement 

Requirement for traitbreak- 
inj;. iScr Trailbreakm^.) 
Skijoring _ i^ui 

Observation : 

Fire . r;_7 

Obstacles: 

Artificial . _ . _ . ^i-2'7 — 

Crossing technique -l^-U 

Improving: after anowiall __^ G-:V1 

Natural .__ fi-^O 

Swamps . .,. _.. . ii_l|> 

Operations: 

Characteristics ^-1 

Composition of units 3-2 

Rescue App B 



5-2.iW.i 


104, 122 


5-2, 5-13. 


104, 115. 


5-14.6-14 


116. 15:1 


5-2, 5-18 


104, 121 


4 2 


60 


4-2 


GO 


4-2. 4-44 


60. 101 


2-3 


6 


5-13 


121 


5-1,5-2 


104, 133 


6-14 




4-2, 4-G, 


60. 62, 


4-36.5-3, 


91, 105 


5-4 




4-42 


06 


5 — I, 5-1 


62. 104 


5-4 


105 


5 13—^ 18 


115 


4-2 


60 



6-3 1 



101 

124 

142 
06 
146 
146 
136 

o*> 

22 

154 



Pnratf rn ph 

Overheating^ . 2^n-^2'8 

Paper plates _ ?j-2Z 

Peaetratinn : 

[ce i]-lQ 

Ececrete . _ . _ f^-lO 

Snow f various types) ii^ll> 

Timber _ _ _ . ^]-g 

PrinnipJesr 

A pfiJi^^ation oE basic 'l-ty 

Clothini^ [lesij^^ -— ^ 

FeedinfT _ . . _ _ 3^22 

Keepinpr warm ., 2-y\ 

Layer ._ . "2-5 

Leadership 7^-2 

Wearing footgear 2-3 

Protection: 

Avalanches.. __ .__ 6-30 

Body _. 2^ 

Small arms fire 6-5 

Rations- {S^e Food.) 
Rats and mice. (Sec Field 

sanitation.) 
Rescue App B 

Responsibilities of unit leader ____ :2-2, 3-oO^ 

Roads : 

Lack 5-1 

Winter 5-2.5-13 

Route : 

Influence: 

Seasonal changes 5-2 

Terrain ._ 5-2 

Weather 5-2 

Obstacles 5-5 

Reconnaissance 5-4,5-7 

Selection 5-5 

Water 5-1,5-2, 

5-5 
Safety Measures. 
Against: 

Asphyxiation _ _____ 3-20 

Avalanches ._ . 6-30 

Chilling 5-4 

Dehydration _,,__ .. .„ . :'-:;4 

Fire __. ,_„ .... ?,-21,3-45 

3-52 
"Kuddy" system __ _ . _ 6-2 

Health hazards __. _ . . _. _ 3-30,3-41 

Search _. ,__. . _ _ App B 

Security: 

Bivouacs . . . 5-5 

M arc hes ..__._ 5-5 

Shelters : 

Construction of improvised . . 3-13- — 3-18 

Living ___ 3-51 

Nyed 3^4 

Shock. {Sec Hygiene and first 

aid.) 
Ski: 

Binding 4-H 



Pane- 

7 
35 

126 
126 
126 
124 

7 

e 

35 
7 

e 

148 
10 

146 

6 

124 



154 

5,52, 

148 

104 
104, 115 



104 
104 
104 
106 

105, 113 
106 

104, 106 



33 

146 
105 

43 

34, 50, 
54 

122 
45,40 

154 

IOC 

10 D 

20 
53 



63 



196 



AGO 8GI1A 



Care and storapfe .. 4-lL ^^ 

Drill .__ _ . _ .. _ .. , App C 157 

EqLiiprrt*?nt __ _ 4-8, »j-0 ^lo, ^i4 

Pole __ _..._. 4^8 »3:i 

Preparation _. _ .._ 4-i), 4-10 ^}4, ^i^ 

Racks (stands) . . _ .. _ . _ 3-57 ^'"'5 

Skijoring _. . 4-44, fj-o 101.106 

Stacking: -- - -- - - - «3-o7, -^+1. 157 

App C 

Waxins^ _ . 4-10 66 

Skiing: 

Advantai^es and ^lisadvantapes 4-6 ^2 

Consideration of mobility 4-2 ^0 

Preparation of equipment 4-0,4-10 64, oS 

Techniques 4-12,4-40 72 

Skijoring: 

Effect on mobility 4-44 101 

Techniques 4-44 101 

Sled: 

Handling and placement in 

bivouac 3-57 56 

Harness, sled, sinj^le trace — 5-16 119 

Pulling techniques 4-43 9T 

Types 5~U>,5-17 119,11:0 

Use of triple-track 5-5 106 

Sleeping: 

Arrangements in shelter 3-54 55 

Bough bed 3-54 55 

Snow: 

Blindness. [See Hygiene and 
first aid.) 

Characteristics , 4-4 61 

Classification 4-10 66 

Composition 4—3 61 

Conditions 5-5 106 

Drifts 3-48,6-15 51,136 

Effects: 

Mines 6-27 142 

Shells and grenades 6-11 130 

Weapons 6-4, 122.165 

App D 

Fences ._ ...__.. 6-12 130 

Melting 3-31,3-32. 43.104 

5-2 

Reinforcements 5-13 J.15 

Shelters ._ 3-16—3-20 32 

Shoes . .- 4-2 liO 

Strength for cover __ _.. 6-10 126 

Snowshoeing: 

Need for mobility . _ ._. 4^2-4-36 liO, 51 

Techniques _ 4-38 94 

Soil Condition: 

Effects on shells and grenades li-ll 130 

Sounds , 6-18 133 

Storage ... . ........... .. 3-57 56 

Stove : 

Operating procedures _ 3-8,3-52 27.54 

Types : 

Tent, M-1941 3^& 29 

Yukon, M-1950 3^3 27 



Sunburn. kSi^c Hyj^icnc and lir^t 

aid-} 
Sunlicfht: 

Effi?cts rin ^;no\v compoj^ition -l--f 

Tanks - .._..-. - 5-L5 

T<?ani System '•-- 

Temperaturt>: 

EtTi!Ct3 on ^now composition 1 -t 

Tentai^e: 

Description -J- 4, i-S 

Heating . -. 3-8,.'^,-0, 

3-52 

Lighting .--. -. __. - 3-11 

Pitching and striking _. . 3-^,3-48 

6-1:: 

Tools _ ...- '"J-IS 

Use in combat . . ^-12 

Ventilation . 3-r 

Terrain: 

Barren tundra !l-43 

Effects on mobility -__ . . _-_ 4-5,5-2 

Forests . ._ - 3-46 

Hazards - 3-45 

Marshy ground _. . _ - - 3-47.6-10, 

6-li 

Mountains ... _ _ 3-50 

Suitability for trnilbreaking . 5-5 

Thawing - — 2-3 

Tools: 

Placing inside of shelter __._ 3-51 

Requirement for: 

Digging in frozen ground 6-12 

Small unit 3-12 

Trailbreaking . 5-5, 5-6 

Effects: 

Terrain _ _ ._.___ 4-5, 5-2, 

5-5 

Weather ■ 5-5 

Trails: 

Camouflage and concealment _ 3-4ii. 3-50. 

5-5,6-20 

Types 5-5 

Training: 

Objectives for military skiing 4-7 

Snows hoeing __ ^-35? 

Requirement for cold weather 

operation __,__- . ^-1 

Trench foot. iSt'c Hygiene and 

first aidO 
Types of Loads, i SfC [ndividual 

load, J 

Uniform : 

Cold dry weather . _ ^-8 

Cold wet weather . . 2-=^ 

Vehicles: 

Development of vapor clouds ti-17 

Maintenance . - . -_ - ._ App F 

Operational procedures . App F 

Placing in bivouacs 3-57 



Pa^re 



117 
122 

I>1 

22,23 

27,29, 

54 

29 

25,51, 

130 

29 

130 

27 

51 

62. 104 
51 

50 

51, 126, 

130 

52 

106 

6 

53 

130 

29 

106, 112 

62, 104, 
106 
106 

51,52 

106,138 

106 






G 



94 



122 



10 
10 



13S 
1T2 

197 



PnraRTaph 

Vehicles — Continued 

Types 5-13—5-15 

Ventilation r 

Clothing .._. _.. 2-5 

Tentage 3—7 

Visibilitji': 
Effects: 

Land Navip:ation _ 5-3 

Operations . t5-l9 

Trailbreaking _ ._ 5-5 

Ice Tog 6-7, 

App D 

Water : 

Availability in coid re^ons __ 3-30 

Consumption 3-"22 

Dehydration 3-22, 3— '54 

Points 3-30,3-55 

Purification 3-30 

Sources 3-30,3-31 

Transportation 3-30 

Ways 5-1,5-2 

5-5 
Weapons; 

Care, cleaning and mainte- 
nance ^4 

Environmental effects 6-3,6-7, 

6-17, 
App D 

Handling in combat 6-14 

Hanging 3-57 

Positions in winter 6-8 



115 

6 
27 



L13 

133 

LOS 

124. 165 



42 

35 
35. 43 
42,56 

42 
42,43 

4S 
104, 106 



L22 

122, 124, 

13S, 165 

133 

56 
134 



E'flranrn.ph 

stand (rack) --._ .- . - .. :J-50,:>-.)l 

3-.j7 

Support used in snow . __ 'VJ 

Weather : 

Blizzartls .. . . o— 1 

Blowinf^ snow _ . . .. >j— 7 

Effects: 

Infantry weapons _ .. _. App D 

Trailbreakinf;: . , . 5-5 

Fog . i;-7 

Ice fog phenomenon _.. (i-17 

Limitations on air operations 5-18 

Seasonal changes 5-2 

Sudden changes . 5-4 

Weights: 

Individual clothing and 

equipment App E 

Individual loads . App E 

Wind: 

Chill App F 

Effects: 

Bivouacs 3—18,3-49 

Combat 6-7, &-15 

Ice 6-3 

Snow composition 4-3 

"Fails" 4-41,6-30 

Windchiil App F 

Winter : 

Effects on mobility 5-2 



Pai;e 

52, 5.1, 

56 
125 

104 
124 

165 
106 

124 

138 
121 
104 
105 



170 
170 

172 

51,52 

124, 136 

124 
61 

96, 146 

172 

104 



198 



AGO S641A 



By Order of the Secretary of the Army 



Officiai: 

KENNETH G. WICKHAM, 
Major General, Uvited States Armi/, 
The Adjutant GeneraL 



HAROLD K_ JOHNSON, 

General, United States Armij, 

Chief of Stajf. 



Distribution : 

To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-U requirements for Basic Cold Weather 
ManuaL 



Hr U-S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1966— 305-50a/BMlA